Ruth Bader Ginsburg is an American lawyer and jurist, an Associate Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court. Ginsburg was appointed by President Bill Clinton and took the oath of office on August 10, 1993, she is the second female justice of four to be confirmed to the court. Following O'Connor's retirement, until Sotomayor joined the court, Ginsburg was the only female justice on the Supreme Court. During that time, Ginsburg became more forceful with her dissents, which were noted by legal observers and in popular culture, she is viewed as belonging to the liberal wing of the court. Ginsburg has authored notable majority opinions, including United States v. Virginia, Olmstead v. L. C. and Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Environmental Services, Inc. Ginsburg was born in New York, her older sister died when she was a baby, her mother, one of her biggest sources of encouragement, died shortly before Ginsburg graduated from high school. She earned her bachelor's degree at Cornell University, became a wife and mother before starting law school at Harvard, where she was one of the few women in her class.
Ginsburg transferred to Columbia Law School, where she graduated tied for first in her class. Following law school, Ginsburg turned to academia, she was a professor at Rutgers Law School and Columbia Law School, teaching civil procedure as one of the few women in her field. Ginsburg spent a considerable part of her legal career as an advocate for the advancement of gender equality and women's rights, winning multiple victories arguing before the Supreme Court, she advocated as a volunteer lawyer for the American Civil Liberties Union and was a member of its board of directors and one of its general counsels in the 1970s. In 1980, President Jimmy Carter appointed her to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, where she served until her appointment to the Supreme Court. Ginsburg has received attention in American popular culture for her fiery liberal dissents and refusal to step down. B. G." in reference to the late rapper known as "The Notorious B. I. G.". Joan Ruth Bader was born on March 15, 1933, in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the second daughter of Celia and Nathan Bader, who lived in the Flatbush neighborhood.
Her father was a Jewish emigrant from Odessa, Ukraine in the Russian Empire, her mother was born in New York to Austrian Jewish parents. The Baders' older daughter Marylin died of meningitis at age six; the family called Joan Ruth "Kiki", a nickname Marylin had given her for being "a kicky baby". When "Kiki" started school, Celia discovered that her daughter's class had several other girls named Joan, so Celia suggested that the teacher call her daughter "Ruth" to avoid confusion. Although not devout, the Bader family belonged to East Midwood Jewish Center, a Conservative synagogue, where Ruth learned tenets of the Jewish faith and gained familiarity with the Hebrew language. At age 13, Ruth acted as the "camp rabbi" at a Jewish summer program at Camp Che-Na-Wah in Minerva, New York. Celia took an active role in her daughter's education taking her to the library. Celia had been a good student in her youth, graduating from high school at age 15, yet she could not further her own education because her family instead chose to send her brother to college.
Celia wanted her daughter to get more education, which she thought would allow Ruth to become a high school history teacher. Ruth attended James Madison High School, whose law program dedicated a courtroom in her honor. Celia struggled with cancer throughout Ruth's high school years and died the day before Ruth's high school graduation. Bader attended Cornell University in New York, where she was a member of Alpha Epsilon Phi. While at Cornell, she met Martin D. Ginsburg at age 17, she graduated from Cornell with a bachelor of arts degree in government on June 23, 1954. She was a member of the highest-ranking female student in her graduating class. Bader married Ginsburg a month after her graduation from Cornell, she and Martin moved to Fort Sill, where he was stationed as a Reserve Officers' Training Corps officer in the Army Reserve after his call-up to active duty. At age 21, she worked for the Social Security Administration office in Oklahoma, where she was demoted after becoming pregnant with her first child.
She gave birth to a daughter in 1955. In the fall of 1956, Ginsburg enrolled at Harvard Law School, where she was one of only nine women in a class of about 500 men; the Dean of Harvard Law invited all of the female law students to dinner at his family home and asked the female law students, including Ginsburg, "Why are you at Harvard Law School, taking the place of a man?" When her husband took a job in New York City, Ginsburg transferred to Columbia Law School and became the first woman to be on two major law reviews: the Harvard Law Review and Columbia Law Review. In 1959, she tied for first in her class. At the start of her legal career, Ginsburg encountered difficulty in finding employment. In 1960, Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter rejected Ginsburg for a clerkship position due to her gender, she was rejected despite a strong recommendation from Albert Martin Sacks, a professor and dean of Harvard Law School. Columbia Law Professor Gerald Gunther pushed for Judge Edmund L. Palmieri of the U.
S. District Court for the Southern District of New York to hire Ginsburg as a law clerk, threatening to never recommend another Columbia student to Palmieri if he did not give Ginsburg the opportunity and guaranteeing to
The International Racquetball Federation's 19th Racquetball World Championships were held in San José, Costa Rica from August 10–18, 2018. The event was to be held in Haining, but on March 17, 2018 the IRT announced via its Facebook page that the venue will be changed due to complications. Cali, Colombia was the first alternative choice, but there were complications there as well, so on June 16, 2018, the IRF announced via Facebook that San Jose, Costa Rica will host Worlds. Rodrigo Montoya of Mexico won Men's Singles for the first time, defeating the USA's Charlie Pratt in the final. In Women's Singles, Ana Gabriela Martinez of Guatemala upset the three-time defending champion Mexican Paola Longoria to win gold. In doubles, Alvaro Beltran and Daniel De La Rosa won Men's Doubles in three games over Rocky Carson and Sudsy Monchik of the US, Bolivians Valeria Centellas and Yasmine Sabja became the first women from South America to win Women's Doubles after defeating Mexicans Alexandra Herrera and Monserrat Mejia in a three-game final.
2018 was the first year. On five occasions the USA swept the gold medals in Men's and Women's Singles and Doubles: 1981, 1992, 1996, 2004, 2008. 2018 was the third time that three countries won a gold medal at Worlds. The 2018 World Championships used a two-stage format to determine the World Champions. Players competed in separate groups over three days; the results were used to seed players for an elimination round. Thus, there was no team competition. Team standings doubles competitions. IRF website
St John the Evangelist's Church is a redundant Anglican church in North Road, Lancashire, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building, is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust; the church was built in 1754–55 as a chapel of ease to Lancaster Priory at a time when the town was growing rapidly. It is thought. In 1784 a tower and spire designed by Thomas Harrison were added; this was paid for by a legacy from Thomas Bowes. A south porch was built in 1874. In the 1920s an apse with a chapel to the north and a vestry to the south were added; the interior of the church was restored in 1955 by Sir Albert Richardson. The church closed in 1981, was vested in the Redundant Churches Fund in 1983. St John's is constructed in sandstone ashlar with a slate roof, its plan consists of a five bay nave, a semicircular apse with a north chapel and a south vestry, a south porch and a west tower. The body of the church measures 77 feet by 49 feet.
It has projecting quoins and a cornice over, a parapet. On the sides of the church are tall round-headed windows with keystones. In the west bay on the north side of the church is a blocked doorway; this contains a window, there is a round-headed window above it. The east bay on the south side has windows; the west bay of the south side contains a porch, over, another round-headed window. In the apse are two curved windows flanked by round-headed windows, there are similar windows on each side of the tower on the west front; the tower is in three stages. On its west side is a door, there are lunette windows on the north and south sides, a rectangular window on the north side; the middle stage has clock faces on three sides. The top stage contains rectangular louvred bell openings. On the top of the tower is a rotunda consisting of rectangular openings and Tuscan columns carrying a curved entablature with a triglyph frieze. On top of this is a drum with a spirelet; the design of the rotunda is said to be based loosely on that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates.
There are panelled galleries on three sides, with Ionic columns rising from the galleries to the ceiling. The central part of the west gallery is supported by two timber Doric columns; the galleries are reached by two staircases. In the body of the church are oak box pews. On the south side the pews have been modified to form a double pew for the use of the Corporation; the mahogany communion rails have turned balusters. The iron pulpit dates from 1875 and the plain stone font from 1858; the stained glass in the north aisle and the chapel dates from the late 19th or early 20th century and is by Shrigley and Hunt. The stained glass in the apse windows dates from about 1870 and depicts scenes from the life of Christ; the wall of the apse is painted with the Creed. The organ in the west gallery was given by Abraham Rawlinson MP around the time; the organ retains its Adam style case, made of mahogany by Gillow's of Lancaster. However, the three-manual instrument has been rebuilt since it was dedicated in 1785.
The case housed an organ by Langshaw of Lancaster. It was rebuilt by Brindley & Co of Sheffield in 1868, again in 1934 by Henry Ainscough of Preston. Further work was carried out by Victor Saville of Carnforth in 1983, restoring the organ's Georgian appearance; the clock mechanism was made by Bell and Atkinson of Lancaster in 1866, occupies a glass case in the middle stage of the tower. The tower contains two bells, one dated 1747 cast by Rudhall of Gloucester, the other from 1846 by Mears of the Whitechapel Bell Foundry. Grade II* listed buildings in Lancashire Listed buildings in Lancaster, Lancashire List of churches preserved by the Churches Conservation Trust in Northern England List of works by Thomas Harrison