Mtwara Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions. The regional capital is the municipality of Mtwara. According to the 2012 national census, the region had a population of 1,270,854, lower than the pre-census projection of 1,374,767. For 2002-2012, the region's 1.2 percent average annual population growth rate was the 26th highest in the country. It was the fourteenth most densely populated region with 76 people per square kilometer; the boundary with Mozambique to the south is formed by the Ruvuma River. To the west, Mtwara is bordered by Ruvuma Region, to the north by Lindi Region, to the east is the Indian Ocean. Development of the Mtwara Region has been constrained by the lack of highway and energy infrastructures; the Dar es Salaam-Kibiti-Lindi-Mtwara road has been improved by the completion of the Mkapa Bridge over the Rufiji River. Mnazi Bay gas promises to provide reliable and adequate electricity for powering industrial and commercial activities in the region; the regional commissioner of the Mtwara Region is Anatoli A. Tarimo.
In 1948, the British Government formulated the "Tanganyika groundnut scheme" through the Overseas Food Corporation. The purpose was to alleviate the worldwide shortage of vegetable oils. In this region the exported crop was to go through the port of Mtwara, created for the scheme and linked to the growing areas near Nachingwea by a new railway; the region is administratively divided as five districts with Mtwara Municipal and Masasi Town having separate councils: https://web.archive.org/web/20140413063741/http://www.nbs.go.tz/sensa/popu2.php
Lindi Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions. The regional capital is the municipality of Lindi. According to the 2012 national census, the region had a population of 864,652, lower than the pre-census projection of 960,236. For 2002-2012, the region's 0.9 percent average annual population growth rate was the 29th highest in the country. It was the least densely populated region with 13 people per square kilometer; the Lindi Region borders on Pwani Region, Morogoro Region, Ruvuma Region, Mtwara Region. Much of the western part of the Lindi Region is in the Selous Game Reserve; the regional commissioner of the Lindi Region is Godfrey Zambi. The region is administratively divided into five districts
Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam is the former capital as well as the most populous city in Tanzania and a regionally important economic centre. Located on the Swahili coast, the city is one of the fastest growing cities in the world; until 1974, Dar es Salaam served as Tanzania’s capital city, at which point the capital city commenced transferring to Dodoma, completed in 1996. However, as of 2018, it continues to remain a focus of central government bureaucracy, although this is in the process of moving to Dodoma. In addition, it is Tanzania's most prominent city in arts, media, music and television and a leading financial centre; the city is the leading arrival and departure point for most tourists who visit Tanzania, including the national parks for safaris and the islands of Unguja and Pemba. Dar es Salaam is the largest and most populous Swahili-speaking city in the world, it is the capital of the co-extensive Dar es Salaam Region, one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions and consists of five districts: Kinondoni in the north, Ilala in the centre, Temeke in the south and Kigamboni in the east across the Kurasini creek.
The region had a population of 4,364,541 as of the official 2012 census. In the 19th century, Mzizima was a coastal fishing village on the periphery of Indian Ocean trade routes. In 1865 or 1866, Sultan Majid bin Said of Zanzibar began building a new city close to Mzizima and named it Dar es Salaam; the name is translated as "abode/home of peace", based on the Arabic dar, the Arabic es salaam. Dar es Salaam fell into decline after Majid's death in 1870, but was revived in 1887 when the German East Africa Company established a station there; the town's growth was facilitated by its role as the administrative and commercial centre of German East Africa and industrial expansion resulting from the construction of the Central Railway Line in the early 1900s. German East Africa was captured by the British during World War I and became Tanganyika, with Dar es Salaam remaining the administrative and commercial centre. Under British indirect rule, separate European and African areas developed at a distance from the city centre.
The city's population included a large number of workers from British India, many of whom came to take advantage of the trade and commercial opportunities presented to them. After World War II, Dar es Salaam experienced a period of rapid growth. Political developments, including the formation and growth of the Tanganyika African National Union, led to Tanganyika attaining independence from colonial rule in December 1961. Dar es Salaam continued to serve as its capital when in 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form Tanzania. In 1973, provisions were made to relocate the capital to Dodoma, a more centrally located city in the interior; the relocation process has not yet been completed, Dar es Salaam remains Tanzania's primary city. In 1967, the Tanzanian government declared the Ujamaa policy, that set Tanzania into a socialist path; the move slowed down the potential growth of the city as the government encouraged people not to move in cities but stay in Ujamaa socialist villages. But by the 1980s the Ujamaa policy proved to be a failure in combating increasing poverty and hunger that Tanzania faced, delayed the development that it needed.
This led to the 1980s liberalization policy that ended socialism and its proponents within Tanzania's government. Until the late 1990s, Dar es Salaam was not put into the same category as Africa's leading cities like Nairobi, Lagos, or Addis Ababa, but the 2000s decade became the turning point as the city experienced one of Africa's fastest urbanization rates as businesses were opened and prospered, growth in the construction sector with multi-storey building and roads, Tanzanian banks headquartered in the city started to run more proper, the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange expanded, the Dar es Salaam harbour proved to be the most important in Tanzania and prominent for entrepot trade with landlocked countries like eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Zambia. The CBD skyline hosts tall buildings, among them the 35-floor PSPF Tower, finished in 2015, the Tanzania Ports Authority Tower under construction. Dar es Salaam is located at 6°48' South, 39°17' East, on a natural harbour on the eastern coast of East Africa, with sandy beaches in some areas.
The region of Dar es Salaam is divided into five districts. Dar es Salaam Region is divided into five administrative districts. All five are governed as municipal councils, so all of the city's suburbs or wards are affiliated with them; the regional commissioner is Paul Makonda. Kinondoni is the most populated amongst the districts, with half of the city's population residing within it, it is home to high-income suburbs. These include: Masaki and Ada Estate are the high-income suburbs located along the central beach. During the Colonial Era, they were the major European suburbs of the city. Now diplomats and expatriates reside in these areas. Oysterbay Beach known as Coco Beach, is the only white sandy beach east of Kinondoni. Mikocheni and Regent Estate are suburbs within the district. According to the 2012 census, the Mikocheni ward had a population of 32,947. Msasani is a peninsula to the northeast of the city center, it is home to expatriates from other western countries. Msasani contains a mixture of western-oriented resorts and stores.
Mbezi Beach is the beachfront suburb located along the northern Dar es Salaam Beach. It co
Mozambique the Republic of Mozambique, is a country located in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, Eswatini and South Africa to the southwest. The sovereign state is separated from the Comoros and Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east; the capital of Mozambique is Maputo. Between the first and fifth centuries AD, Bantu-speaking peoples migrated to present-day Mozambique from farther north and west. Northern Mozambique lies within the monsoon trade winds of the Indian Ocean. Between the 7th and 11th centuries, a series of Swahili port towns developed here, which contributed to the development of a distinct Swahili culture and language. In the late medieval period, these towns were frequented by traders from Somalia, Egypt, Arabia and India; the voyage of Vasco da Gama in 1498 marked the arrival of the Portuguese, who began a gradual process of colonisation and settlement in 1505. After over four centuries of Portuguese rule, Mozambique gained independence in 1975, becoming the People's Republic of Mozambique shortly thereafter.
After only two years of independence, the country descended into an intense and protracted civil war lasting from 1977 to 1992. In 1994, Mozambique held its first multiparty elections, has since remained a stable presidential republic, although it still faces a low-intensity insurgency. Mozambique is endowed with extensive natural resources; the country's economy is based on agriculture, but industry is growing food and beverages, chemical manufacturing and aluminium and petroleum production. The tourism sector is expanding. South Africa is Mozambique's main trading partner and source of foreign direct investment, while Belgium, Brazil and Spain are among the country's most important economic partners. Since 2001, Mozambique's annual average GDP growth has been among the world's highest. However, the country is still one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world, ranking low in GDP per capita, human development, measures of inequality and average life expectancy; the only official language of Mozambique is Portuguese, spoken as a second language by about half the population.
Common native languages include Makhuwa and Swahili. The country's population of around 29 million is composed overwhelmingly of Bantu people; the largest religion in Mozambique is Christianity, with significant minorities following Islam and African traditional religions. Mozambique is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Southern African Development Community, is an observer at La Francophonie; the country was named Moçambique by the Portuguese after the Island of Mozambique, derived from Mussa Bin Bique or Musa Al Big or Mossa Al Bique or Mussa Ben Mbiki or Mussa Ibn Malik, an Arab trader who first visited the island and lived there. The island-town was the capital of the Portuguese colony until 1898, when it was moved south to Lourenço Marques. Between the 1st and 5th centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking people migrated from the west and north through the Zambezi River valley and gradually into the plateau and coastal areas.
They established agricultural societies based on herding cattle. They brought with them the technology for smithing iron. From the late first millennium AD, vast Indian Ocean trade networks extended as far south into Mozambique as evidenced by the ancient port town of Chibuene. Beginning in the 9th century, a growing involvement in Indian Ocean trade led to the development of numerous port towns along the entire East African coast, including modern day Mozambique. Autonomous, these towns broadly participated in the incipient Swahili culture. Islam was adopted by urban elites, facilitating trade. In Mozambique, Sofala and Mozambique Island were regional powers by the 15th century; the towns traded with merchants from both the broader Indian Ocean world. Important were the gold and ivory caravan routes. Inland states like the Kingdom of Zimbabwe and Kingdom of Mutapa provided the coveted gold and ivory, which were exchanged up the coast to larger port cities like Kilwa and Mombasa. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts displaced the Arabic commercial and military hegemony, becoming regular ports of call on the new European sea route to the east.
The voyage of Vasco da Gama around the Cape of Good Hope in 1498 marked the Portuguese entry into trade and society of the region. The Portuguese gained control of the Island of Mozambique and the port city of Sofala in the early 16th century, by the 1530s, small groups of Portuguese traders and prospectors seeking gold penetrated the interior regions, where they set up garrisons and trading posts at Sena and Tete on the River Zambezi and tried to gain exclusive control over the gold trade. In the central part of the Mozambique territory, the Portuguese attempted to legitimise and consolidate their trade and settlement positions through the creation of prazos tied to their settlement and administration. While prazos were developed to be held by Portuguese, through intermarriage they became African Portuguese or African Indian centres defended by large African sl
Mjini Magharibi Region
Mjini Magharibi Region is one of the 31 regions of Tanzania. Located on the island of Unguja, Zanzibar City serves as the region's capital. According to the 2012 Tanzania National Census, the population of the Zanzibar Urban/West Region was 593,678; the region is administratively divided into two districts: For parliamentary elections, Tanzania is divided into constituencies. As of the 2010 elections Zanzibar Urban/West Region had nineteen constituencies: Amani Constituency Bububu Constituency Chumbuni Constituency Dimani Constituency Dole Constituency Fuoni Constituency Jang'ombe Constituency Kiembesamaki Constituency Kikwajuni Constituency Kwahani Constituency Kwamtipura Constituency Magogoni Constituency Magomeni Constituency Mfenesini Constituency Mji Mkongwe Constituency Mpendae Constituency Mtoni Constituency Mwanakwerekwe Constituency Raha Leo Constituency
Arusha Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions. Its capital and largest city is the city of Arusha; the region is bordered by Kajiado County and Narok County in Kenya to the north, the Kilimanjaro Region to the east, the Manyara and Singida regions to the south, the Mara and Simiyu regions to the west. Major towns include Monduli, Namanga and Loliondo to the north, Mto wa Mbu and Karatu to the west, Usa River to the east; the region is comparable in size to the combined land and water areas of the United States state of Maryland. Arusha Region is the center of the northern Tanzania safari circuit; the national parks and reserves in this region include Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Arusha National Park, the Loliondo Game Controlled Area, part of Lake Manyara National Park. Remains of 600-year-old stone structures are found at Engaruka, just off the dirt road between Mto wa Mbu and Lake Natron. With a HDI of 0.721, Arusha is one among the most developed regions of Tanzania. Much of the present area of Arusha Region used to be Maasai land.
The Maasai are still the dominant community in the region. Their influence is reflected in the present names of towns, regional culture and geographical features; the administrative region of Arusha existed in 1922 while mainland Tanzania was a British mandate under the League of Nations and known as Tanganyika. In 1948, the area was in the Northern Province, which includes the present day regions of Manyara and Kilimanjaro. In 1966, under the newly independent Tanzanian government, Arusha was given its own regional status. In 2002, Manyara Region was split from Arusha Region. Portions of the former Arusha Region districts of Kiteto, Mbulu, a tiny piece of Monduli were incorporated into the Manyara Region. Arusha was the largest region in Tanzania from 1966-2002; the Great Rift Valley runs through the middle of the region north-to-south. Oldonyo Lengai is an active volcano to the north of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Altitudes throughout the region vary but much of it ranges from 900 to 1,600 metres in elevation.
Mount Meru, the second highest mountain in Tanzania after Mount Kilimanjaro, peaks at 4,655 metres. Arusha Region has the highest number of extinct volcanoes in Tanzania. Other geographical features include the Monduli Mountains, Mount Loolmalasin, Mount Longido, the Olduvai Gorge; the city of Arusha, the capital of the region, is located at the southern foot of Mount Meru. The majority of Arusha residents live in the city and the surrounding southeastern part of Arusha Region. Arusha Region is divided into six districts, each administered by a council. Arusha National Park Empakaai Crater Engaruka Great Rift Valley Lake Manyara National Park Mount Longido Forest Reserve Mount Meru Forest Reserve Ngorongoro Conservation Area Ngurdoto Crater Oldonyo Lengai Olduvai Gorge Uhuru Monument According to the 2012 national census, the Arusha Region had a population of 1,694,310; the region is inhabited by communities. Among these are the Iraqw, Maasai, Sonjo, Chagga and Nguu. Nyama Choma, the northern Tanzanian barbecue, is a popular dish among some communities in the Arusha Region the Maasai.
Nyama Choma is properly served with a side of french fries, Pili Pili sauce and a cold local beer or soda. The A-23 Arusha-Himo road runs east-west and enters the region near Kilimanjaro International Airport, it connects Arusha with Moshi and Himo at the Kenyan border. This roads ends at its junction with the A-104 road in the center of Arusha; the A-104 runs northward, to the west of Mount Meru, from Arusha to Longido and Namanga at the Kenyan border before continuing to Nairobi. The A-104 runs westward past Monduli to its junction at Makuyuni with the B-144 road that leads to Mto wa Mbu and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. After that, the A-104 curves southward to the east of Lake Manyara and continues on to Babati and Dodoma. Most overland travel is done by bus from the city of Arusha. Within the city and smaller towns owned and operated dala-dalas are used; the region is landlocked, there are no navigable rivers. The larger lakes in the Rift Valley are not used for transportation; the region is home to Lake Eyasi, Lake Natron, Lake Duluti, Lake Empakaai, the Momella lakes.
Arusha Region is served by the Kilimanjaro International Airport located in Hai District of Kilimanjaro Region. Its international carriers are Airkenya Express, Air Uganda, Edelweiss Air, Ethiopian Airlines, Kenya Airways, KLM, Precision Air, Qatar Airways, RwandAir, Safarilink Aviation, Turkish Airlines; the smaller Arusha Airport serves small and personal planes to popular tourist areas such as Serengeti National Park, Ndutu, Zanzibar etc. Planes using Kisongo Airport include Coastal Air, Flying Doctors, AMREF, Precision Air, TFC, Auric Air, Grumeti Air and other personal planes. Filbert Bayi grew up in the Arusha Region. Edward Sokoine Tanzania's second prime minister Edward Lowassa Tanzania's tenth prime minister from 2005-2008 Frederick Sumaye Tanzania's ninth prime minister from 1995-2005 The chief administrative officer of the region is the regional commissioner. Below is a table showing the regional commissioners serving the Arusha region from 1962 to present: Arusha Accords Arusha Airport Arusha Cultural Heritage Centre Arusha Declaration Geography of Tanzania Mguu wa Zuberi Selian River Language map for Tanzania MS Training Centre for Development Cooperation
Pemba South Region
Pemba South Region is one of the 31 regions of Tanzania. Located on Pemba Island, the region's capital is Mkoani; the region is administratively divided into two districts