Ruth Fulton Benedict was an American anthropologist and folklorist. She was born in New York City, attended Vassar College and graduated in 1909. After studying anthropology at the New School of Social Research under Elsie Clews Parsons, she entered graduate studies at Columbia University in 1921, where she studied under Franz Boas, she received her PhD and joined the faculty in 1923. Margaret Mead, with whom she shared a romantic relationship, Marvin Opler, were among her students and colleagues. Benedict held the post of President of the American Anthropological Association and was a prominent member of the American Folklore Society, she became the first woman to be recognized as a prominent leader of a learned profession. She can be viewed as a transitional figure in her field, redirecting both anthropology and folklore away from the limited confines of culture-trait diffusion studies and towards theories of performance as integral to the interpretation of culture, she studied the relationships between personality, art and culture, insisting that no trait existed in isolation or self-sufficiency, a theory which she championed in her 1934 Patterns of Culture.
Benedict was born Ruth Fulton in New York City on June 5, 1887, to Frederick Fulton. Her mother worked in the city as a school teacher, while her father pursued a promising career as a homeopathic doctor and surgeon. Although Mr. Fulton loved his work and research, it led to his premature death, as he acquired an unknown disease during one of his surgeries in 1888. Due to his illness the family moved back to Norwich, New York to the farm of Ruth's maternal grandparents, the Shattucks. A year he died, ten days after returning from a trip to Trinidad to search for a cure. Mrs. Fulton was affected by her husband's passing. Any mention of him caused her to be overwhelmed by grief. Ruth viewed it as a weakness. For her, the greatest taboos in life were showing expressions of pain, she reminisced, "I did not love my mother. Because of this, the psychological effects on her childhood were profound, for "in one stroke she experienced the loss of the two most nourishing and protective people around her—the loss of her father at death and her mother to grief".
As a toddler, she contracted measles which left her deaf, not discovered until she began school. Ruth had a fascination with death as a young child; when she was four years old her grandmother took her to see an infant that had died. Upon seeing the dead child's face, Ruth claimed that it was the most beautiful thing she had seen. At age seven Ruth began to read any book she could get her hands on, her favorite author was Jean Ingelow and her favorite readings were A Legend of Bregenz and The Judas Tree. Through writing she was able to gain approval from her family. Writing was her outlet, she wrote with an insightful perception about the realities of life. For example, in her senior year of high school she wrote a piece called, "Lulu's Wedding" in which she recalled the wedding of a family serving girl. Instead of romanticizing the event, she revealed the true, arranged marriage that Lulu went through because the man would take her though he was much older. Although Ruth Benedict's fascination with death started at an early age, she continued to study how death affected people throughout her career.
In her book Patterns of Culture, Benedict studied the Pueblo culture and how they dealt with grieving and death. She describes in the book that individuals may deal with reactions to death, such as frustration and grief, differently. Societies all have social norms. After high school and Ruth were able to enter St Margaret's School for Girls, a college preparatory school, with help from a full-time scholarship; the girls were successful in school and entered Vassar College in September 1905 where Ruth thrived in an all-female atmosphere. During this time period stories were circulating that going to college led girls to become childless and never be married. Ruth explored her interests in college and found writing as her way of expressing herself as an "intellectual radical" as she was sometimes called by her classmates. Author Walter Pater was a large influence on her life during this time as she strove to be like him and live a well-lived life, she graduated with her sister in 1909 with a major in English Literature.
Unsure of what to do after college, she received an invitation to go on an all-expense paid tour around Europe by a wealthy trustee of the college. Accompanied by two girls from California that she'd never met, Katherine Norton and Elizabeth Atsatt, she traveled through France, Italy and England for one year, having the opportunity of various home stays throughout the trip. Over the next few years, Ruth took up many different jobs. First she tried paid social work for the Charity Organization Society and she accepted a job as a teacher at the Westlake School for Girls in Los Angeles, California. While working there she gained her interest in Asia that would affect her choice of fieldwork as a working anthropologist. However, she was unhappy with this job as well and, after one year, left to teach English in Pasadena at the Orton School for Girls; these years were difficult, she suffered from depression and severe loneliness. However, through reading authors like Walt Whitman and Jefferies that stressed a
Eva and Franco Mattes are a duo of artists based in New York City. Since meeting in Berlin in 1994, they have never separated. Operating under the pseudonym 0100101110101101.org, they are counted among the pioneers of the Net Art movement and are renowned for their subversion of public media. They produce art involving the ethical and political issues arising from the inception of the Internet; the work investigates the fabrication of situations, where fiction merge into one. They are based in Brooklyn, New York, but travel throughout Europe and the United States. From 1995–97, the Mattes toured the world's most important museums in Europe and the United States, stole 50 fragments from well-known works by artists such as Duchamp, Kandinsky and Rauschenberg; this work, titled "Stolen Pieces", exhibited the stolen fragments in glass cabinets: a porcelain piece of Duchamp's urinal, skin from an Alberto Burri painting, etc. They have manipulated video games, internet technologies and street advertising to reveal truths concealed by contemporary society.
Their media facades were believable enough to elicit embarrassing reactions from governments, the public, the art world. In addition, they have orchestrated several unpredictable mass performances, staged outside art spaces, involved unwitting audiences in scenarios that mingle truth and falsehood to the point of being indistinguishable, their off-the-wall performances—for which they have been sued multiple times—include affixing fake architectural heritage plaques, rolling out a media campaign for a non-existent action movie and convincing the people of Vienna that Nike had purchased the city's historic Karlsplatz and was about to rename it "Nikeplatz". Their art has been featured at the Biennale of Sydney, Whitechapel Gallery, Hammer Museum, Los Angeles, Minneapolis Institute of Art, SITE Santa Fe, Sundance Film Festival, MoMA PS1, New York, New York, National Art Museum of China, Collection Lambert, New Museum, New York, Walker Art Center, Manifesta and the Venice Biennale; the couple first gained notoriety in 1998 by taking the domain name vaticano.org, in order to undermine the Catholic Church's official website.
They went on a cloning spree and remixing other artists' works, e.g. Jodi.org. They targeted "closed" websites, such as Hell.com, thereby turning private art into public art. This activity is born out of their desire to create interactive works, they define this in an interview with Jaka Zelenznikar where they discuss audiences reaching a website, regardless of it being the subject of net.art or not, "by their mouse clicks they choose one of the routes fixed by the author, they only decide what to see before and what after". They argue that this is not true interactivity and compare it to a gallery space, suggesting that it too could be called interactive since one is able to decide what room to look at and when, their definition of interactivity is more associated with the freedom the user has to not only govern their own movements but to duplicate and simulate the subject matter. This includes doing something, not predicted by the author of the website, "the beholder becomes an artist and the artist becomes a beholder: a powerless witness of what happens to his work."
Their 2010 work, "No Fun" epitomizes the sentiment in the previous quote because it utilizes the social networking and video chat website Chatroulette to exhibit Franco Mattes staging a false suicide in part of the screen and people's responses to it in other parts of the screen. Another example of their work, where the audience is the subject, is "Emily's video" where they invited volunteers to watch what they called "the worst video ever," combined of clips from the Darknet; the viewers were filmed whilst watching it and the original video was destroyed. What remains are the reactions of the viewers, recorded on webcams; when displayed in a gallery setting the monitor is positioned on its side with the reaction playing on the top half while the bottom section remains black. This space is where the original video would be positioned and allows for the live audience to catch their reflection; the work is set up to face away from the gallery's entrance in order to enable new visitors to first see the reactions of the live audience before watching the ones on the screen.
The Mattes shocked the mainstream art world with the invention of "Darko Maver", a reclusive radical artist, who achieved cult status and was paid tribute to in the 48th Venice Biennale, before being exposed as pure fiction. The fiction was that this Serbian artist created gruesome and realistic models of murder victims and positioned them so to obtain media attention, he was exposing the brutality of war in the Balkans to the world. The'reality' was that the documentary photos of his artworks were photographs of real life atrocities found on rotten.com. They mutated reality to mimic fiction but in doing, their message to the world was: while artists are making shocking artwork, absorbed by the market, real violence is being perpetrated and ignored by a media-anesthetized world. There are clear parallels between the invention of this character and the fabrication of reasons to instigate a war. Eva and Franco produced several works employing the video game Second Life; the first of these being the series titled "Portraits", photographs taken
The Wisconsin Conservatory of Music is an independent music school in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It teaches classical, rock and blues and hosts musical concerts throughout the year, it is housed in a Neoclassical-style mansion built in 1904 for Charles L. McIntosh, treasurer of J. I. Case. In 2000 the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the school is descended from two music schools, both founded in Milwaukee in 1899: the Wisconsin College of Music located in Mendelssohn Hall across the street from the Central Library, the Wisconsin Conservatory of Music housed in the Ethical Building on Jefferson Street facing Cathedral Square. The two schools merged in 1971. Charles L. McIntosh was an industrialist who bought a controlling interest in J. I. Case Threshing Machine Co. in 1895. He moved to Milwaukee. There he bought the lot on Prospect Avenue, Milwaukee's "Gold Coast" - where the elites built elaborate homes, he hired Horatio R. Wilson of Chicago to design his mansion. Wilson laid out a 3-story Neoclassical-styled building clad in red brick and trimmed in brownstone, with a monumental portico supported by four Corinthian columns.
Wilson added quoins, a loggia wing, a dentilated copper cornice. Inside is a mahogany staircase with a Tiffany-designed window on the landing, some parquet floors, ten fireplaces, a music room, a billiard room; the floors were constructed to absorb noise with layers of deafening quilts and two inches of mineral wool. The house was completed in 1904. McIntosh's widow Effie sold the mansion in 1921 to his wife Marie. William was the heir to Milwaukee's one linseed oil business. Marie was the oldest daughter of Frederick Pabst. William appreciated music and after he moved his family to the northern suburbs in 1932, he leased the building to the Wisconsin College of Music, rent-free; the school educates over 1000 students each semester and holds classes in multiple locations throughout Milwaukee County. It employs over performers. Both group classes and individual instruction are available, it has an annual budget of about $2 million, with 70% of the operating expenses covered by tuition. Noted faculty have included the pianists Berkeley Fudge.
Other current and former faculty include Margaret Hawkins, Lee Dougherty, Pearl Brice, Benjamin Verdery, Rebecca Penneys, Tony King, Edward Wise, Jessie Hauck, Jack Grassel. Noted students have included pianist Lynne Arriale, bassist Gerald Cannon, conductor Lee Erickson, composer Daron Hagen, pianist David Hazeltine, choreographer Liz Lerman, pianist Liberace, trumpeter Brian Lynch, pianist Wayne Taddey, actor Gene Wilder, mayor Carl Zeidler