Ryman Auditorium is a 2,362-seat live-performance venue located at 116 5th Avenue North, in Nashville, Tennessee. It is best known as the home of the Grand Ole Opry from 1943 to 1974 and is owned and operated by Ryman Hospitality Properties, Inc. Ryman Auditorium was included in the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and was designated a National Historic Landmark on June 25, 2001, for its pivotal role in the popularization of country music; the auditorium opened as the Union Gospel Tabernacle in 1892. Its construction was spearheaded by Thomas Ryman, a Nashville businessman who owned several saloons and a fleet of riverboats. Ryman conceived the idea of the auditorium as a tabernacle for the influential revivalist Samuel Porter Jones, he had attended one of Jones' 1885 tent revivals with the intent to heckle, but was instead converted into a devout Christian who pledged to build the tabernacle so the people of Nashville could attend large-scale revivals indoors. It took seven years to complete and cost US$100,000.
However, Jones held his first revival at the site on May 25, 1890, with only the building's foundation and six-foot walls standing. Architect Hugh Cathcart Thompson designed the structure. Exceeding its construction budget, the tabernacle opened US$20,000 in debt. Jones sought to name the tabernacle in Ryman's honor; when Ryman died in 1904, his memorial service was held at the tabernacle. During the service, Jones proposed the building be renamed Ryman Auditorium, met with the overwhelming approval of the attendees. Jones died less than two years in 1906; the building was designed to contain a balcony, but a lack of funds delayed its completion. The balcony was built and opened in time for the 1897 gathering of the United Confederate Veterans, with funds provided by members of the group; as a result, the balcony was named the Confederate Gallery. Upon the completion of the balcony, the Ryman's capacity rose to 6,000. A stage was added in 1901 that reduced the capacity to just over 3,000. Though the building was designed to be a house of worship – a purpose it continued to serve throughout most of its early existence – it was leased to promoters for nonreligious events in an effort to pay off its debts and remain open.
In 1904, Lula C. Naff, a widow and mother, working as a stenographer, began to book and promote speaking engagements, boxing matches, other attractions at the Ryman in her free time. In 1914, when her employer went out of business, Naff made booking these events her full-time job, she transitioned into a role as the Ryman's official manager by 1920. She preferred to go by the name "L. C. Naff" in an attempt to avoid initial prejudices as a female executive in a male-dominated industry. Naff gained a reputation for battling local censorship groups, who had threatened to ban various performances deemed too risqué. In 1939, Naff won a landmark lawsuit against the Nashville Board of Censors, planning to arrest the star of the play Tobacco Road due to its provocative nature; the court declared the law creating the censors to be invalid. Naff's ability to book stage shows and world-renowned entertainers in the city's largest indoor gathering place kept the Ryman at the forefront of Nashville's consciousness and enhanced the city's reputation as a cultural center for the performing arts as the building began to age.
W. C. Fields, Will Rogers in 1925, Charlie Chaplin, Bob Hope with Doris Day in'49, Harry Houdini in'24, John Philip Sousa performed at the venue over the years, earning the Ryman the nickname, "The Carnegie Hall of the South"; the Ryman hosted lectures by U. S. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft in 1911, respectively. World-famous Italian opera singer Enrico Caruso appeared in concert there in 1919, it hosted the inaugurations of three governors of the state of Tennessee. The Ryman in its early years hosted Marian Anderson in 1932, Bill Monroe and the Bluegrass Boys in'45, Little Jimmy Dickens in'48, Hank Williams in'49, The Carter Sisters with Mother Maybelle Carter in 1950, Elvis in'54, Johnny Cash in'56, trumpeter Louis Armstrong in'57, Patsy Cline in'60, Lester Flatt & Earl Scruggs in'64, Minnie Pearl in'64; the first event to sell out the Ryman was a lecture by Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan Macy in 1913. While being a trailblazer for working women, Naff championed the cause of diversity.
The building was used as a regular venue for the Fisk Jubilee Singers from nearby Fisk University, a black college. Jim Crow laws forced Ryman audiences to be segregated, with some shows designated for "White Audiences Only" and others for "Colored Audiences Only". However, photographs show that Ryman audiences of the time were integrated. Naff retired in 1955 and died in 1960. After debuting in 1925, the local country music radio program known as the Grand Ole Opry became a Nashville institution. Broadcast over clear-channel AM radio station WSM, it could be heard in 30 states across the eastern part of the nation. Although not a stage show, the Opry began to attract listeners from around the region who would go to the WSM studio to see it live; when crowds got too large for the studio, WSM began broadcasting the show from the Hillsboro Theatre in 1934. The Opry moved to East Nashville's Dixie Tabernacle in 1936 and to War Memorial Auditorium in 1939. After four years – and several reports of upholstery damage caused by its rowdy crowds – the Op
Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends is an American animated television series produced by Marvel Productions, considered to be a crossover series connected to 1981 Spider-Man series. The show stars already-established Marvel Comics characters Spider-Man and Iceman, plus an original character, Firestar; as a trio called the Spider-Friends, they fought against various villains of the Marvel Universe. Broadcast on NBC as a Saturday morning cartoon, the series ran first-run original episodes for three seasons, from 1981 to 1983 aired repeats for an additional two years. Alongside the 1981 Spider-Man animated series, Amazing Friends was re-aired in the late 1980's as part of the 90 minute Marvel Action Universe, a syndicated series, used as a platform for old and new Marvel-produced animated fare. In the 1981 series, Doctor Doom is pulverized by his laser cannon, accidentally tampered by Spider-Man, Boris, his old assistant, joins the protagonist to be able to stop him, just like Red Skull dies in the decisive battle.
However, since Doctor Doom appears in the third episode and his faithful Boris accompanies him as always, just like Red Skull is still alive in the thirteenth episode, this series can not be considered the sequel of the preview. In the second season, the show was aired along with a newly produced Hulk animated series as The Incredible Hulk and the Amazing Spider-Man; the two shows shared one intro. Stan Lee began narrating the episodes in the second season. Narrations by Stan Lee were added to the first-season episodes at this time so that the series seemed cohesive; these narrations are not on the current masters. They have not aired since the NBC airings. For the third season, there was another title change; this time the characters' names would be reversed and the show was called, The Amazing Spider-Man and the Incredible Hulk. It remained that way for most of the remaining years. NBC did air the show individually in mid-season after it was not announced for their fall schedule. Only some of the Stan Lee narrations for the third season are on the current masters.
The missing narrations have not aired since the NBC airings. Peter Parker, Bobby Drake, Angelica Jones are all college students at Empire State University. After working together to defeat the Beetle and recovering the "Power Booster" he stole from Tony Stark the trio decide to team-up permanently as the "Spider-Friends", they live together in a pet dog, Ms. Lion, a Lhasa Apso. Together, the superheroes battle various supervillains; some stories featured team-ups with other characters from the Marvel Universe, including Captain America, Iron Man and the mid-1970's X-Men. A number of characters in the series were original characters that did not appear in the comics prior to the premiere of the series: One of the series' main characters, Firestar was created for this series when the Human Torch was unavailable; the original plan was for Spider-Man to have fire and ice based teammates, so Angelica Jones/Firestar was created. Her pre-production names included Heatwave and Firefly. Firestar did not appear in Marvel's mainstream comic book universe until Uncanny X-Men #193.
She appears as a member of the Hellions, a group of teenage mutants who functioned as rivals to the New Mutants. After leaving the Hellions, Firestar becomes a founding member of the New Warriors and serves as a distinguished member of the Avengers along with her fellow New Warrior, Justice, she is a member of the X-Men. Hiawatha Smith is a college professor at the Spider-Friends' university, he is the son of a heroic Native American chief who fought against the Axis during World War II. Hiawatha Smith's home is adorned with decorations from various cultures including Hindu and native African tribes. Producer and story editor Dennis Marks created the character and admits to basing him on Indiana Jones. Smith's father passed down to his son the mystic knowledge of their people and a map leading to a vast Nazi treasure of wealth and advanced technology sought by the Red Skull. Smith employs a boomerang in battle, he possesses a supernatural ability to communicate with animals. Lightwave's real name is Aurora Dante.
Like her older half-brother Bobby Drake, Lightwave is a mutant. She can control light, her other light-based powers include laser blasts, photonic force fields and solid light pressor beams. She can transform herself into light. Lightwave's only appearance was in the final episode of the 1980's cartoon, she is voiced by Annie Lockhart. Bobby Drake explains. An agent of S. H. I. E. L. D. Lightwave is considered a traitor, due to mind control by rogue S. H. I. E. L. D. Agent Buzz Mason. Mason induces Lightwave to steal assorted devices to create a "quantum enhancer" which would increase her powers 1,000 times. With such power, Lightwave would be able to control the GuardStar satellite which orbits the Earth and controls all defense systems and communications systems for the United States. Mason expects world conquest. Iceman and Spider
The 2008 presidential campaign of Ron Paul, Congressman of Texas, began in early 2007 when he announced his candidacy for the 2008 Republican nomination for President of the United States. Initial opinion polls during the first three quarters of 2007 showed Paul receiving support from 3% or less of those polled. In 2008, Paul's support among Republican voters remained in the single digits, well behind front-runner John McCain. During the fourth quarter of 2007, Paul was the most successful Republican fundraiser, bringing in $20 million, he received the most money from the armed services of any candidate in the fourth quarter. His campaign set two fund-raising records: the largest single-day donation total among Republican candidates and twice receiving the most money received via the Internet in a single day by any presidential candidate in American history. Paul's run for president is noted for its grassroots social networking, facilitated by the Internet. Paul's enthusiastic supporters were noted by the media, who called them "Paulites".
Paul received most of his contributions at ninety-seven percent. As of February 5, 2008, Paul had won sixteen delegates to the Republican National Convention, placing him last among the four Republican candidates still in the race at that time; the campaign projected on February 6 to have secured at least 42 delegates to the national convention. On March 4, 2008, John McCain earned enough pledged delegates to become the Republican presumptive nominee, but Paul decided to continue his run. Paul released The Revolution: A Manifesto on April 29, which collected essays based on thoughts that arose from his experiences running for president in 2008; the book went on to be a number 1 bestseller among political books on Amazon.com and The New York Times nonfiction list. On June 12, 2008, Paul announced that he was ending the presidential campaign, investing the more than $4.7 million of remaining campaign contributions to build up the new advocacy group Campaign for Liberty. Although he suspended his campaign, he appeared on the ballot in Montana and Louisiana in the 2008 general election.
He was listed in some states as a write-in candidate. He received over 47,000 votes; these are events related to Ron Paul's official 2008 campaign. For events related to the independent grassroots movement around him, see Grassroots campaign efforts. Paul formed a presidential exploratory committee on January 11, he acquired data on public interest in his running for President around February 19. Based on the results from the exploratory committee and polling, Paul entered the race on March 12. In a February CNN landline opinion poll, Paul was the candidate with the least name recognition besides John H. Cox. On March 20, Paul signed the American Freedom Agenda Pledge. On June 30, 2007, in Des Moines, Iowans for Tax Relief and the Iowa Christian Alliance invited all Democratic Party candidates and all Republican presidential candidates except Paul to a presidential candidates forum. Six candidates appeared: Mitt Romney, Sam Brownback, Jim Gilmore, Mike Huckabee, Tommy Thompson, Tom Tancredo. In July, The New York Times wrote that Paul's "message draws on the noblest traditions of American decency and patriotism."
Paul participated in the Ames Straw Poll in Ames, Iowa on August 11. He ranked fifth out of 11 candidates. According to John Fout, on TheStreet.com, Paul "shocked people in Iowa" by receiving more than 9 percent of the vote after making only three trips to Iowa, releasing ads only one week before the poll, for beating Tommy Thompson, who visited all 99 counties in Iowa. In an interview about the results of the straw poll, fellow candidate Mike Huckabee, who placed second, said that Ron Paul was the candidate most to overtake him nationally, saying, "I'm keeping an eye on him."During the Straw Poll his supporters gathered to form a parade, that marched hundreds of people many of whom bore colonial costumes and drum and fife instruments and other around the ISU grounds for hours chanting back and forth slogans that would be used in many marches and events throughout the campaign. On October 25, work began among his supporters to commemorate the anniversary of the Boston Tea Party, starting with the website TeaParty07.com.
In support of the rally, Paul supporters purchased a blimp to display campaign messages to observers. On December 16, 2007, Paul supporters re-enacted the dumping of tea into Boston Harbor by tossing banners that read "Tyranny" and "no taxation without representation" into boxes that were in the harbor, his supporters gathered in several other cities as part of the Tea Party re-enactment, including Strasbourg, Santa Monica, Maui and Freeport and Austin, Texas. Paul himself tossed a barrel labelled "Iraq War" overboard at the Tea Party Re-enactment in Freeport, Texas; the Austin Police Department estimates 2000 to 3000 attendees at the Austin Tea Party. Paul's first major television campaign began November 8, at a total cost of US$1.1 million, started advertising in New Hampshire. Mid November, 2007 Operation: Live Free or Die, An effort to bring volunteers to campaign door to door in New Hampshire was started by Google employee Vijay Boyapati, his idea to rent a few houses to hold volunteers turned into 14 houses with over 600 people arriving in New Hampshire to knock on doors, organize marches, phone bank at the Concord and Nashua Headquarters.
Paul visited OLFD volunteers at a local restaurant owned by a member of the Free State Project called Murphy's Pub, a frequent establishment for FSP members, to thank them in person for their dedication. On Janua