Timeline of Rwandan history
This timeline of Rwandan history is a chronological list of major events related to the human inhabitants of Rwanda. Timeline of Kigali Chronology of the Rwandan Genocide List of years in Rwanda "Timeline: Rwanda". BBC. 25 February 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010. Institut für Afrika-Kunde. "Rwanda". Afrika Jahrbuch 1989. Germany: Leske + Budrich. Doi:10.1007/978-3-322-92639-5. OCLC 19093344. Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft in Afrika südlich der Sahara "Rwanda". Political Chronology of Africa. Political Chronologies of the World. Europa Publications. 2001. P. 344+. ISBN 0203409957. Jonas Ewald. "Rwanda". In Andreas Mehler. Africa Yearbook: Politics and Society South of the Sahara in 2007. 4. Koninklijke Brill. Pp. 347+. ISSN 1871-2525. Susan M. Thomson. "Rwanda". In Andreas Mehler. Africa Yearbook: Politics and Society South of the Sahara in 2010. 7. Koninklijke Brill. Pp. 359+. ISSN 1871-2525. Susan Thomson. "Rwanda". In Andreas Mehler. Africa Yearbook: Politics and Society South of the Sahara in 2012. 9. Koninklijke Brill.
P. 351+. ISSN 1871-2525. Aimable Twagilimana. "Chronology". Historical Dictionary of Rwanda. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-5591-3
Wildlife of Rwanda
The wildlife of Rwanda comprising its flora and fauna, in prehistoric times, consisted of montane forest in one third the territory of present-day Rwanda. However, natural vegetation is now restricted to the three National Parks and four small forest reserves, with terraced agriculture dominating the rest of the country. Rwanda is a landlocked country in Central Africa, bordered by Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda, it measures 26,338 square kilometres in size, of which 26,668 square kilometres is land and 1,670 square kilometres is water. Its highest point is Volcan Karisimbi at 4,519 metres, while it lowest point is the Rusizi River at 950 metres. Rwanda's geography is dominated by savanna grassland with 46 percent considered arable land and 9.5 percent dedicated to permanent crops. Grassy uplands and hills are predominant characteristics of the terrain, while the country's relief is described as mountainous, its altitude demonstrating a decline from the west towards the east.
A unique feature in the geography and geology of Rwanda is Africa’s Great Rift Valley. As part of this rift, Albertine Rift passes through the Nyungwe forest, it is a mountainous feature that "as a whole, harbors more endemic birds and amphibians than any other region in Africa". A rift valley is defined as: "A rift is where sections of the earth are spreading apart over millions of years, creating mountains, lakes and volcanoes." Another feature is the Congo-Nile Divide. This mountain range passes through Rwanda in a north to south direction. Nyabarongo River is a major river in Rwanda, part of the upper headwaters of the Nile and accounts for nearly 66% of the water resources of the country fed by a catchment which receives an annual average rainfall of more than 2000 mm; the country has a temperate climate with rainy seasons twice per year, February to April and again November to January. Temperatures in the mountains are mild, though there is the possibility of snow. There are only three protected areas established as national parks.
The Akagera National Park covers an area of 108,500 ha, Nyungwe National Park has an area of 101,900 ha and Volcanoes National Park has an area of 16,000 ha. In addition the forest reserves are the Gishwati Forest Reserve, Mukura Forest Reserve, Busaga Forest Reserve and Buhanga forest and gallery forest in the eastern province of about 160 ha. Nyungwe is the largest remaining tract of forest which contains 200 species of tree as well as orchids and begonias. Vegetation in the Volcanoes National Park is bamboo and moorland, with small areas of forest. By contrast, Akagera has a savanna ecosystem. There are several rare or endangered plant species in Akagera, including Markhamia lutea and Eulophia guineensis; the forest cover in Rwanda as of 2007 accounted for 240,746.53 ha comprising humid natural forests in 33.15% area, degraded natural forests covering 15.79%, bamboo forest of 1.82%, savanahs accounting for 1.55%, large eucalyptus plantations to the extent of 26.4%, recent plantations of eucalyptus and coppices and 5.01 percent of pinus plantations.
Montane forest, one of the most ancient forests dated to before the Ice Age which has a unique richness of 200 species of trees, many flowering plants including the giant lobelia and many colourful orchids. There are more than 140 species of orchids in the wildlife area of Nyungwe forest. There are four defined forest categories; these are: he Congo Nile Ridge Forest, a natural forest that encompasses the national parks and reserves. The world's smallest water lilly, Nymphaea thermarum, was endemic not only to Rwanda, but to the damp mud formed by the overflow of a freshwater hot spring in Mashyuza, it became extinct in the wild about 2008. The farmers cut off the flow of the spring, which dried up the tiny area—just a few square meters—that was the lily's entire habitat. Carlos Magdalena, at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, managed to germinate some of the last 20 seeds; the greatest diversity of large mammals is found in the three National Parks, which are designated conservation areas. Akagera contains typical savanna animals such as giraffes and elephants, while Volcanoes is home to an estimated one third of the worldwide mountain gorilla population.
Nyungwe Forest boasts thirteen primate species including chimpanzees and Ruwenzori colobus arboreal monkeys. Twenty species of mammals reported by Animal Diversity web of the Museum of Geology University of Michigan are as under. Primates are the dominant species of fauna in the Nyungwe Forest; the species reported are Ruwenzori colobus, L’Hoest’s monkeys and chimpanzees. An amphibian species reported. There were 670 bird species in Rwanda, with variation between the west. However, as per the Birdlist Organization the number of species as per WICE criteria are reported to be 711. Nyungwe Forest, in the west, has 280 recorded species, of which 26 are endemic to the Albertine Rift. Eastern Rwanda, by contrast, features savanna birds such as the black-headed gonolek and those associated with swamps and lakes, including storks and cranes. Further, ac
Ruanda-Urundi was a territory in the African Great Lakes region, once part of German East Africa, ruled by Belgium between 1922 and 1962. Occupied by the Belgians during the East African Campaign during World War I, the territory was under Belgian military occupation from 1916 to 1922 and became a Belgian-controlled Class B Mandate under the League of Nations from 1922 to 1945. After the disestablishment of the League and World War II, Ruanda-Urundi became a Trust Territory of the United Nations, still under Belgian control. In 1962, the mandate became independent as the two separate countries of Burundi; the Kingdoms of Ruanda and Burundi were two independent kingdoms in the Great Lakes region before the Scramble for Africa. In 1894, they were annexed by the German Empire and became two districts of German East Africa; the two monarchies were retained as part of the German policy of indirect rule, with the Ruandan king Yuhi V Musinga using German support to consolidate his control over subordinate chiefs in exchange for labour and resources.
World War I broke out in 1914. German colonies were meant to preserve their neutrality as mandated in the Berlin Convention, but fighting soon broke out on the frontier between German East Africa and the Belgian Congo around Lakes Kivu and Tanganyika; as part of the Allied East African Campaign and Urundi were invaded by a Belgian force in 1916. The German forces in the region were hugely outnumbered. Ruanda was occupied over April–May and Urundi in June 1916. By September, a large portion of German East Africa was under Belgian occupation reaching as far south as Kigoma and Karema in modern-day Tanzania and as far eastwards as Tabora. In Ruanda and Urundi, the Belgians were welcomed by many Africans who were opposed to the autocratic behaviour of the kings; the territory captured was administered by a Belgian military occupation authority pending an ultimate decision about its political future. An administration, headed by a Royal Commissioner, was established in February 1917 at the same time as Belgian forces were ordered to withdraw from the Tabora region by the British.
The Treaty of Versailles divided the German colonial empire among the Allied nations. German East Africa was partitioned, with Tanganyika allocated to the British and a small area allocated to Portugal. Belgium was allocated Ruanda-Urundi which represented only a fraction of the territories occupied by the Belgian forces in East Africa though it had been hoped that Belgian claims in the region could be traded for Portuguese territory in Angola to expand the Congo's access to the sea; the League of Nations awarded Ruanda-Urundi to Belgium as a B-Class Mandate on 20 July 1922. The mandatory regime was controversial in Belgium and it was not approved by Belgium's parliament until 1924. Unlike colonies which belonged to its colonial power, a mandate was theoretically subject to international oversight through the League's Permanent Mandates Commission in Geneva, Switzerland. After a period of inertia, the Belgian administration became involved in Ruanda-Urundi between 1926 and 1931 under the governorship of Charles Voisin.
The reforms produced a dense road-network and improved agriculture, with the emergence of cash crop farming in cotton and coffee. However, four major famines did ravage parts of the mandate after crop failures in 1916–1918, 1924–26, 1928–30 and 1943–44; the Belgians were far more involved in the territory than the Germans in Ruanda. Despite the mandate rules that the Belgians had to develop the territories and prepare them for independence, the economic policy practised in the Belgian Congo was exported eastwards: the Belgians demanded that the territories earn profits for the motherland and that any development must come out of funds gathered in the territory; these funds came from the extensive cultivation of coffee in the region's rich volcanic soils. To implement their vision, the Belgians used the existing indigenous power structure; this consisted of a Tutsi ruling class controlling a Hutu population, through the system of chiefs and sub-chiefs under the overall rule of the two Mwami. The Belgian administrators deserved power.
While before colonization the Hutu had played some role in governance, the Belgians simplified matters by further stratifying the society on ethnic lines. Hutu anger at the Tutsi domination was focused on the Tutsi elite rather than the distant colonial power. Musinga was deposed by the administration as mwami of Ruanda in November 1931 after being accused of disloyalty, he was replaced by his son Mutara III Rudahigwa. Although promising the League it would promote education, Belgium left the task to subsidised Catholic missions and unsubsidised Protestant missions. Catholicism expanded through the African population in consequence; as late as 1961, shortly before independence arrived, fewer than 100 Africans had been educated beyond the secondary level. The policy was one of low-cost paternalism, as explained by Belgium's special representative to the Trusteeship Council: "The real work is to change the African in his essence, to transform his soul, to do that one must love him and enjoy having daily contact with him.
He must be cured of his thoughtlessness, he must accustom himself to living in society, he must overcome his inertia." The League of Nations was formally dissolved in April 1946, following its failure to prevent the Second World War. It was succeeded, by the new United Nations. In December 1946, the new body voted to end the mandate over Ruanda-Urundi and replace it with the ne
The Rwandan Revolution known as the Social Revolution or Wind of Destruction, was a period of ethnic violence in Rwanda from 1959 to 1961 between the Hutu and the Tutsi, two of the three ethnic groups in Rwanda. The revolution saw the country transition from a Belgian colony with a Tutsi monarchy to an independent Hutu-dominated republic. Rwanda had been ruled by a Tutsi monarchy since at least the 18th century, with entrenched pro-Tutsi and anti-Hutu policies. Germany and Belgium successively controlled Rwanda through the early 20th century, with both European nations ruling through the kings and perpetuating a pro-Tutsi policy. After 1945 a Hutu counter-elite developed, leading to the deterioration of relations between the groups; the Tutsi leadership agitated for speedy independence to cement their power, the Hutu elite called for the transfer of power from Tutsi to Hutu. The revolution began in November 1959, with a series of riots and arson attacks on Tutsi homes following the attack of the only Hutu sub-chief Dominique Mbonyumutwa by Tutsi extremists.
Violence spread throughout the country. The king and Tutsi politicians attempted a counterattack to seize power and ostracise the Hutu and the Belgians but were thwarted by Belgian colonel Guy Logiest, brought in by the colonial governor. Logiest reestablished order, beginning a programme to promote and protect the Hutu elite; the Belgians replaced many Tutsi chiefs and sub-chiefs with Hutu, consigning King Kigeli V to figurehead status. Despite continued anti-Tutsi violence, Belgium organised local elections in mid-1960. Hutu parties gained control of nearly all communes ending the revolution. Logiest and Hutu leader Grégoire Kayibanda declared Rwanda an autonomous republic in 1961, the country became independent in 1962; the revolution caused at least 336,000 Tutsi to flee to neighbouring countries, where they lived as refugees. Although the exiles agitated for an immediate return to Rwanda, they were split between those seeking negotiation and those wishing to overthrow the new regime; some exiles formed armed groups.
The largest occurred in late 1963. The government fought back, defeating the inyenzi and killing thousands of the remaining Tutsi in Rwanda. No further threat was posed by the refugees until the 1990s, when a civil war initiated by the Tutsi-refugee Front Patriotique Rwandais forced the Hutu government into negotiations; this led to a rise in Hutu extremism and the 1994 genocide, in which hundreds of thousands of Tutsi were killed before the FPR took control. The earliest inhabitants of what is now Rwanda were the Twa, a group of aboriginal pygmy hunter-gatherers who settled the area between 8000 and 3000 BC and remain in the country today. Between 700 BC and 1500 AD, a number of Bantu groups migrated into Rwanda and began clearing forests for agriculture. After losing much of their habitat, the forest-dwelling Twa moved to the mountains. Historians have several theories about the Bantu Migrations. According to one, the first settlers were Hutu. An alternative theory is that the migration was slow and steady, with incoming groups integrating into the existing society.
In this theory the Hutu-Tutsi distinction arose as a class distinction, rather than a racial one. The population coalesced, first into clans and into about eight kingdoms by 1700; the country was fertile and densely populated, with its kingdoms controlled socially. The Kingdom of Rwanda, ruled by the Tutsi Nyiginya clan, became dominant beginning in the mid-18th century. From its origins as a small toparchy near Lake Muhazi the kingdom expanded through conquest and assimilation, reaching its zenith under King Kigeli Rwabugiri between 1853 and 1895. Rwabugiri expanded the kingdom west and north, implementing administrative reforms which included ubuhake and uburetwa. Rwabugiri's reforms developed a rift between the Tutsi populations; the Berlin Conference of 1884 assigned the territory to Germany, with imprecise boundaries. When Gustav Adolf von Götzen explored the country ten years he discovered that the Kingdom of Rwanda included a fertile region east of Lake Kivu. Germany wanted this region, claimed by Leopold II as part of his own Congo Free State.
To justify its claim, Germany began a policy of ruling through the Rwandan monarchy and supporting Tutsi chiefs. Yuhi V Musinga, who emerged as king after a succession crisis following the death of his father Rwabugiri and a struggle with Belgian troops, welcomed the Germans and used them to consolidate his power; the territory became the western border of German East Africa. German rule allowed Rwabugiri's centralisation policy to continue, the rift between Tutsi and Hutu deepened. Belgian forces took control of Rwanda and Burundi during World War I, the country came under Belgian control in a 1919 League of Nations mandate, named Ruanda-Urundi. Although Belgium continued the German method of government through the monarchy, in 1926, it began a policy of direct colonial rule in line with the norm in the Congo. Reforms included simplifying the complex three-chieft
Centime is French for "cent", is used in English as the name of the fraction currency in several Francophone countries. In France the usage of centime goes back to the introduction of the decimal monetary system under Napoleon; this system aimed at replacing non-decimal fractions of older coins. A five-centime coin was known as a sou, shilling. In Francophone Canada 1⁄100 of a Canadian dollar is known as a cent in both English and French. However, in practice, the form of cenne has replaced the official cent. Spoken and written use of the official form cent in Francophone Canada is exceptionally uncommon. In the Canadian French vernacular sou, sou noir and cenne noire are all known and accepted monikers when referring to either 1⁄100 of a Canadian dollar or the 1¢ coin. In the European community cent is the official name for one hundredth of a euro. However, in French-speaking countries the word centime is the preferred term. Indeed, the Superior Council of the French language of Belgium recommended in 2001 the use of centime, since cent is the French word for "hundred".
An analogous decision was published in the Journal officiel in France. In Morocco, dirhams are divided into 100 centimes and one may find prices in the country quoted in centimes rather than in dirhams. Sometimes centimes are known in former Spanish areas, pesetas. A centime is one-hundredth of the following basic monetary units: Algerian dinar Burundian franc CFP franc CFA franc Comorian franc Congolese franc Djiboutian franc Ethiopian birr Guinean franc Haitian gourde Moroccan dirham Rwandan franc Swiss franc Algerian franc Belgian franc Cambodian franc French Camerounian franc French Guianan franc French franc Guadeloupe franc Katangese franc Latvian lats Luxembourgish franc Malagasy franc Malian franc Martinique franc Monegasque franc Moroccan franc New Hebrides franc Réunion franc Spanish Peseta Tunisian franc Westphalian frank
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel is hard and ductile. Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area, shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion. So, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts in ultramafic rocks, in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis. An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's outer and inner cores. Use of nickel has been traced as far back as 3500 BCE. Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who mistook the ore for a copper mineral, in the cobalt mines of Los, Hälsingland, Sweden.
The element's name comes from a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology, who personified the fact that copper-nickel ores resisted refinement into copper. An economically important source of nickel is the iron ore limonite, which contains 1–2% nickel. Nickel's other important ore minerals include pentlandite and a mixture of Ni-rich natural silicates known as garnierite. Major production sites include the Sudbury region in Canada, New Caledonia in the Pacific, Norilsk in Russia. Nickel is oxidized by air at room temperature and is considered corrosion-resistant, it has been used for plating iron and brass, coating chemistry equipment, manufacturing certain alloys that retain a high silvery polish, such as German silver. About 9% of world nickel production is still used for corrosion-resistant nickel plating. Nickel-plated objects sometimes provoke nickel allergy. Nickel has been used in coins, though its rising price has led to some replacement with cheaper metals in recent years. Nickel is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic at room temperature.
Alnico permanent magnets based on nickel are of intermediate strength between iron-based permanent magnets and rare-earth magnets. The metal is valuable in modern times chiefly in alloys. A further 10% is used for nickel-based and copper-based alloys, 7% for alloy steels, 3% in foundries, 9% in plating and 4% in other applications, including the fast-growing battery sector; as a compound, nickel has a number of niche chemical manufacturing uses, such as a catalyst for hydrogenation, cathodes for batteries and metal surface treatments. Nickel is an essential nutrient for some microorganisms and plants that have enzymes with nickel as an active site. Nickel is a silvery-white metal with a slight golden tinge, it is one of only four elements that are magnetic at or near room temperature, the others being iron and gadolinium. Its Curie temperature is 355 °C; the unit cell of nickel is a face-centered cube with the lattice parameter of 0.352 nm, giving an atomic radius of 0.124 nm. This crystal structure is stable to pressures of at least 70 GPa.
Nickel belongs to the transition metals. It is hard and ductile, has a high for transition metals electrical and thermal conductivity; the high compressive strength of 34 GPa, predicted for ideal crystals, is never obtained in the real bulk material due to the formation and movement of dislocations. The nickel atom has two electron configurations, 3d8 4s2 and 3d9 4s1, which are close in energy – the symbol refers to the argon-like core structure. There is some disagreement. Chemistry textbooks quote the electron configuration of nickel as 4s2 3d8, which can be written 3d8 4s2; this configuration agrees with the Madelung energy ordering rule, which predicts that 4s is filled before 3d. It is supported by the experimental fact that the lowest energy state of the nickel atom is a 3d8 4s2 energy level the 3d8 4s2 3F, J = 4 level. However, each of these two configurations splits into several energy levels due to fine structure, the two sets of energy levels overlap; the average energy of states with configuration 3d9 4s1 is lower than the average energy of states with configuration 3d8 4s2.
For this reason, the research literature on atomic calculations quotes the ground state configuration of nickel as 3d9 4s1. The isotopes of nickel range in atomic weight from 48 u to 78 u. Occurring nickel is composed of five stable isotopes. Isotopes heavier than 62Ni cannot be formed by nuclear fusion without losing energy. Nickel-62 has the highest mean nuclear binding energy per nucleon of any nuclide, at 8.7946 MeV/nucleon. Its binding energy is greater than both 56Fe and 58Fe, more abundant elements incorrectly cited as having the most tightly-bound nuclides. Although this would seem to predict nickel-62 as the most abundant heavy element in the universe, the high rate of photodisintegration of nickel in stellar interiors causes iron to be by far the most abundant. Stable isotope nickel-60 is the daughter product of the extinct radionuclide 60Fe, whi