The Aedui, Haedui, or Hedui were a Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar and Liger, in today's France. Their territory thus included the greater part of the modern departments of Saône-et-Loire, Côte-d'Or and Nièvre; the country of the Aedui is defined by reports of them in ancient writings. The upper Loire formed their western border; the Saône formed their eastern border. The Sequani did not reside in the region of the confluence of the Doubs into the Saône and of the latter into the Rhône, as Caesar says that the Helvetii, following the pass between the Jura Mountains and the Rhône southwards, which belonged to the Sequani, plundered the territory of the Aedui; these circumstances explain an apparent contradiction in Strabo, who in one sentence says that the Aedui lived between the Saône and the Doubs, in the next, that the Sequani lived across the Saône. Both statements are true, the first in the south, the second to the north. Outside of the Roman province and prior to Roman rule, Independent Gaul was occupied by self-governing tribes divided into cantons, each canton was further divided into communes.
The Aedui, like other powerful tribes in the region, had replaced their monarchy with a council of magistrates called grand-judges. The grand-judges were under the authority of the senate; the senate was made up of the descendants of ancient royal families. Free men in the tribes were vassals to the heads of these families in exchange for military and political interests. According to Livy, they took part in the expedition of Bellovesus into Italy in the 6th century BC. Before Julius Caesar's time, they had attached themselves to the Romans and were honoured with the title of brothers and kinsmen of the Roman people; when the Sequani, their hereditary rivals, with the assistance of a Germanic chieftain named Ariovistus and massacred the Aedui at the Battle of Magetobriga, the Aedui sent Diviciacus, the druid, to Rome to appeal to the senate for help, but his mission was unsuccessful. On his arrival in Gaul, Caesar restored their independence. In spite of this, the Aedui joined the Gallic coalition against Caesar, but after the surrender of Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia, were glad to return to their allegiance.
Augustus dismantled their native capital Bibracte on Mont Beuvray and substituted a new town with a half-Roman, half-Gaulish name, Augustodunum. In 21, during the reign of Tiberius, they revolted under Julius Sacrovir, seized Augustodunum, but they were soon put down by Gaius Silius; the Aedui were the first of the Gauls to receive from the emperor Claudius the distinction of jus honorum, thus being the first Gauls permitted to become senators. The oration of Eumenius, in which he pleaded for the restoration of the schools of his native place Augustodunum, shows that the district was neglected; the chief magistrate of the Aedui in Caesar's time was called Vergobretus, elected annually, possessed powers of life and death but was forbidden to go beyond the frontier. Certain clientes, or small communities, were dependent upon the Aedui, it is possible that the Aedui adopted many of the governmental practices of the Romans, such as electing magistrates and other officials or it was a natural development in their political system.
It is thought that other Celtic tribes, such as the Remi and the Baiocasses elected their leaders. List of peoples of Gaul Caesar, Julius. De Bello Gallico. Strabo. Geography. A. E. Desjardins, Geographie de la Gaule, ii. T. Rice Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal, denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, has a low melting point; when freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each include a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead is a unreactive post-transition metal, its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature. Compounds of lead are found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. Exceptions are limited to organolead compounds. Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself. Lead is extracted from its ores. Galena, a principal ore of lead bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome. Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution. In 2014, the annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of, from recycling.
Lead's high density, low melting point and relative inertness to oxidation make it useful. These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, batteries and shot, solders, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, radiation shielding. In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, its use has since been phased out of many applications. However, many countries still allow the sale of products that expose humans to lead, including some types of paints and bullets. Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interfering with the function of biological enzymes, causing neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems. A lead atom has 82 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 4f145d106s26p2; the sum of lead's first and second ionization energies—the total energy required to remove the two 6p electrons—is close to that of tin, lead's upper neighbor in the carbon group.
This is unusual. The similarity of ionization energies is caused by the lanthanide contraction—the decrease in element radii from lanthanum to lutetium, the small radii of the elements from hafnium onwards; this is due to poor shielding of the nucleus by the lanthanide 4f electrons. The sum of the first four ionization energies of lead exceeds that of tin, contrary to what periodic trends would predict. Relativistic effects, which become significant in heavier atoms, contribute to this behavior. One such effect is the inert pair effect: the 6s electrons of lead become reluctant to participate in bonding, making the distance between nearest atoms in crystalline lead unusually long. Lead's lighter carbon group congeners form stable or metastable allotropes with the tetrahedrally coordinated and covalently bonded diamond cubic structure; the energy levels of their outer s- and p-orbitals are close enough to allow mixing into four hybrid sp3 orbitals. In lead, the inert pair effect increases the separation between its s- and p-orbitals, the gap cannot be overcome by the energy that would be released by extra bonds following hybridization.
Rather than having a diamond cubic structure, lead forms metallic bonds in which only the p-electrons are delocalized and shared between the Pb2+ ions. Lead has a face-centered cubic structure like the sized divalent metals calcium and strontium. Pure lead has a silvery appearance with a hint of blue, it tarnishes on contact with moist air and takes on a dull appearance, the hue of which depends on the prevailing conditions. Characteristic properties of lead include high density, malleability and high resistance to corrosion due to passivation. Lead's close-packed face-centered cubic structure and high atomic weight result in a density of 11.34 g/cm3, greater than that of common metals such as iron and zinc. This density is the origin of the idiom to go over like a lead balloon; some rarer metals are denser: tungsten and gold are both at 19.3 g/cm3, osmium—the densest metal known—has a density of 22.59 g/cm3 twice that of lead. Lead is a soft metal with a Mohs hardness of 1.5. It is somewhat ductile.
The bulk modulus of lead—a measure of its ease of compressibility—is 45.8 GPa. In comparison, that of aluminium is 75.2 GPa. Lead's tensile strength, at 12–17 MPa, is low; the melting point of lead—at 327.5 °C —is low compared to most metals. Its boiling point of 1749 °C is the lowest among the carbon group elements; the electrical resistivity of lead at 20 °C is 192 nanoohm-meters an order of magnitude higher than those of other industrial metals. Lead is a superconductor at temperatures lower than 7.19 K.
Sequani, in ancient geography, were a Gallic people who occupied the upper river basin of the Arar, the valley of the Doubs and the Jura Mountains, their territory corresponding to Franche-Comté and part of Burgundy. Sequani is an exonym assigned by the Romans, most based on a similar-sounding endonym; the endonym is not known for certain. Sequani is like Sequana, Caesar's name for the Seine, but the country of the Sequani is not in the Seine's watershed. Strabo was responsible for the folk-etymologic connection by supposing that the Sequana flowed through the country of the Sequani, a geographic error; the French name of the Saône, the river forming the western border of the Sequani, derives from Celtic Souconna. The Romans called it the Arar. William Smith hypothesized that Souconna were related; the country of the Sequani can be defined by the reports of the ancient writers. The Jura Mountains separated the Sequani from the Helvetii on the east, but the mountains belonged to the Sequani, as the narrow pass between the Rhone and Lake Geneva was Sequanian.
They did not occupy the confluence of the Saône into the Rhone, as the Helvetii plundered the lands of the Aedui there. Extending a line westward from the Jura estimates the southern border at about Mâcon, but Mâcon belonged to the Aedui. Strabo says that the Arar separates the Sequani from the Aedui and the Lingones, which means that the Sequani were on the left, or eastern, bank of the Saône only. On the northeast corner the country of the Sequani touched on the Rhine. Before the arrival of Julius Caesar in Gaul, the Sequani had taken the side of the Arverni against their rivals the Aedui and hired the Suebi under Ariovistus to cross the Rhine and help them. Although his assistance enabled them to defeat the Aedui, the Sequani were worse off than before, for Ariovistus deprived them of a third of their territory and threatened to take another third, while subjugating them into semi-slavery; the Sequani appealed to Caesar, who drove back the Germanic tribesmen, but at the same time obliged the Sequani to surrender all that they had gained from the Aedui.
This so exasperated the Sequani that they joined in the revolt of Vercingetorix and shared in the defeat at Alesia. Under Augustus, the district known as Sequania formed part of Belgica. After the death of Vitellius, the inhabitants refused to join the Gallic revolt against Rome instigated by Gaius Julius Civilis and Julius Sabinus, drove back Sabinus, who had invaded their territory. A triumphal arch at Vesontio, which in return for this service was made a colony commemorates this victory. Diocletian added Helvetia, part of Germania Superior to Sequania, now called Provincia Maxima Sequanorum, Vesontio receiving the title of Metropolis civitas Vesontiensium; the southern reach of this territory was known as Sapaudia, which developed into Savoy. Fifty years Gaul was overrun by the barbarians, Vesontio sacked. Under Julian, it recovered some of its importance as a fortified town, was able to withstand the attacks of the Vandals; when Rome was no longer able to afford protection to the inhabitants of Gaul, the Sequani became merged in the newly formed Kingdom of Burgundy.
Vesontio Luxovium Loposagium Portus Abucini Segobudium Epamanduodurum Ariolica Magetobria / Admagetobria Pons Dubis Castro Vesulio Sigynnae Caesar, Julius. De Bello Gallico. Strabo. Geography. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Sequani". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Endnotes: T. Rice Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, p. 483. A. Holder, Altceltischer Sprachschatz, ii.. Mommsen, Hist. of Rome, bk. v. ch. vii. Dunod de Charnage, Hist. des Séquanois J. D. Schöpflin, Alsatia illustrata, i
The Carnutes, a powerful Gaulish people in the heart of independent Gaul, dwelt in an extensive territory between the Sequana and the Liger rivers. Their lands were organized as the Catholic dioceses of Chartres, Orléans and Blois, that is, the greater part of the modern departments of Eure-et-Loir and Loir-et-Cher; the territory of the Carnutes had the reputation among Roman observers of being the political and religious center of the Gaulish nations. The chief fortified towns were Cenabum, the modern Orléans, where a bridge crossed the Loire, Autricum; the great annual druidic assembly mentioned by Caesar took the other of these towns. Livy's history records the legendary tradition that the Carnutes had been one of the tribes that accompanied Bellovesus in his invasion of Italy during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus. In the 1st century BC, the Carnutes minted coins struck with dies, but sometimes cast in an alloy of high tin content called potin, their coinage turns up in hoards well outside their home territories, in some cases so distributed in the finds that the place of coinage is not secure.
The iconography of their numismatics includes the motifs of heads with traditional Celtic torcs. Many coins show an eagle with the lunar crescent, with a serpent, or with a wheel with six or four spokes, or a pentagrammatic star, or beneath a hand holding a branch with berries, holly perhaps; the wheel with four spokes forms a cross within a circle, an universal image since Neolithic times. Sometimes the circle is a ring of granules. Among the Celts, the ring and spokes may represent the cycle of the year divided in its four seasons, rather than the sun, a common meaning among cultures. See Cross. In the time of Caesar, the Carnutes were dependents of the Remi, who on one occasion interceded for them. In the winter of 58–57 BC, Caesar imposed a protectorate over the Carnutes and set up Tasgetius as his choice of king, picked from the ruling clan. Within three years, the Carnutes assassinated the puppet king. On 13 February 53 BC, the Carnutes of Cenabum massacred all the Roman merchants stationed in the town as well as one of Caesar's commissariat officers.
The uprising became a general one under the leadership of Vercingetorix. Caesar burned Cenabum, where he had women and children sold as slaves; the booty was distributed among an effective way of financing the conquest of Gaul. During the war that followed, the Carnutes sent 12,000 fighting men to relieve Alesia, but shared in the defeat of the Gallic army. Having attacked the Bituriges Cubi, who appealed to Caesar for assistance, they were forced to submit. Cenabum was left for years with two Roman legions garrisoned there. After they had been pacified, though not Romanized, under Augustus, the Carnutes, as one of the peoples of Gallia Lugdunensis, were raised to the rank of civitas socia or foederati, they retained their self-governing institutions, minted coins. Up to the 3rd century, Autricum was the capital. In 275 Aurelian refounded Cenabum, ordaining it no longer a vicus but a civitas. See Livy, v. 34. 8, II, 75, viii. 5, 31. Monnayage des Carnutes: detailed illustrations of numismatics Coins minted by the Carnutes, 1st century BCE Histoire de la ville d'Orléans": map of the Carnutes territory R. Boutrays, Urbis gentisque Carnutum historia 1624 A. Desjardins, Géographie historique de la Gaule, ii, I876 1893
The Ambiani were a Belgic people of Celtic language, who were said to be able to muster 10,000 armed men, in 57 BC, the year of Julius Caesar's Belgic campaign. They submitted to Caesar, their country lay in the valley of the Samara. They were among the people who took part in the great insurrection against the Romans, described in the seventh book of Caesar's Gallic War; the Ambiani were consummate minters and Ambianic coinage has been found throughout the territories of the Belgic tribes, including the Belgae of Britain. There is some evidence from coins that bear a stag on one side and a betorced head on the obverse that the Ambiani were followers of the god Cernunnos. A few Ambiani coins have been found along the south coast of the West Country as the result of trade across the English channel; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray
The Atuatuci or Aduatuci were, according to Caesar, a Germanic tribe, allowed to settle amongst the Germanic tribes living in east Belgium. They descended from the Cimbri and Teutones, who were tribes thought to have originated in the area of Denmark. Much the Atuatuci sent troops to assist their Belgic neighbours the Nervii, in the Battle of the Sabis, but were too late, they were defeated by the Romans after withdrawing to a fortified city. After their defeat by Caesar they disappear from the written record, but their survivors contributed to the tribal grouping known as the Tungri in Roman imperial times. Before the Roman attack in 57 BC the oppidum of the Atuatuci were home to 57,000 including refugees fleeing the Romans; the oppidum of the Atuatuci were seized by the Romans and after the fall of the city with 4,000 dead the entire surviving population of 53,000 were sold as slaves. The Cimbri, the Teutones, Ambrones were engaged by, defeated, several Roman armies at the battle of Noreia and at Arausio, where the Romans are said to have lost more than 80,000 men.
After the Marian reforms of the legions, the Teutones and Ambrones were defeated by the Romans at Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC. The Cimbri were defeated by the Romans in northeast Italy in 101 BC; the Atuatuci were said to be the remnants of a group of the Cimbri who stayed in northern Gaul after defeating a previous Roman army under Marcus Junius Silanus in Gaul in 109 BC, before the Germanic tribes moved south towards Italy. From the account of Caesar, the exact position of the Atuatuci is not clear, but they were neighbours of both the Nervii and the Eburones. Edith Wightman states that they "are supposed to have occupied the middle Meuse valley rightly, although the reasoning is suspect". Concerning their fort, Wightman writes From the description, it was a promontory fort or epéron barré, but the lack of any reference to a major river argues against the citadel at Namur, the Mont Falhize near Huy, both of them washed by the Meuse. Reoccupation of the earlier fort of Hastedon is a possibility.
Other candidates are not lacking, but they lie in the Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse area, which belonged to the Nervii. In 2012 a group of historians and archeologists came to the conclusion that the oppidium of the Atuatuci was placed south of the Hainaut city of Thuin; the following arguments for this identification were listed. The discovery of the remains of a fortified Iron Age settlement, enclosing 13 hectares; the fortification was felt to match the description given by Caesar. Concentrations of Roman lead projectiles show. Three troves of gold had been buried near the fortification, all dating to early years of the decade 50 BCE; the place lies in the correct general area. The Battle of Sabis took place in 57 BC between the Nervians. Although the Roman forces under Julius Caesar defeated the Nervians, the Romans were overtaken by the strong tribe; the Atuatuci sent troops to assist the Nervians, but when they learned of the Nervians’ defeat, the Atuatuci retreated towards a single fort, being a place "eminently fortified by nature" and described by Caesar as being the original settlement they had chosen after settling in the area.
The Romans besieged their city. The Atuatuci resisted the Romans' initial attacks but surrendered after the Romans erected siege weapons and approached the city with them. Caesar promised mercy if the Atuatuci surrendered, so the Atuatuci opened their gates and made show of laying down some weapons; this may have been an attempt to trick the Romans and catch them off guard in a attack. Caesar kept his word that evening by sending Roman troops out of the Atuatuci city to avoid looting and violence against the Atuatuci. Using improvised shields and weapons which they had concealed within the city, the Atuatuci engaged the Romans in a surprise attack that night. While the Atuatuci fought well, the Romans were prepared and they defeated the Atuatuci. Many Atuatuci were killed in those that survived were sold into slavery. Caesar wrote. Under Roman rule the name of the Atuatuci never appears any more, but the tribal groupings of the area are to have reformed including more recent immigrants from Germany.
The survivors of the people who fought Caesar are therefore to have joined into the tribal grouping known in imperial times as the Tungri. The place name "Atuatuca" does continue in the region, because the capital of the Tungri's region, the "Civitas Tungrorum" was known as "Atuatuca Tungrorum"; the reasons for this are unclear, but the name of the capital of the Eburones, the distinct neighbours of the Atuatuci, had been referred to as Atuatuca by Caesar, so it is the word was a general term for a fortified settlement. Barbarian invasions List of Germanic tribes Wightman, Edith Mary, Gallia Belgica, University of California Press Caesar, Gallic War C. Julius Caesar. Caesar's Gallic War. Translator. W. A. McDevitte. Translator. W. S. Bohn. 1st Edition. New York. Harper & Brothers. 1869. Harper's New Classical Library. Cassius Dio. Roman History III, Books 36-40. Translator. Earnest Cary. Translator. Herbert B. Foster. Harvard University Press. 1914. Loeb Classical Library; the Oxford Classical Dictionary. Edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth.