Camel is an American brand of cigarettes owned and manufactured by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in the United States and by Japan Tobacco outside of the United States. Most current Camel cigarettes contain a blend of Virginia tobacco. Winston-Salem, North Carolina, the city where R. J. Reynolds was founded, is nicknamed "Camel City" because of the brand's popularity. In 1913, Richard Joshua "R. J." Reynolds, founder of the company that still bears his name, innovated the packaged cigarette. Prior cigarette smokers had rolled their own, which tended to obscure the potential for a national market for a pre-packaged product. Reynolds worked to develop a more appealing flavor, creating the Camel cigarette, which he so named because it used Turkish tobacco in imitation of then-fashionable Egyptian cigarettes. Reynolds priced them below competitors, within a year, he had sold 425 million packs. Camel cigarettes were blended to have a milder taste than established brands, they were advance-promoted by a careful advertising campaign that included "teasers" stating "the Camels are coming", a play on the old Scottish folk song "The Campbells Are Coming".
This marketing style was a prototype for subsequent attempts to sway public opinion into backing the United States's entry into World War I, World War II. Another promotion was "Old Joe", a circus camel driven through towns used to attract attention and distribute free cigarettes; the brand's slogan, used for decades, was "I'd walk a mile for a Camel!" The iconic style of Camel is the original unfiltered cigarette sold in a soft pack, known as Camel Straights or Regulars. Its popularity peaked through the brand's use by famous personalities such as news broadcaster Edward R. Murrow, whose usage of them was so heavy and so public that the smoking of a Camel no-filter became his trademark. In Europe, Camel is a brand of cigarette rolling papers and loose cigarette tobacco, maintaining a top 20 roll-your-own rank in Northern Europe with yearly expansion into Southern and Eastern Europe according to the European Subsidiary's annual report. In 1999, Japan Tobacco International gained ownership of the rights to sell Camel outside the United States.
The tobacco blend of the non-American Camel contains less Oriental tobacco and a higher proportion of Burley. On July 1, 2000, an "Oriental" variety of Camel was introduced, followed by Turkish Gold, a regular cigarette, in 2000, Turkish Jade, a menthol, in 2001. In 2005 Camel added its name on the cigarette paper and changed the filter color and design on its Oriental version, subsequently discontinued, but reinstated. In 2005, Turkish Silvers were introduced, an ultralight version positioned in strength below Turkish Gold "lights" and "full flavor" Turkish Royal. Various Camel Crush and Camel Click cigarettes have been created and are some of the most popular Camel variants being sold. In 2012 Camel was surpassed by Pall Mall as R. J. Reynolds's most popular brand; as of June 2012, Camel filters were discontinued in the United Kingdom. Camel Blue, the light version, is available from Tesco. In 2013, Camel celebrated its 100th anniversary. Professor Robert N. Proctor of Stanford University commemorated the occasion with an editorial in the LA Times, noting that over the last century Camel sold over 4 trillion cigarettes.
The Reynolds company commissioned Fred Otto Kleesattel in 1913 to draw the original artwork. The signature scene on most Camel cigarette packs shows a single dromedary, the smallest of the three species of camel, standing on desert sand, with pyramids and palm trees in the background; the back features mosques. On European and some other non-U. S. Versions, the desert motifs have been replaced by health warnings. On others, Kleesattel included "Manneken Pis", a historical figure of Brussels. Known as "Fritz", Kleesattel was a sought after graphic designer living in Louisville, Kentucky, he was hired through his company, Klee Ad Art, to design the packaging for the new Camel cigarettes' line. Klee Ad Art was integral in devising designs for Four Roses Distillery, Heaven Hill Distilleries, many other now recognizable U. S. brands. While serving in the U. S. Army during World War I, Kleesattel worked as a camouflage artist, disguising buildings and other potential targets by making them blend with their surroundings.
The reverse sides of many packs or boxes of Camel cigarettes display variations of the following text: Turkish tobacco is the world's smoothest, most aromatic leaf. Blending it with more robust domestic tobaccos is the secret to Camel's distinctive flavor and world-class smoothness. In 2008, this was changed to: A master-crafted blend of only the finest hand-picked Samsun & Izmir Turkish tobaccos with a robust domestic tobacco blend creates Camel's distinctive flavor and world-class smoothness; the reverse side of the five "Turkish Blend" cigarettes display this message along with a description that differs depending on the blend: Turkish tobacco is the world's smoothest, most aromatic leaf. The reverse side of unfiltered "soft pack" Camel cigarettes has displayed this text for many years, a theme used by R. J. Reynolds in its advertising as early as 1915: Don't look for premiums or coupons, as the cost of the tobaccos blended in Camel Cigarettes prohibits the use of them. Or alternatively can be seen displaying the text: Camel, a premium blend of the finest quality tobaccos, provides genuine smoking pleasure.
The reverse side of unfiltered "soft pack" Camel cigarettes, produced by JT International reads: CAMEL cigarettes contain a blend of choice Turkish and American tobaccos to bring you full smoking satisfaction with CAMEL quality. Camel Wides, starting in 2
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Shane Byrne (motorcyclist)
Shane Byrne known as Shakey, is a British motorcycle road racer. He is a six-time champion of the British Superbike Championship, the only person in the history of the series to win six titles, he has been a race winner in the Superbike World Championship and has competed in MotoGP. The oldest rider competing in the 2018 British Superbike series, Byrne suffered serious injuries involving multiple fractures to his upper body after crashing during a test at Snetterton Circuit in May when placed third in the championship, he was treated at Norwich University Hospital and confirmed the extent of his injuries via social media. Byrne announced via social media on 24 July 2018 that the metal cage attached to his skull supporting his head and neck via his shoulders had been removed in favour of a neck-brace collar, but there was still many more months of recovery anticipated due to poor growth of new bone. While working as a road tester for Fast Bikes magazine, Shakey participated in track days on a Ducati 996 SPS at a wet Oulton Park.
He caught the attention of his future boss. Shakey emerged in the British Superbike Championship in 1999 on a private Kawasaki. In 2001 he finished eighth in the championship onboard the Performance House Suzuki, raced in the 1997 World Superbike Championship, under the Harris brothers' business, Harris Performance. Byrne was champion of the Privateers' Cup. In 2002, he was signed by Mark Griffiths at Renegade Ducati to ride alongside Michael Rutter, he achieved his first British Superbike Championship win in the first race of round three at Donington Park after a race-long battle with Steve Plater on the Virgin Yamaha. At the end of 2002 he joined Paul Bird at MonsterMob Ducati controversially replacing reigning champion Steve Hislop, he stunned the paddock by storming to a string of wins. He impressed further by achieving a double win at Brands Hatch for the British round of the Superbike World Championship. For 2004 he joined fellow Brit Jeremy McWilliams in MotoGP with Aprilia, although he missed several races because of injury.
He spent much of 2005 racing for Kenny Roberts' team on a KTM bike, before they were forced to pull out due to an internal dispute between the chassis and engine manufacturers. He raced in Qatar for Camel Honda, replacing the injured Troy Bayliss, but after finishing 14th and 13th, Shakey was replaced by Chris Vermeulen. For 2006 he returned to the British Superbike Championship with Rizla Suzuki squad, his first podium came in Race Seven despite suffering a severe stomach virus that weekend. He missed Races 12 after a 187 mph crash caused by a brake failure. At Knockhill he followed with a second place finish in Race One; the team's first win of the season came in Race Two. This was despite the team's bikes having been stolen and dumped in a barn alongside horse manure the previous week. At the final round of the season he was running third when he highsided, being knocked out in the process. Although he again escaped serious injury, he was unable to compete in the final race of the year, which meant he slipped from fourth to sixth in the championship standings.
For 2007, Shakey was reunited with his former Monstermob boss, Paul Bird, now running the Stobart Vent-Axia team, a privateer team using the 1000cc Honda Fireblade. The Honda was competitive from the start, he finished fifth overall, with a win, a pole position, nine further podiums. For the 2008 British Superbike Championship, Shakey competed for the Airwaves Ducati squad on a Ducati 1098 alongside Leon Camier; the combo was dominant. Shakey won three of the opening four races. In the second race at Oulton Park he went wide on Lap One, dropping to 13th place, but he fought back. After he passed Cal Crutchlow for third place, Leon Haslam hit Tom Sykes, giving Shakey the lead; this race was stopped four laps early after several riders, including Crutchlow and Karl Harris fell. In Race Two at Snetterton he was held up by a crash involving Harris on Lap One, dropping to 13th position before fighting back for the win, he finished each of the first 14 races on the podium coming through the field after poor starts.
Twenty-four hours after clinching the British Superbike Championship, Shakey confirmed that he would compete in the 2009 World Superbike Championship with the Sterilgarda Ducati team along with Alex Polita. This was his first full-time World Superbike Championship, although he has made successful wild card appearances in the past. Shakey became Sterilgarda Ducati's sole rider in February and recorded his first podium with the team in second place in the first race at the San Marino round of the Championship. Due to financial problems, the Sterilgarda team failed to announce its intention to compete in the 2010 Superbike World Championship season, leaving Shakey without a confirmed ride for 2010. In November 2009, Shakey announced that he had signed with the Althea Racing team for the 2010 season, he raced alongside former Honda rider Carlos Checa. He had no top-five finishes by midseason, he said. Shakey returned to the British Superbike Championship in 2011 with Lincolnshire-based HM Plant Honda alongside Japanese rider and three-time British Superbike Champion Ryuichi Kiyonari.
In 2012 Shakey made a return to Paul Bird Motorsport along wi
Brands Hatch is a motor racing circuit in West Kingsdown, England. First used as a grasstrack motorcycle circuit on farmland, it hosted 12 runnings of the British Grand Prix between 1964 and 1986 and hosts many British and International racing events; the venue is operated by Jonathan Palmer's MotorSport Vision organisation. Gerhard Berger once said that Brands Hatch is "the best circuit in the world". Paddock Hill Bend is a renowned corner. Brands Hatch offers two layout configurations; the shorter "Indy Circuit" layout is located within a natural amphitheatre offering spectators views of all of the shorter configuration from wherever they watch. The longer "Grand Prix" layout played host to Formula One racing, including events such as Jo Siffert's duel with Chris Amon in 1968 and future World Champion Nigel Mansell's first win in 1985. Noise restrictions and the proximity of the Grand Prix loop to local residents mean that the number of race meetings held on the extended circuit are limited to just a few per year.
The full Grand Prix circuit begins on the Brabham Straight, an off-camber curved stretch, before plunging into the right-hander at Paddock Hill Bend, with gradients of 8%. Despite the difficulty of the curve, due to the straight that precedes it, it is one of the track's few overtaking spots; the next corner, Druids, is a hairpin bend, negotiated after an uphill braking zone at Hailwood Hill. The track curves around the south bank spectator area into the downhill, off-camber Graham Hill Bend, another bent stretch at the Cooper Straight, which runs parallel to the pit lane. After the straight, the circuit climbs uphill though the decreasing-radius Surtees turn, before moving onto the back straight where the track's top speeds can be reached; the most significant elevation changes on the circuit occur here at Pilgrim's Drop and Hawthorn Hill, which leads into Hawthorn Bend. The track loops around the woodland with a series of mid-speed corners, most notably the dip at Westfield and Dingle Dell and the blind Sheene curve.
From there the track emerges from the left hand and cambered Stirlings Bend onto the short straight to Clearways and rejoins the Indy Circuit for Clark Curve with its uphill off-camber approach to the pit straight and the start/finish line. The British Rallycross Circuit at Brands Hatch was designed and constructed by four-times British Rallycross Champion Trevor Hopkins, it is 0.9 miles long and was completed around 1981. Unlike earlier rallycross courses at Brands Hatch, cars start on the startline veer right and downhill on the loose at Paddock Hill Bend. Through the left-right Esses at the bottom, the circuit rejoins the Indy Circuit to travel up and round Druids hairpin, before a 90-degree left through Langley's Gap and across the knife-edge, rejoining the Indy Circuit, but travelling anti-clockwise. From Cooper Straight, the cars back to Paddock. Brands Hatch was the name of a natural grassy hollow, shaped like an amphitheatre. Although the site was used as a military training ground, the fields belonging to Brands Farm were first used as a circuit by a group of Gravesend cyclists led by Ron Argent, with the permission of the local farmer and landowner, Harry White.
Using the natural contours of the land, many cyclists from around London practised and ran time trials on the dirt roads carved out by farm machinery. The first actual race on the circuit was held in 1926, over 4 miles between cyclists and cross-country runners. Within a few years, motorcyclists were using the circuit, laying out a three-quarter-mile anti-clockwise track in the valley, they saw the advantage of competing in a natural arena just a few hundred yards from the A20, with the passage of time, a kidney-shaped circuit came into use. The first motorcycle races were "very informal" with much of the organisation being done on the spot; the racing was on a straight strip where Cooper Straight came to be when the track was tarmacked. Brands Hatch remained in operation during the 1930s, but after being used as a military vehicle park and being subject to many bombing raids during World War II, it needed much work before it could become a professional racing circuit. In 1932, four local motorcycling clubs staged their first meeting that March.
Motorcycle racing resumed after World War II and in 1947, Joe Francis persuaded the BBC to televise a grass track meeting, the first motorcycle event to be televised on British TV. Following World War II, cinders were laid on the track of what was by known as Brands Hatch Stadium and motorcycle racing continued; that was until 1950 when the 500 Club managed to persuade Joe Francis, that the future for his stadium lay in car and motorcycle road racing. The group behind 500 c.c. single-seater racing cars was the 500 Club and it, together with the owners, invested the sum of £17,000 on a tarmac surface. Thus Brands Hatch was born as a motor racing venue, on 16 April 1950, the opening meeting was scheduled for the first purpose-built post-war racing circuit in England, approval having been given by the RAC following a demonstration by a handful of 500s in February. Amongst those giving the demonstration was a young Stirling Moss; the Half-Litre Car Club for 500 cc Formula 3 organised that first race on 16 April, with 7,000 spectators coming to witness these cars complete in 10 races.
The first victory went to a man, to become a legend in Formula 3, Don Parker. Before the year was out, fi
The Honda RC211V is a four-stroke race motorcycle from HRC developed in 2001 to replace the two-stroke Honda NSR500. It was developed as a direct result of major changes to the regulations for the World Championship motorcycle road racing 500 cc class for the 2002 season; the name of the class was modified to MotoGP, while two-stroke engines remained limited to 500 cc and 4 cylinders, four-stroke engines were now allowed to be as large as 990 cc and from three to six cylinders – which led many teams to switch to four-stroke designs. The model name designates the following: RC = Honda's traditional racing prefix for 4-stroke bikes 211 = first works bike of the 21st century V = V engineThe RC211V was replaced in 2007 by the RC212V. In 2002, the debut year of the RC211V, Honda and Valentino Rossi dominated by winning the constructors' championship by more than 100 points over their nearest rival; the bike underwent small modifications over the season, but it did not as yet have traction control so much as a handlebar-mounted power management system with 3 settings for different needs during a race.
Factory riders: Valentino Rossi, Tohru Ukawa Satellite riders: Alex Barros, Daijiro Kato Among other changes in 2003, power was increased from about 200 to 240 bhp. Traction control was added. Factory riders: Valentino Rossi, Nicky Hayden, Daijiro Kato, Sete Gibernau Satellite riders: Max Biaggi, Tohru Ukawa, Makoto Tamada, Ryuichi Kiyonari For 2004, a new, inverted rear suspension link was added, a new exhaust was introduced at the Sachsenring round; the RC211V riders were unable to keep Rossi from winning his fourth premier-class championship, no clear candidate appeared to take over Rossi's role of lead development rider for Honda. Factory riders: Alex Barros, Nicky Hayden, Sete Gibernau Satellite riders: Max Biaggi, Colin Edwards, Makoto Tamada 2005 would be the first time in 4 years Honda lost the constructors' championship in the premier class; the RC211V chassis underwent frequent rewelding, with reversions to the 2003 design. After the race at Brno, Honda tested a new bike which both Hayden and Biaggi said was an improvement, was thereafter known as the "Brno bike".
Factory riders: Max Biaggi, Nicky Hayden, Sete Gibernau Satellite riders: Alex Barros, Makoto Tamada, Marco Melandri, Troy Bayliss In 2006, the RC211V came in three flavors: the "Brno bike" to be ridden by Hayden, a 2006 bike with a special chassis for Pedrosa, a 2006 bike to be ridden by Melandri, Elías, Stoner and Tamada. Hayden's RC211V was modified to put the crankshaft higher, the clutch and gearbox lower, to lengthen the swing arm. After the Jerez round, Hayden was the fastest Honda rider in testing. At the British GP, HRC gave Hayden a new chassis, but Hayden complained that he didn't have enough time to test it. Hayden had started the year with the same clutch as Pedrosa, but four rounds it was shelved in favor of a clutch Hayden had used in previous years. Honda and Hayden had difficulty finding a clutch that would allow a good launch at the start but work well throughout the race. Hayden won the rider championship and Honda reclaimed the constructors' championship. Factory riders: Nicky Hayden, Dani Pedrosa Satellite riders: Makoto Tamada, Marco Melandri, Toni Elías, Casey StonerThe RC211V was retired when rules dictated a switch to 800 cc capacity.
In 5 seasons of MotoGP racing the Honda RC211V won 48 races out of 82 contested. It won 3 rider world championships and 4 constructor titles. Specifications as per manufacturer: List of motorcycles by type of engine Honda Worldwide | MotoGP – official Honda MotoGP site
Alfonso Pons Ezquerra, better known as Sito Pons, is a Spanish former Grand Prix motorcycle road racer. He won the 250cc World Championship with Honda in 1988 and 1989. After retiring from competition, Pons created the Honda-Pons Racing team in MotoGP, which had as its riders the likes of Loris Capirossi, Alex Barros, Max Biaggi and Troy Bayliss, he was forced to disband the team before the 2006 season due to a lack of funding. Pons turned to auto racing, fielding a team in the World Series by Renault, based in Spain, his team won the 2004 championship with driver Heikki Kovalainen. Pons returned to motorcycle racing in the 2010 Moto2 championship, fielding riders Sergio Gadea and his son, Axel Pons. In 1990 he was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for his achievements in sports. Points system from 1969 to 1987: Points system from 1988 to 1991: Pons Racing web site
Oulton Park Circuit is a motor racing track close to the small village of Little Budworth, England. It is about 5 miles from Winsford, 13 miles from Chester city centre, 8 miles from Northwich and 17 miles from Warrington, with a nearby rail connection along the Mid-Cheshire Line, it occupies much of the area, known as the Oulton Estate. The racing circuit is operated by Jonathan Palmer's MotorSport Vision organisation; the track is characterised by changing gradients, blind crests and several tight corners. The full circuit is 2.8 mi. The highest part of the course is Hill Top. Paddock facilities are reasonable in size with large areas of some power points; the race track can be adapted for shorter courses. The "Foster's" Circuit, 1.66 miles, comprises half of the "Cascades" corner followed by the "Hislop's" chicane, it heads onto Knickerbrook and up the 13% gradient of Clay Hill to work its way round to the start/finish straight. The British Touring Car Championships uses all of the Cascades Corner and Lakeside but forks off into a hairpin before Island Bend.
This hairpin cuts out all of the Island section of the circuit and takes the cars straight back over Hill Top. Beginning in 2007, all the circuit's marshalling stations were redesigned with protective cages; this was to prevent incidents similar to those seen in the 2006 season when cars had collided with marshalling posts. A cage-protected marshals station was built at the bottom of the back straight near the chicane preceding Knickerbrook; the corner is named after an event that occurred when the British demolition expert and raconteur, Blaster Bates, was removing tree stumps with dynamite close to the corner with a colleague. After the first detonation, a courting couple were seen to run off at speed and in some disarray from a nearby a bush or bank. On the closer investigation, the pair discovered some lady's underwear in the brook and this resulted in the naming of the corner. Despite its colourful name, it was a notorious corner on circuit because of accidents and racing drivers fatalities.
The death of Paul Warwick in 1991 led to a chicane being added at the entry to the corner. Prior to Warwick's death, the bend had a reputation as a "racers' corner" because it demanded a driver's full commitment and total courage, it was a fifth gear, off camber right-hand bend at the end of a downhill straight called Hilltop. Deep kerbing on the inside of the corner combined with an off camber could affect a cars' handling causing it to veer to the outside of the circuit; as an Armco barrier on the outside of the corner intersected with the grass verge, there was a significant lack of run off area for drivers forced wide on the bend. Since 1991, a right-left chicane was installed about 135 m before Knickerbrook to reduce the speed of cars coming down Hilltop. In the early 18th century the Oulton Estate comprised a manor house and a formal garden surrounded by Cheshire farmland. By the end of the century this farmland was converted into a park, which now is the site of Oulton Park; some buildings that were part of the estate still exist.
During the Second World War, Oulton Park's grounds were used as one of the staging camps for US Army units under the command of General Patton prior to the Normandy landings in 1944. American World Heavyweight Champion boxer Joe Louis put on several exhibition bouts for the troops garrisoned at Oulton Park; the fights were staged within the vicinity of the Deer Leap section of the modern circuit. After the war, much of the estate remained unused; the estate's original house had been destroyed by fire in 1926 leaving vacant parkland. By the early 1950s England had a number of motor racing tracks but the northwest was not well served; the members of the Mid-Cheshire Car Club took it on themselves to rectify the situation. The circuit they developed was on the estate of the Grey-Egerton family. With Sir Philip Gray-Egerton's permission, a circuit was mapped out starting early in 1953 and by August the new track was in existence, measuring 1.504 miles rectangular in shape. The first meeting took place on 8 August, but the RAC would not allow the public to attend, wanting an opening meeting to be run before allowing paying spectators.
The main event of the day was the 33-lap 49.6-mile Formula Two race, won by Tony Rolt driving Rob Walker's Connaught A Type. The supporting Formula III event was divided into three 10-lap heats and a 17-lap final which went to Les Leston. Oulton Park has a vast catchment area which includes Liverpool, Manchester and Crewe so it is little surprise that the second meeting and last of 1953 on 3 October, attracted a crowd of 40,000, it was a joint motorcycle and car event, the Wirral 100 Motor Club joining the Mid-Cheshire Car Club in organising it. The car side of the day was confined to three Formula III races and a final, won by Glaswegian Ninian Sanderson from Ken Tyrrell. By April 1954, the track had grown to 2.23 miles in length and within a year of the opening meeting had grown again, to 2.761 miles. On Easter 1975, another circuit layout, measuring 1.654 miles, came into use. Oulton Park is unique amongst the new post-World War II circuits in that it is a true road circuit whilst its contemporaries were, with one exception, converted airfields.
It has something in common with Mallory Park in that it can trace its history back a long way (possibly as far as Roman ti