Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site
A first responder is a person with specialized training, among the first to arrive and provide assistance at the scene of an emergency, such as an accident, natural disaster, or terrorist attack. First responders include paramedics, emergency medical technicians, police officers, firefighters and other trained members of organisations connected with this type of work. A certified first responder is one who has received certification to provide pre-hospital care in a certain jurisdiction, for example, the Certified First Responder in France. A community first responder is a person dispatched to attend medical emergencies until an ambulance arrives. A wilderness first responder is trained to provide pre-hospital care in remote settings and will therefore have skills in ad hoc patient packaging and transport by non-motorized means. First responders must be trained to deal with a wide array of potential medical emergencies; because of the high level of stress and uncertainty associated with the position, first responders must maintain physical and mental health.
With such preparation, first responders face unique risks of being the first people to aid those with unknown contagions. For example, in 2003 first responders were among the earliest victims of the unknown SARS virus, when they cared for patients affected with the virus. Trauma and first responders Some jurisdictions have special laws defining and establishing the rights and duties of first responders; the term first responder is defined in U. S. Homeland Security Presidential Directive, HSPD-8 and reads: The term "first responder" refers to those individuals who in the early stages of an incident are responsible for the protection and preservation of life, property and the environment, including emergency response providers as defined in section 2 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, as well as emergency management, public health, clinical care, public works, other skilled support personnel that provide immediate support services during prevention and recovery operations. Emergency response providers are defined by 6 U.
S. C. § 101 as follows: The term “emergency response providers” includes Federal and local governmental and nongovernmental emergency public safety, law enforcement, emergency response, emergency medical services providers, related personnel and authorities. First aider Emergency medical responder levels by U. S. state
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Pretty Little Liars
Pretty Little Liars is an American teen drama mystery thriller television series developed by I. Marlene King and is loosely based on the novel series of the same name written by Sara Shepard; the series follows the lives of four high school girls whose clique falls apart after the disappearance of their leader. One year the estranged friends are reunited as they begin receiving messages from a mysterious figure named "A" who threatens to expose their deepest secrets; the series features an ensemble cast, headed by Troian Bellisario as Spencer Hastings, Lucy Hale as Aria Montgomery, Ashley Benson as Hanna Marin, Shay Mitchell as Emily Fields, Sasha Pieterse as Alison DiLaurentis and Janel Parrish as Mona Vanderwaal. The series premiered on June 8, 2010 on Freeform known as ABC Family, ended on June 27, 2017. After an initial order of 10 episodes, ABC Family ordered an additional 12 episodes on June 28, 2010; the ratings success of the first 10 episodes prompted the book series to be extended beyond the initial eight novels.
Since its debut, the series has received mixed reviews from television critics, but remained a relative success for Freeform, garnering a large fandom on social media. It is the first series in the Pretty Little Liars franchise. On March 26, 2013, a spin-off series was announced, titled Ravenswood, but was canceled after one season. On June 10, 2014, Pretty Little Liars was renewed for seventh seasons. On August 29, 2016, Freeform confirmed that the series would be ending after its seventh season in 2017. Filming of the series wrapped on October 26, 2016; the series finale was viewed by an estimated 1.41 million viewers. It had the second-highest rating of any cable TV series; the episode was followed by "A-List Wrap Party", a live special featuring the cast and executive producer King discussing the series ending. On September 25, 2017, Freeform announced that a second spin-off series, titled Pretty Little Liars: The Perfectionists, had been ordered, with Pieterse and Parrish reprising their roles as Alison DiLaurentis and Mona Vanderwaal respectively.
On May 14, 2018, Freeform picked up the series for a 10-episode first season, set to air in 2019. In a 2018 panel, Parrish said that some plot points created in Pretty Little Liars will be resolved during the spin-off. Set in the suburban town of Rosewood, the series follows the lives of five high school girls: Spencer Hastings, Alison DiLaurentis, Aria Montgomery, Hanna Marin and Emily Fields, whose clique falls apart after the leader of the group, goes missing. One year the remaining estranged friends are reunited as they begin receiving messages from a mysterious villain named "A" and from "A. D.", who threatens and tortures them for the mistakes and lies they have made and told before and after Alison's death. At first, they think it is Alison herself, but after her body is found, the girls realize that it is somebody else who wants revenge. Troian Bellisario as Spencer Hastings, an extreme perfectionist who likes to please her wealthy family and her friends, she is competitive and an overachiever.
Spencer is strong willed and kind towards everyone around her, but isn't afraid to take down someone, a threat to something she cares about. Ashley Benson as Hanna Marin, a girl who used to have an eating disorder, she was overweight, with the nickname'Hefty Hanna'. After Alison DiLaurentis disappeared, Hanna lost weight and changed her style, which seemed similar to Alison's, with the help of her new best friend Mona Vanderwaal. Over the course of the series, Hanna cares more about the people around her and tries to protect herself and her friends, she is strong. She has had few love affairs through the series. Holly Marie Combs as Ella Montgomery, the mother of Aria and Mike, as well as the wife of Byron, on-and-off English teach at Rosewood High. Lucy Hale as Aria Montgomery, an artsy chameleon, intelligent and has a good sense of style. She's the one. Aria spent some time as a "goth", she had pink highlights in her hair. After Alison disappeared and her family moved to Iceland for a year because of Alison's disappearance and her father's infidelity, before returning to Rosewood.
When Aria and her family moved back to Rosewood, she was no longer a "goth" as she used to be, she was a girly-girl. Ian Harding as Ezra Fitz, an English teacher at Rosewood High who begins a relationship with Aria which causes a lot of tension due to her being his student. Bianca Lawson as Maya St. Germain, a new girl who moves into Rosewood and develops a relationship with Emily, becoming her first girlfriend, she moves into Alison's old house which causes tension with the girls at first but they begin to like her. Laura Leighton as Ashley Marin, Hanna's mother, she is working as a member of the bank until she is arrested as the suspected murderer of Darren Wilden. She is released when Mona takes Pastor Ted posts her bail, she begins working for Mrs DiLaurentis. After the 5 year time jump, she has now turned Radley into a fancy hotel and is working as the manager. Chad Lowe as Byron Montgomery and Mike's father, Ella's husband, he is the center of one of the first story lines due to him having an affair with one of his students at Hollis causing all sorts of issues with his family.
Chad Lowe was the first cast member to direct an episode of the series, followed by Troian Bellisario. Shay Mitchell as Emily Fields, the sporty one in the group, she is the best swimmer on the high school swim team, becomes a coach of the team. Emily's demeanor is kindhearted and loyal to those she loves. Emily is a shy closeted lesbian in the beginning of the
Step Up Revolution
Step Up Revolution is a 2012 American 3D dance film and the fourth installment in the Step Up film series. It was released on July 27, 2012; the film was directed by Scott Speer and stars Ryan Guzman and Kathryn McCormick, the latter from the sixth season of So You Think You Can Dance. The film features choreography by Christopher Scott, Chuck Maldonado and Travis Wall; the production design was created by Carlos A. Menendez. Unlike the first three films, produced by Touchstone Pictures and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, this film was produced by Summit Entertainment and Offspring Entertainment without Disney's involvement and distributed by Lionsgate; this is the first Summit Entertainment film after being acquired by Lionsgate in January 2012. The film starts on Ocean Drive in Florida. A flash mob identified as "The Mob", shuts down Ocean Drive by cutting off the streets with retro convertibles and dancing on cars to music blasted by DJ Penelope. A few hours Sean Asa and Jason Hardlerson, the leaders of The Mob, watch their latest flashmob air on the television news in a restaurant kitchen of the Dimont Hotel where they work as waiters.
A few complain about their public disturbance. After they get off work, they sneak into the hotel's beach club, claiming to be guests, not employees. Meanwhile, across the club at the bar, Emily Anderson tries to get the bartender's attention, but ends up preparing her own beer. Sean, smitten by her, asks for a beer, she tells him it's on the house heads down to the beach to dance, resulting in a dance battle between the two, but ending with Emily running off when she sees one of her dad's business partners, Trip. The next day and her father William "Bill" Anderson argue over breakfast at the Dimont Hotel. Sean, their waiter recognizes her, but Emily spills her orange juice. Sean helps clean it up leaves to fetch her another juice. While he's gone, Emily continues to argue with her father before storming off. Sean finds her in the hotel's ballroom, where Emily begins a fast contemporary dance, oblivious to Sean's presence. After Emily notices Sean and warms up to him, she explains to him that she's trying to nail an audition for the prestigious Winwood Dance Academy Company.
Sean advises her to incorporate faster, more interesting moves, but Emily declines, saying that there are rules. Sean, in turn, tells her to break the rules, telling her to come there. Emily does and finds herself at the Miami Museum of Fine Arts, where the paintings and statues come to life, the work of The Mob. By telling her to attend, Sean reveals to her his participation in The Mob; the next day, Emily persuades Sean to let her take part in their next flashmob, scheduled to hit a restaurant the following week. Eddy dislikes Emily, giving her the lead to test her. Sean introduces her to "the gang" where she meets Eddy, Jason Hardlerson, Mercury, who never talks, he explains that they are trying to win a contest through YouTube by getting 10 million hits on the site. The flashmob goes well and Eddy admits that Emily did great, they celebrate at Ricky's, where Sean and Emily salsa together, much to everyone's delight. Sean and Emily sneak onto a boat and sail down the river. There, they bond over their mothers both not being a part of their lives, they kiss and sleep on the boat until morning.
When they hurry back to Ricky's, which turns out to be owned by Sean's uncle Ricky, Ricky reveals to them that Emily's dad, a building tycoon, is planning to develop the strip, destroying Ricky's bar, Sean's home, Sean's sister's home and workplace, many other things. Enraged, Emily storms off to talk with Sean following behind her. Emily wants to tell The Mob who her dad is reluctantly convinced by Sean not to, she instead finds out from her dad that there will be a meeting to determine whether the project to develop the strip goes through or not. She convinces the rest of The Mob to protest the plans, their dance is a huge hit. Eddy finds out that Emily is William's daughter through watching a tape of Sean and Emily rehearsing where she reveals the truth, without knowing that they are being recorded. Enraged, he reveals Emily's complicity with The Mob to William through a protest dance flashmob; this ruins the relationships for Emily with Sean, Eddy and the rest of the Mob. Emily leaves embarrassed, Sean, brokenhearted, is arrested for saving Eddy after their fight.
Emily had rehearsed her Winwood audition piece as a duet with Sean, but now that she and Sean are estranged, she no longer has him as a dance partner. Instead, she adapts the piece; the result falls flat and she fails her audition for the troupe. Sean meets Emily, still hurting from the humiliation, tells him she is going back to work for her dad, per a promise she made with her dad that if she did not become a professional dancer by the end of the summer that she would work with him back in Cleveland. After Sean and Eddy were sent to jail for being caught in the flashmob, Ricky bails them out, with Sean quitting The Mob plus ending his friendship with Eddy, after what he did to split him and Emily apart. With Eddy feeling guilty for making the rash decision for revenge, makes up with Sean for the errors they both caused; the Mob plan one last protest to s
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website