SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Rutile

Rutile is a mineral composed of titanium dioxide, is the most common natural form of TiO2. Other rarer polymorphs of TiO2 are known including anatase and brookite. Rutile has one of the highest refractive indices at visible wavelengths of any known crystal and exhibits a large birefringence and high dispersion. Owing to these properties, it is useful for the manufacture of certain optical elements polarization optics, for longer visible and infrared wavelengths up to about 4.5 μm. Natural rutile may contain up to 10% iron and significant amounts of niobium and tantalum. Rutile derives its name from the Latin rutilus, red, in reference to the deep red color observed in some specimens when viewed by transmitted light. Rutile was first described in 1803 by Abraham Gottlob Werner. Rutile is a common accessory mineral in high-temperature and high-pressure metamorphic rocks and in igneous rocks. Thermodynamically, rutile is the most stable polymorph of TiO2 at all temperatures, exhibiting lower total free energy than metastable phases of anatase or brookite.

The transformation of the metastable TiO2 polymorphs to rutile is irreversible. As it has the lowest molecular volume of the three main polymorphs, it is the primary titanium bearing phase in most high-pressure metamorphic rocks, chiefly eclogites. Within the igneous environment, rutile is a common accessory mineral in plutonic igneous rocks, though it is found in extrusive igneous rocks those such as kimberlites and lamproites that have deep mantle sources. Anatase and brookite are found in the igneous environment as products of autogenic alteration during the cooling of plutonic rocks; the occurrence of large specimen crystals is most common in pegmatites and granite greisens. Rutile is found as an accessory mineral in some altered igneous rocks, in certain gneisses and schists. In groups of acicular crystals it is seen penetrating quartz as in the fléches d'amour from Graubünden, Switzerland. In 2005 the Republic of Sierra Leone in West Africa had a production capacity of 23% of the world's annual rutile supply, which rose to 30% in 2008.

Rutile has a tetragonal unit cell, with unit cell parameters a = b = 4.584 Å, c = 2.953 Å. The titanium cations have a coordination number of 6, meaning they are surrounded by an octahedron of 6 oxygen atoms; the oxygen anions have a coordination number of 3. Rutile shows a screw axis when its octahedra are viewed sequentially. Rutile crystals are most observed to exhibit a prismatic or acicular growth habit with preferential orientation along their c axis, the direction; this growth habit is favored as the facets of rutile exhibit the lowest surface free energy and are therefore thermodynamically most stable. The c-axis oriented growth of rutile appears in nanorods and abnormal grain growth phenomena of this phase. In large enough quantities in beach sands, rutile forms an important constituent of heavy minerals and ore deposits. Miners extract and separate the valuable minerals – e.g. rutile and ilmenite. The main uses for rutile are the manufacture of refractory ceramic, as a pigment, for the production of titanium metal.

Finely powdered rutile is a brilliant white pigment and is used in paints, paper and other applications that call for a bright white color. Titanium dioxide pigment is the single greatest use of titanium worldwide. Nanoscale particles of rutile are transparent to visible light but are effective in the absorption of ultraviolet radiation; the UV absorption of nano-sized rutile particles is blue-shifted compared to bulk rutile, so that higher-energy UV light is absorbed by the nanoparticles. Hence, they are used in sunscreens to protect against UV-induced skin damage. Small rutile needles present in gems are responsible for an optical phenomenon known as asterism. Asteriated gems are known as "star" gems. Star sapphires, star rubies, other "star" gems are sought after and are more valuable than their normal counterparts. Rutile is used as a welding electrode covering, it is used as a part of the ZTR index, which classifies weathered sediments. Rutile, as a large band-gap semiconductor, has in recent decades been the subject of significant research towards applications as a functional oxide for applications in photocatalysis and dilute magnetism.

Research efforts utilize small quantities of synthetic rutile rather than mineral-deposit derived materials. Synthetic rutile is sold under a variety of names, it can be produced from the titanium ore ilmenite through the Becher process. Pure synthetic rutile is transparent and colorless, being yellow, in large pieces. Synthetic rutile can be made in a variety of colors by doping; the high refractive index gives an adamantine luster and strong refraction that leads to a diamond-like appearance. The near-colorless diamond substitute is sold as "Titania", the old-fashioned chemical name for this oxide. However, rutile is used in jewellery because it is not hard, measuring only about 6 on the Mohs hardness scale; as the result of growing research interest in the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide, in both anatase and rutile phases, rutile TiO2 in powder and thin film form is fabricated in laboratory conditions through solution based routes using inorganic precursors or organometallic precursors (typically alkoxides such as titanium isopropoxide, also

James H. Hawley

James Henry Hawley was an American attorney and politician from Idaho. He was state's ninth Governor from 1911 to 1913, the mayor of Boise from 1903 to 1905, he acted as prosecutor or defense attorney for a substantial number of criminal cases. Outside of criminal law, he specialized in mining cases. Born in Dubuque, Hawley's mother died when he was an infant. Two years his father followed the gold rush to California moved to Texas in 1856. Thus, James grew up with the family of James Carr. James' maternal Carr ancestors included a great-grandfather, a major during the Revolutionary War, a grandfather, a captain in the War of 1812, his father served as a major in a Texas regiment of the Confederate Army. At the start of the Civil War, James tried to join the Union Army as part of an Iowa Volunteer regiment. Rejected as far too young at age fourteen, he gave up the idea when his uncle relocated to California in the early summer of 1861, his uncle headed for the newly discovered gold fields in northern Idaho.

James was supposed to attend school in San Francisco, but instead he joined his uncle in Idaho, still a part of Washington Territory, during the spring of 1862. Traveling from Lewiston, the two followed the rush into the Florence Basin. Through luck or an acute weather sense, they chose to leave the area for Walla Walla, Washington before the depth of winter set in. According to reports of the time, the 1861-1862 season "proved to be one of the coldest in the history of Idaho." While they waited in Walla Walla, word spread of major new gold discoveries in the Boise Basin, a mountainous area around Idaho City, northeast of present-day Boise. Drawn by the new finds, they moved to the Basin in the spring of 1863. For several months, Hawley worked for wages near Quartzburg. With his savings from that, he bought a placer claim in the area and searched for gold on other unclaimed land. During the winter of 1863-1864, he sold and distributed issues of the Boise News, the first newspaper published in southern Idaho.

Hawley returned to San Francisco to attend City College there in 1865. He began to read law at an attorney's office, he completed the coursework he wanted by the spring of 1867. However, he ran into some difficulty in San Francisco, the details of which "have not been preserved." According to one account, he ran away to sea and ended up in China, on the losing side of the Taiping Rebellion. He escaped death after being captured by government forces through the good offices of the British consul. In any case, Hawley returned to the Boise Basin in 1868, again took up mining and prospecting. Still determined to become a lawyer, Hawley continued to read law at a Boise County attorney's office. At the same time, he worked in gold fields all over central Idaho. In 1870, voters in Boise County elected him, to the territorial legislature, he received "the largest majority given any one on the ticket."During that term in office, he was appointed chairman of the house judiciary committee. In February 1871, Hawley was admitted to the bar, with the right to argue cases all the way up to the territorial supreme court.

In 1874, he was elected to the Territorial Council. Two years he began a term as chief clerk of the council while serving as a Commissioner in Boise County. In 1878, he was elected district attorney for the second judicial district of the territory; that district encompassed an area stretching from Mountain Home to the Montana border, north of Salmon. Hawley had settled in Quartzburg upon his marriage there in 1875. After he became District Attorney, they moved to the county seat of Boise County, he was elected to another term as District Attorney, ran unsuccessfully for Territorial Delegate to Congress. Around 1884, he practiced law there for two years. In 1885, President Cleveland appointed him United States Attorney for Idaho Territory. Although Hawley retained mining investments in the Boise Basin as well as around Hailey, after about 1886 he began handling more legal business in Boise, he moved his family and established a permanent residence there in 1890. Record-keeping in early Idaho Territory was rather hit-or-miss, but it is agreed that Hawley served as prosecutor or defense attorney for hundreds of criminal trials during his legal career.

By the time he moved to Boise, his expertise in such matters was in great demand. Hawley played a strong leadership role in Democratic Party politics, including six years as Committee Chair in Boise County; the Illustrated History, published in 1899, said, "He has been a member of every Democratic state convention since his arrival in Idaho with the exception of that of 1896." He was elected mayor of Boise in 1902, despite a Republican electorate in the city. Although he received high marks for his administration of city government, he chose not to run again and served a single two-year term, he was elected Governor in 1910, but was defeated during his re-election bid in 1912. He made at least two runs for Idaho's U. S. Senate seat, but never attained that office. Although no specific court cases are mentioned in extant records, Hawley became involved in labor disputes during his terms as district attorney of Boise County, he acted as a mediator in a dispute between striking owners near Hailey.

The miners threatened a violent takeover of the properties, but agreed to a peaceful resolution. During his term as U. S. Attorney for Idaho Territory, Hawley prosecuted a number of cases against Mormons under the anti-polygamy Edmunds Act. Although he disapproved of the Act on legal grounds, Hawley "prosecuted the cases vigoro

Raymond C. Ortlund Jr.

Raymond C. Ortlund Jr. is pastor at Immanuel Church in Tennessee. He serves as President of Renewal Ministries, Regional Director in the Acts 29 Network, Council Member of The Gospel Coalition. Ortlund received his B. A from Wheaton College in 1971, he earned his Th. M from Dallas Theological Seminary in 1975, he went on to receive his second master's degree, a M. A at the University of California, Berkeley in 1978. Lastly, he was awarded a PhD at The University of Aberdeen, Scotland in 1985. Ortlund was ordained by Lake Avenue Congregational Church, California in 1975, he served as a pastor in various churches from 1975-1989: 1975–1981: Pastoral staff, Peninsula Bible Church, Palo Alto, California. 1982–1985: Assistant Pastor, Banchory Ternan West Parish. 1985–1989: Organizing Pastor, Cascade Presbyterian Church, Oregon. 1989–1998: Associate Professor of Old Testament and Semitic Languages, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Illinois. 1998–2003: Senior Pastor, First Presbyterian Church, Georgia. 2004–2007: Senior Pastor, Christ Presbyterian Church, Tennessee.

2007–present: Senior Pastor at Immanuel Church, Tennessee. Immanuel Church was started as church plant of a non-denominational church in Nashville where Ray became and is serving as the Senior Pastor, he has four children. He is the son of Raymond C. Ortlund Sr. and Anne Ortlund. The senior Dr. Ortlund was a long time pastor at Lake Avenue Congregational Church in Pasadena, California during the 1960s-1970s and served as a teaching pastor at Mariner's Church, Newport Beach, California. Dr. Ray C. Ortlund Sr. hosted the Haven of Rest broadcast radio program, on the air for 17 years. Dr. Ray C. Ortlund Sr. and Anne wrote 25 books together. Together with his wife Anne, he founded Renewal Ministries. Raymond C. Ortlund Jr.'s sons include Dane Ortlund, Senior VP for Bible Publishing at Crossway, Rev. Gavin Ortlund. "Christian Liberty: Both Open and Principled," The Presbyterian Journal, 18 March 1987, pages 11–13 "Living in the Shadows," The Evangelical Beacon, 2 April 1990, pages 16–17 Review of The Message: Psalms, by Eugene Peterson, Christianity Today, 9 January 1995, pages 64–65 "From Shame to Glory: The Doctrine of Man," Moody Magazine, January/February 1996, pages 20–21 "Providence in the Book of Ruth," Tabletalk, May 1996, pages 8–9, 16 "Finding God in Failure," Moody Magazine, January/February 1997, pages 26–29 "One Father, Many Sons," Tabletalk, September 2001, pages 14–16, 55 Review of Strength for the Journey, by Joseph Stowell, January/February 2002, page 58 "Male-Female Equality and Male Headship: Genesis 1-3," in Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood: A Response to Evangelical Feminism, edited by John Piper and Wayne Grudem "Book of the Year" award, Christianity Today, 1992 and "Biblical and Theological Studies" award, Christianity Today, 1992 "The Sovereignty of God: Case Studies in the Old Testament," in The Grace of God, the Bondage of the Will, edited by Bruce Ware and Tom Schreiner.

S.: 3-13 "Revival: Blessing or Problem?" Reformation & Revival 11: 9-17 Introduction and Study Notes for Obadiah in The New Geneva Study Bible, edited by R. C. Sproul, et al. Psalms 76-150 in The New Living Translation "Apostasy," "Man and Woman" and "Marriage" in the New Dictionary of Biblical Theology, edited by Desmond Alexander and Brian Rosner Editor, The Psalms, The English Standard Version Introduction and Study Notes for Isaiah in The English Standard Version Christ Presbyterian Church