Rutherford Birchard Hayes was the 19th president of the United States from 1877 to 1881, having served in the U. S. House of Representatives and as governor of Ohio. Hayes, a lawyer and staunch abolitionist, defended refugee slaves in court proceedings in the antebellum years; the Republican Party nominated Hayes as its candidate for the presidency in 1876, where he won through the Compromise of 1877 that ended Reconstruction by leaving the South to govern itself. In office he withdrew military troops from the South, ending Army support for Republican state governments in the South and for the efforts of African-American freedmen to establish their families as free citizens. Hayes promoted civil-service reform, attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War of 1861–1865 and from the Reconstruction Era of 1865–1877. Hayes, an attorney in Ohio, served as city solicitor of Cincinnati from 1858 to 1861; when the Civil War began, he left a fledgling political career to join the Union Army as an officer.
Hayes was wounded five times, most at the Battle of South Mountain in 1862. He was promoted to the rank of brevet major general. After the war, Hayes served in the Congress from 1865 to 1867 as a Republican. Hayes left Congress to run for governor of Ohio and was elected to two consecutive terms, from 1868 to 1872, he served a third two-year term, from 1876 to 1877. In 1876 the Electoral College made Hayes president in the course of one of the most contentious elections in national history, he lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden, but won an intensely disputed electoral-college vote after a Congressional commission awarded him twenty contested electoral votes. There resulted the Compromise of 1877, in which the Democrats acquiesced to Hayes' election on the condition that he withdraw remaining U. S. troops protecting Republican office-holders in the South, thus ending the Reconstruction era. Hayes believed in meritocratic government and in equal treatment without regard to wealth, social standing or race.
He ordered federal troops to guard federal buildings and in doing so restored order during the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. Hayes implemented modest civil-service reforms that laid the groundwork for further reform in the 1880s and 1890s, he vetoed the Bland–Allison Act, which put silver money into circulation and raised nominal prices, insisting that maintenance of the gold standard was essential to economic recovery. Hayes' policy toward Western Indians anticipated the assimilationist program of the Dawes Act of 1887. Hayes kept his pledge not to run for re-election, retired to his home in Ohio, became an advocate of social and educational reform. Biographer Ari Hoogenboom said Hayes' greatest achievement was to restore popular faith in the presidency and to reverse the deterioration of executive power that had set in after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in 1865. Although supporters have praised his commitment to civil-service reform and to the defense of civil rights and scholars rank Hayes as an average or below-average president.
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio, on October 4, 1822, to Rutherford Hayes, Jr. and Sophia Birchard. Hayes's father, a Vermont storekeeper, took the family to Ohio in 1817, he died ten weeks before Rutherford's birth. Sophia took charge of the family, raising Hayes and his sister, the only two of the four children to survive to adulthood, she never remarried, Sophia's younger brother, Sardis Birchard, lived with the family for a time. He became a father figure to him, contributing to his early education. Through each of his parents, Hayes was descended from New England colonists, his earliest immigrant ancestor came to Connecticut from Scotland in 1625. Hayes's great-grandfather, Ezekiel Hayes, was a militia captain in Connecticut in the American Revolutionary War, but Ezekiel's son left his Branford home during the war for the relative peace of Vermont, his mother's ancestors migrated to Vermont at a similar time. Most of his close relatives outside Ohio continued to live there.
John Noyes, an uncle by marriage, had been his father's business partner in Vermont and was elected to Congress. His first cousin, Mary Jane Mead, was the mother of sculptor Larkin Goldsmith Mead and architect William Rutherford Mead. John Humphrey Noyes, the founder of the Oneida Community, was a first cousin. Hayes attended the common schools in Delaware and enrolled in 1836 at the Methodist Norwalk Seminary in Norwalk, Ohio, he did well at Norwalk, the following year transferred to The Webb School, a preparatory school in Middletown, where he studied Latin and Ancient Greek. Returning to Ohio, he attended Kenyon College in Gambier in 1838, he enjoyed his time at Kenyon, was successful scholastically. He addressed the class as its valedictorian. After reading law in Columbus, Hayes moved east to attend Harvard Law School in 1843. Graduating with an LL. B, he opened his own law office in Lower Sandusky. Business was slow at first, but he attracted a few clients and represented his uncle Sardis in real estate litigation.
In 1847, Hayes became ill with. Thinking a change in climate would help, he considered enlisting in the Mexican–American War, but on his doctor's advice he instead visited family in New England. Returning from there and his uncle Sardis made a long journey to Texas
Jonathan Peter Zwartz is an award-winning New Zealand-born, Australian-based jazz musician. In the 2018 ARIA Music Awards, he won the Best Jazz Album category for his third album, released in 2018. Zwartz was born in New Zealand. Jonathan Zwartz joined New Zealand pop band, the Crocodiles, on bass guitar, alongside Tony Backhouse on piano, Jenny Morris on lead vocals, Rick Morris on guitar, Barton Price on drums; the group were based in Auckland and performed at Sweetwaters 1981 in January before they relocated to Sydney in the following month. In July of that year Morris left to start her solo career, the remaining members had recorded a single, "Hello Girl", with vocals by Rick but they disbanded soon after. Late in 1981 Zwartz and Backhouse formed the Vulgar Beatmen with Mike Gubb, he became a session musician. Zwartz and Backhouse joined ex-the Crocodiles member, Fane Flaws' project I Am Joe's Music, which issued a self-titled album in 1983. Other former members of the Crocodiles with contributions were Jenny Morris, Arthur Baysting and Peter Dasent.
A single, "Life in Asia", was issued by the group in August, which Woroni's reviewer described, "Life on Coota beach perhaps. Complete with self styled hip singing and New Zealand brand of paranoia. Basic and forgettable shit." In 1991 Zwartz, on bass guitar, joined the Bernie McGann Trio, a Sydney-based jazz group, with McGann on saxophone and John Pochee on drums. McGann eschewed piano and explained, "You tend to think that because there's no piano in the group, you're restricted to just playing some songs, but I think you can play anything at all, it's a open sort of group which when it works, works well indeed."In 1992, Zwartz was a member of Bobby Gebert's trio, alongside Gebert on piano and Andrew Dickson on drums, which backed visiting English saxophonist, Ronnie Scott, in a performance in Canberra. Michael Foster of The Canberra Times wrote, "Wherever Scott went were right with him not needing the charts which Scott supplied, their confidence was impressive, justified."Zwartz played double bass as a member of the Umbrellas, a Sydney jazz ensemble, with Dasent on piano and accordion, Mark Bruwel on oboe, James Greening on trombone, Toby Hall on drums and Tim Hopkins on tenor saxophone.
The Umbrellas recorded Soundtrack to the Passing Parade. Zwartz worked in Vince Jones' backing band in November 1993, with Jones on trumpet and vocals, Hopkins on tenor saxophone, Peter Jones on drums, Barney McAll on piano, Ray Pereira on percussion. Once more the performance was well-received by Foster. In 2000 he co-produced a ten-episode jazz music series, for ABC-TV. In 2009 Zwartz issued The Sea, his next album, four years The Remembering & Forgetting of the Air, was described by John Shand of The Sydney Morning Herald, as "...ambient in intent. But it has a deep peacefulness and a simple beauty carrying an implicit hint of ineffable sadness... layered production creates three-dimensional sound images...". Zwartz third solo album, was feature album of the week on ABC Jazz, with their reviewer opining, "yet another smörgåsbord of intricate compositions, woven together... Each piece is unique, drawing on a plethora of musical influences from all over – yet they are sequenced together to create a engrossing musical experience."
It peaked at No. 15 on the ARIA Jazz & Blues Albums chart,In June 2018 he led a performance of Animarum at the Sydney Con International Jazz Festival, well reviewed by'The South Sydney Herald. In 2010, Zwartz won two categories at the Australian Jazz Bell Awards: Best Australian Jazz Ensemble and Best Australian Jazz Song, for the title track of his debut solo album, The Sea. At the ARIA Music Awards of 2013, Zwartz was nominated for an ARIA in the Best Jazz Album category for his second solo album, The Remembering & Forgetting of the Air. In the 2018 ARIA Awards, he won the Best Jazz Album for his third album. Zwarts won the Best Independent Jazz Album category for Animarum in the 2019 AIR Independent Music Awards; the Sea – Independent The Remembering & Forgetting of the Air – Independent/The Planet Company Animarum – Independent/MGM Distribution AUS Jazz & Blues: No. 15
Guntis Valneris is a Latvian draughts player. 1994 World champion in international draughts, two-times European champion, two-times World champion in fast draughts, three-times Junior World champion, multiple times Latvian national champion. Guntis Valneris started playing draughts. Viktor Adamovich became his first coach. In a year, Guntis won the Latvian U18 championship in Russian checkers, at the age of 13 he was the winner of the Latvian senior championships and the U18 USSR Champion. Another future World champion, Alexander Schwarzman, was one of the players he defeated at the Soviet U18 championships. In 1982 Guntis Valneris switched to international draughts, with Emmanuils Merins becoming his new coach. Under Merins's guidance, Valneris three times in a row won the World Junior Championships. In 1985 he won his first senior Latvian championships in international draughts, two years he shared the first place at the senior USSR championships, losing gold medal in an ensuing barrage. 1987 was Valneris's debuting year in the European senior championships, the next year he for the first time played in the senior World championships.
Both times he finished with a good overall balance but not on a podium. In 1990 he tied for the second place at the World championships with the Dutch master Ton Sijbrands; the match that took place in Tallinn ended with Chizhov's unqualified victory. This defeat did not stop Guntis, he won the European championships in Parthenay in 1992 and the World championships in the Hague in 1994. The next year, in a return match, Chizhov took the world title back from him. In fact, the match was tied after the initial four sets, Chizhov managed to win a tie-breaking barrage set. After that, Valneris multiple times won medals at the World and European championships, including the gold medal at the 2008 European championship. At the 2003 World championship he shared the first place in a three-way tie with Chizhov and Alexander Georgiev but lost to Georgiev in a marathon tie-break barrage and finished third overall. In 1999 and 2007 he won the World championships in fast draughts, in 2005 he won a medal at the World team championships where he took part as the leader of the Latvian national team.
Guntis Valneris remains one of the world international draughts leaders. Profile at the Dutch draughts Federation archive Profile at the Balt Cup website Short biography