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Rye House Plot

The Rye House Plot of 1683 was a plan to assassinate King Charles II of England and his brother James, Duke of York. The royal party went from Westminster to Newmarket to see horse races and were expected to make the return journey on 1 April 1683, but because there was a major fire in Newmarket on 22 March, the races were cancelled, the King and the Duke returned to London early; as a result, the planned attack never took place. Historians vary in their assessment of the degree. Whatever the state of the assassination plot, plans to mount a rebellion against the Stuart monarchy were being entertained by some opposition leaders in England, the government cracked down hard on those in a series of state trials, accompanied with repressive measures and widespread searches for arms; the Plot presaged, may have hastened, the rebellions of 1685, the Monmouth Rebellion and Argyll's Rising. After the Restoration of the monarchy under Charles II in 1660 there was concern among some members of Parliament, former republicans and sections of the Protestant population of England that the King's relationship with France under Louis XIV and the other Catholic rulers of Europe was too close.

Anti-Catholic sentiment, which associated Roman Catholicism with absolutism, was widespread, focused particular attention on the succession to the English throne. While Charles was publicly Anglican, he and his brother were known to have Catholic sympathies; these suspicions were confirmed in 1673 when James was discovered to have converted to Roman Catholicism. In 1681, triggered by the opposition-invented Popish Plot, the Exclusion Bill was introduced in the House of Commons, which would have excluded James from the succession. Charles dissolved the Oxford Parliament; this left his opponents with no lawful method of preventing James's succession, rumours of plots and conspiracies abounded. With the "country party" in disarray, Lord Melville, Lord Leven, Lord Shaftesbury, leader of the opposition to Charles's rule, fled to Holland where Shaftesbury soon died. Many well-known members of Parliament and noblemen of the "country party" would soon be known as Whigs, a faction name that stuck. Rye House, located north-east of Hoddesdon, was a fortified mediaeval mansion surrounded by a moat.

The house was leased by Richard Rumbold. The plan was to conceal a force of men in the grounds of the house and ambush the King and the Duke as they passed by on their way back to London from the horse races at Newmarket; the "Rye House plotters", an extremist Whig group who are now named for this plot adopted the plan out of a number of possibilities, having decided that it gave tactical advantages and could be carried out with a small force operating with guns from good cover. The royal party were expected to make the journey on 1 April 1683, but there was a major fire in Newmarket on 22 March, which destroyed half of the town; the races were cancelled, the King and the Duke returned to London early. As a result, the planned attack never took place; the conspirators of this period were numerous, the resort to some sort of armed resistance was debated from the early 1680s, on what was becoming the Whig side of the factional division of British politics. The form it should take was uncertain, discussions of the seizing of control of cities other than London, such as Bristol, a Scottish uprising, were in the air.

The subsequent historiography of the Plot was partisan, scholars are still clarifying, involved in the planning of violent and revolutionary measures. The assassination plot centred on a group, convened in 1682–1683 by Robert West of the Middle Temple, a Green Ribbon Club member: it is now called the Rye House cabal. West had participated in one of the cases that wound up the Popish Plot allegations, that of the false witness Stephen College. Through that association he made contact with Aaron Smith and William Hone, both to be plotters though aside from the main group. John Locke had arranged accommodation for West in Oxford at that time and had other associations in the group of revolutionary activists, of whom Ayloffe was implicated in the Rye House Plot, leaving Locke vulnerable. Rumbold was introduced to West's group by John Wildman, but when the plot was discovered, both had distanced themselves, Wildman by refusing to finance Rumbold in the purchase of arms and Rumbold by losing his earlier enthusiasm.

Cabal members such as Richard Nelthorpe favoured a rebellion rather than an assassination, aligning much of the West group's discussion with the plans of Algernon Sidney, in particular, the more aristocratic country party members making up the so-called Monmouth cabal. There were discussions in the group around Monmouth in September 1682 of an uprising, having participants in common with the group around West; the "cabal" was named as the "council of six", which took form after the Tory successes in summer 1682 in the struggle to control the City of London. A significant aspect was the intention to employ Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll for a military rebellion in Scotland. Smith in January 1683 was sent to contact supporters in Scotland, for the "six", with a view to summoning them to London. In fact West's contacts with the Monmouth cabal, knowledge of their intentions, were in part quite indirect. Thomas Walcot and Robert Ferguson had accompanied Shaftesbury to the Netherlands in his self-imposed exile of November 1682.

They both returned to London and associated with West, w

List of National Football League annual passing yards leaders

This is a list of National Football League quarterbacks who have led the regular season in passing yards each year. The record for passing yards in a season is held by Peyton Manning of the Denver Broncos who threw for 5,477 in 2013. Drew Brees has led the NFL in passing yards in seven seasons, more than any other quarterback in NFL history. Brees has five 5,000 yard passing seasons. No other quarterback has more than one; the NFL requires players to reach certain minimums to qualify as a leader in per-game stats, percentage stats, passer rating. Since 1978 the minimum number is 14 pass attempts per team game; this is the yardage leaders list. List of National Football League season passing touchdowns leaders List of National Football League season pass completion percentage leaders List of National Football League season passer rating leaders Pro-Football-Reference.com

Lamont, Alberta

Lamont is a town in central Alberta, Canada. It is located 60 kilometres east of Edmonton at the junction of Highway 15 and Highway 831; the town was named in honour of Canadian politician John Henderson Lamont. The Lamont Hospital opened in 1912. On November 29, 1960, a school bus carrying students from nearby Chipman to school in Lamont was struck by a train, killing 17 students; the collision occurred on the east side of town at a crossing just north of Highway 15 before 9:00 am. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Lamont recorded a population of 1,774 living in 664 of its 695 total private dwellings, a 1.2% change from its 2011 population of 1,753. With a land area of 9.2 km2, it had a population density of 192.8/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Town of Lamont had a population of 1,753 living in 643 of its 673 total dwellings, a 5% change from its 2006 adjusted population of 1,669. With a land area of 9.27 km2, it had a population density of 189.1/km2 in 2011.

The Lamont Leader and Farm'n' Friends are local weekly newspapers. Gene Achtymichuk, former professional hockey player Brian O'Kurley, former member of Canadian Parliament Ed Stelmach, Premier of Alberta, 2006-2011 List of communities in Alberta List of towns in Alberta Official website

Canon de 305 modèle 93/96 TAZ

The Canon de 305 modèle 93/96 TAZ was a French Railway gun used by the French Army during World War I. Although the majority of combatants had heavy field artillery prior to the outbreak of the First World War, none had adequate numbers of heavy guns in service, nor had they foreseen the growing importance of heavy artillery once the Western Front stagnated and trench warfare set in. Since aircraft of the period were not yet capable of carrying large diameter bombs the burden of delivering heavy firepower fell on the artillery. Two sources of heavy artillery suitable for conversion to field use were surplus coastal defense guns and naval guns. However, a paradox faced artillery designers of the time. Large caliber field guns required extensive site preparation because the guns had to be broken down into multiple loads light enough to be towed by a horse team or the few traction engines of the time and reassembled before use. Building a new gun could address the problem of disassembling and reassembling a large gun, but it did not address how to convert existing heavy weapons to make them more mobile.

Rail transport proved to be the most practical solution because the problems of heavy weight, lack of mobility and reduced setup time were addressed. The Canon de 305 modèle 93/96 TAZ started life as eight surplus Canon de 305 mm Modèle 1893/96 naval guns which armed pre-dreadnought battleships of the Charlemagne, République, Liberté-class; the guns were typical built-up guns of the period which consisted of a rifled liner reinforced by layers of hoops. The guns used a Welin interrupted screw breech and fired separate loading bagged charges and projectiles; the guns sat on a top carriage traversing mount. A rectangular steel firing platform sat on top of the platform with the barrel of the gun overhanging the platform at the front with an overhanging loading platform for the gunners to the rear; the firing platform was traversed by a worm gear which attached to the base. To load the gun the barrel was lowered and there was an elevated shell handling trolley at the rear; the carriages consisted of rectangular steel bases.

Each bogie had six axles. The number of axles was determined by the weight limit for European railways of 17 tonnes per axle. Since the barrels were naval guns that were not intended for use at high angles of elevation the trunnions were relocated far forward and the guns were nose heavy; the carriage used ground platform anchoring and site preparation included laying wooden beams parallel to the tracks splicing in a section of rail bed reinforced with wooden beams under the center which the carriage was lowered onto. Outriggers and ground anchors were used to stabilize the gun once in firing position as well as screw jacks. Although the mount was capable of 360° of traverse it was limited to 10° left/right of the centerline because of problems with balance and recoil. Another issue for the mount was that although the gun could be elevated up to +40° it was limited to +20° of elevation when the gun was fired parallel to the tracks due to recoil. For these reasons, the weapon was not considered a success.

The carriages were deployed in 1916 but it was too much gun for too little carriage so the 305 mm barrels were replaced with 240 mm barrels by St Chamond and the Canon de 240 modèle 93/96 TAZ entered service in 1918. APC - 340 kg CI - 292 kg SAPC - 340 kg

Malignus Youth

Malignus Youth was a hardcore punk band from Sierra Vista, active from 1987–1994 and again from 1999–2001 Known for their unique sound featuring exceptional complexity in musical arrangements, vocal harmonies, melodic structure, classical music influences, fast tempos, Malignus Youth released one LP, two 7-inch EPs, a five-part musical setting of the Roman Catholic Mass on CD, a retrospective CD compilation of unreleased tracks. Their vinyl output was collected onto one CD. Band members included: James Martin Octavio Olaje Tom Shelden Mike Armenta Typical of traditional hardcore punk, early Malignus Youth songs featured fast tempos, 4/4 time, slow introductions followed by fast verse-chorus-verse, lyrics with social relevance; as their musical style developed, song tempos became faster. Shouted vocals developed into three-part harmonies. Song structures became more complicated. Guitar solos were rare, only occurring in three songs in their 60-song catalog. Instead, the single guitar would serve as accompaniment to fluid, melodic bass lines played by Shelden in high ranges uncommon in hardcore punk.

Four part polyrhythms consisting of guitar and Armenta's drum lines served to counterpoint Shelden's bass guitar. Complicated minor and modal chord progressions appear in some songs. Other features that characterized Malignus Youth's musical style were the use of authentic cadences; these chord progressions of 4 to 6 chords would repeat at a fast tempo giving the listener an intuitive feeling of tension-release-tension. By taking turns on the lead vocal, an impression would be created that a single vocalist was singing fast lyrics for a long duration, all in one breath without interruption. In January 1988, using a late 1970s model four-track reel to reel, eight songs were recorded live in Martin's parents' bedroom-turned-studio; these eight tracks were released on a clear vinyl extended-play album, self-entitled Malignus Youth on their new label Youth Inc Records. These albums are now out of print. In the late 1980s, the active Punk Rock scene in Cochise County surged new bands such as Dover Trench, Opinion Zero, Blood Spasm, Civil Order, Feast Upon Cactus Thorns, Cosmic Jackhammer, many more.

In 1989, Malignus Youth was booked on the same bill as Bad Religion. They opened for Citizen Fish, Dirty Rotten Imbeciles, The Misfits. In 1990, a second EP, was released as a limited edition red and white vinyl which has since become out of print; the music contained themes of hopelessness and suicide. Crisis marked a diversion from punk rock conventions by adopting composition techniques associated with classical music; these unique elements of Malignus Youth's music were displayed in the 1991 full-length LP More To It, released on blue vinyl. This album is now out of print. More To It took the shape of a concept album, the resolution of the "crisis" explored in the previous EP, united by keys and themes, inspired by the writings of philosopher Immanuel Kant Arguably, More To It represented Malignus Youth musical style at its most sophisticated; the album featured artistic elements and experimental tangents in different musical styles, slight canonic variation. This range of borrowed styles demonstrated a familiarity with musical theory uncharacteristic of punk rock.

Large audience responses subsequently encouraged a growing respect for Malignus Youth within the punk rock world, with other established artists attesting to their quality. Over the next three years, Malignus Youth toured the western United States, playing at the legendary Tacoland in San Antonio, at Northern California's 924 Gilman Street with Green Day, in Salt Lake City with The Mighty Mighty Bosstones and in Fort Collins, Colorado with The Offspring. Mailignus Youth had opened up for Fear, Citizen Fish, D. R. I, The Misfits, Between tours in 1993, Malignus Youth released a setting of the Roman Catholic Mass, designated "Missa brevis"; this work, an homage to the Western Classical tradition of composing music for liturgical texts, featuring the Greek and Latin text with additional English lyrics, was released with additional unreleased tracks, collectively called Ephemeral. This album is now out of print. Following their 1994 tour, the members of Malignus Youth separated to pursue different academic and musical goals and unofficially disbanded.

In the next few years, as the original vinyl pressings became rarer and rarer, demand for Malignus Youth on CD prompted a 1998 re-release of the Malignus Youth EP, the Crisis EP and the full-length LP, More To It on a single CD entitled Vinal CD. These CDs are now out of print. In summer 2014, Malignus Youth reunited for a one-time fundraising show at the Rialto Theater in Tucson, AZ. Footage from this concert was recorded for a Kickstarter-funded documentary, "Family: The Story of Malignus Youth".. On 2 June 2019, the full concert video was released on YouTube by the band as "Malignus Youth: The Genius and the Strange". Malignus Youth maintains a web site on Facebook, Fans all over the world continue to discuss Malignus Youth and their music. Malignus Youth Crisis More To It LP Missa Brevis/Ephemeral CD Vinyl CD Live at the Sweatlodge - March 24, 1990 - Bisbee, Arizona Yeah But It's a Dry Heat Southern AZ compilation with Malig

Kwabena Owusu Aduomi

Kwabena Owusu Aduomi is a Ghanaian politician and a Member of Parliament of Ghana. He is the deputy minister for Roads and Highways in Ghana. Aduomi was born on 17 September 1960 in Ashanti Region of Ghana. Aduomi identifies as a member of the Assemblies of God Church, he is married with six children. He earned his bachelors of science degree in civil engineering at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in 1985. Aduomi became a maintenance engineer at the highway authority in Temale in 1987–1994 proceeded to be a projects manager at highway authorities in the western region in 1994–2002, he became the regional director for highways in the Ashanti region in 2002–2008. He became a member of the 6th parliament of the 4th republic of Ghana, he was elected as MP for Ejisu Constituency in the Ashanti Region of Ghana in 2009. He was selected to join the subsidiary legislation committee and the Local Government and Rural Development Committee