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Ryukyu Kingdom

The Ryukyu Kingdom was a kingdom in the Ryukyu Islands from 1429 to 1879. The Ryukyu Kingdom was ruled as a tributary state of China by the Ryukyuan monarchy, who unified Okinawa Island to end the Sanzan period, extended the kingdom to the Amami Islands and Sakishima Islands; the Ryukyu Kingdom played a central role in the maritime trade networks of medieval East Asia and Southeast Asia despite its small size. The Ryukyu Kingdom became a vassal state of the Satsuma Domain of Japan after the Invasion of Ryukyu in 1609 but retained de jure independence until it was transformed into the Ryukyu Domain by the Empire of Japan in 1872; the Ryukyu Kingdom was formally annexed and dissolved by Japan in 1879 to form Okinawa Prefecture, the Ryukyuan monarchy was integrated into the new Japanese nobility. In the 14th century, small domains scattered on Okinawa Island were unified into three principalities: Hokuzan, Chūzan, Nanzan; this was known as the Three Kingdoms, or Sanzan period. Hokuzan, which constituted much of the northern half of the island, was the largest in terms of land area and military strength but was economically the weakest of the three.

Nanzan constituted the southern portion of the island. Chūzan was economically the strongest, its political capital at Shuri, Nanzan was adjacent to the major port of Naha, Kume-mura, the center of traditional Chinese education. These sites and Chūzan as a whole would continue to form the center of the Ryukyu Kingdom until its abolition. Many Chinese people moved to Ryukyu to serve the government or to engage in business during this period. At the request of the Ryukyuan King, the Ming Chinese sent thirty-six Chinese families from Fujian to manage oceanic dealings in the kingdom in 1392, during the Hongwu emperor's reign. Many Ryukyuan officials were descended from these Chinese immigrants, being born in China or having Chinese grandfathers, they assisted the Ryukyuans in advancing diplomatic relations. On 30 January 1406, the Yongle Emperor expressed horror when the Ryukyuans castrated some of their own children to become eunuchs to serve in the Ming imperial palace. Emperor Yongle said that the boys who were castrated were innocent and did not deserve castration, he returned them to Ryukyu, instructed the kingdom not to send eunuchs again.

According to statements by Qing imperial official Li Hongzhang in a meeting with Ulysses S. Grant, China had a special relationship with the island and the Ryukyu had paid tribute to China for hundreds of years, the Chinese reserved certain trade rights for them in an amicable and beneficial relationship; these three principalities battled, Chūzan emerged victorious. The Chūzan leaders were recognized by Ming dynasty China as the rightful kings over those of Nanzan and Hokuzan, thus lending great legitimacy to their claims; the ruler of Chūzan passed his throne to King Hashi. Hashi received the surname "Shō" 尚 from the Ming emperor in 1421, becoming known as Shō Hashi 尚巴志. Shō Hashi adopted the Chinese hierarchical court system, built Shuri Castle and the town as his capital, constructed Naha harbor; when in 1469 King Shō Toku, a grandson of Shō Hashi, died without a male heir, a palatine servant declared he was Toku's adopted son and gained Chinese investiture. This pretender, Shō En, began the Second Shō Dynasty.

Ryukyu's golden age occurred during the reign of Shō Shin, the second king of that dynasty, who reigned from 1478 to 1526. The kingdom extended its authority over the southernmost islands in the Ryukyu archipelago by the end of the 15th century, by 1571 the Amami Ōshima Islands, to the north near Kyūshū, were incorporated into the kingdom as well. While the kingdom's political system was adopted and the authority of Shuri recognized, in the Amami Ōshima Islands, the kingdom's authority over the Sakishima Islands to the south remained for centuries at the level of a tributary-suzerain relationship. For nearly two hundred years, the Ryukyu Kingdom would thrive as a key player in maritime trade with Southeast and East Asia. Central to the kingdom's maritime activities was the continuation of the tributary relationship with Ming dynasty China, begun by Chūzan in 1372, enjoyed by the three Okinawan kingdoms which followed it. China provided ships for Ryukyu's maritime trade activities, allowed a limited number of Ryukyuans to study at the Imperial Academy in Beijing, formally recognized the authority of the King of Chūzan, allowing the kingdom to trade formally at Ming ports.

Ryukyuan ships provided by China, traded at ports throughout the region, which included, among others, China, Đại Việt, Java, Luzon, Pattani, Palembang and Sumatra. Japanese products—silver, fans, folding screens—and Chinese products—medicinal herbs, minted coins, glazed ceramics, textiles—were traded within the kingdom for Southeast Asian sappanwood, rhino horn, sugar, ambergris, Indian ivory, Arabian frankincense. Altogether, 150 voyages between the kingdom and Southeast Asia on Ryukyuan ships were recorded in the Rekidai Hōan, an official record of diplomatic documents compiled by the kingdom, as having taken place between 1424 and the 1630s, with 61 of them bound for Siam, 10 for Malacca, 10 for Pattani, 8 for Java, among others; the Chinese policy of haijin (海禁

Destination (Eloy album)

Destination is the fourteenth studio album by German progressive rock band Eloy, released in 1992. It was the second album to be recorded with the new line-up of Michael Gerlach, it marked the return of Klaus-Peter Matziol, who last played with Eloy on the 1984 Metromania album. Music by Frank Bornemann and Michael Gerlach. Lyrics by Frank Bornemann and Diana Baden. "Call of the Wild" – 7:01 "Racing Shadows" – 7:12 "Destination" – 7:41 "Prisoner in Mind" – 4:27 "Silent Revolution" – 7:55 "Fire and Ice" – 5:11 "Eclipse of Mankind" – 6:29 "Jeanne d'Arc" – 7:37 Frank Bornemann – guitar, vocals Michael Gerlach – keyboards Nico Barettadrums Klaus-Peter Matziol – bass Detlev Goy – bass Helge Engelke – bass, electric rhythm and acoustic guitars, guitar solo Kai Steffen – guitar solo Lenny McDowell – flute Classical Choir arranged and conducted by Peter Chrastina

Stephen Gasiorowicz

Stephen George Gasiorowicz was an American theoretical physicist. He was born in Danzig in 1928 and graduated from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1952. From 1952 until 1960, Stephen was employed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, as a research staff member. In 1960 he received an offer of Associate Professorship from the Physics Department of the University of Minnesota, in 1961 he moved to Minnesota where he stayed for the rest of his life. In 1963 he was promoted to full Professor. Gasiorowicz published over 100 papers on high-energy physics, several well-known textbooks on the theory of elementary particles, quantum mechanics, other subjects. Best known are Gasiorowicz’s contributions to quark models of hadrons, theory of glueballs, QCD confinement. Gasiorowicz was one of the founding fathers of William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute. From 1979 to 1986 Gasiorowicz was Vice-President of the Aspen Center for Physics, Aspen, CO, in 1987-89 the Acting Director of FTPI.

Stephen Gasiorowicz was born on May 1928 into a Jewish family in Danzig. Between 1920 and 1939 Danzig was a semi-autonomous city-state populated to a large extent by ethnic Germans. Stephen’s father was a merchant. With the rise to power of Hitler and Nazis in Germany in 1933 persecution of non-Germans in Danzig increased, Gasiorowicz’s family had to move to Warsaw. On September 1, 1939, the Second World War began with the invasion of Poland by Germany; the Gasiorowiczes had to flee immediately. A few dozen miles before Lviv the Gasiorowiczes were met by a detachment of the Soviet Army, which occupied the eastern part of Poland. Stephen Gasiorowicz’s journey to freedom started in 1939 in occupied Poland ended in 1946 in the United States, it lasted for seven years. It was not that the Gaziorowiczes obtained residence permits, he got his education there. In 1946 the Gasiorowiczes were notified that their application for immigration to the U. S. which they filed before the Second World War, was approved.

The same year Stephen Gasiorowicz sailed from India to San Francisco, California. He was admitted to UCLA as a physics major, his PhD adviser was Robert Finkelstein, the topic of his PhD thesis was A non-linear model for the composite π-mesons. In the 1960s, 70s and 80s Stephen Gasiorowicz acquired a reputation as an excellent lecturer, was sought after as a visiting professor by major research centers, such as NORDITA, DESY, the University of Tokyo. Gaziorowicz’s legacy in physics education spread worldwide. Generations of physics students studied using the textbooks written by Gasiorowicz, which include Elementary Particle Physics, Quantum Physics, Physics for Scientists and Engineers, he was a PhD adviser to several prominent physicists, including Stanley Brodsky of SLAC and William A. Bardeen of the Fermilab. Gasiorowicz, Elementary Particle Physics, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0471292876Gasiorowicz, Quantum Physics, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0471057000Gasiorowicz, Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Pearson Prentice Hall, ISBN 978-0131420946 List of textbooks on classical and quantum mechanics Stephen Gaziorowicz at the William I.

Fine Theoretical Physics Institute

Konstantin Kabanov

Konstantin Mikhailovich Kabanov was a Soviet Air Force Colonel and Hero of the Soviet Union. After graduating from flying school in 1944, Kabanov was sent to the front and made 27 attacks on Danzig, he made a total of 103 attack sorties during the war flying Ilyushin Il-2 attack aircraft, for which he was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. Postwar, Kabanov continued to serve in the Air Force and became a test pilot and engineer at the Air Force Research Institute. Kabanov was born on 30 March 1922 in the village of Harinskoye in Yaroslavl Governorate to a peasant family. Kabanov worked as a photographer. From 1937, he studied at the Rybinsk River College. In 1940, he was drafted into the Red Army and was sent to the Balashov Military Pilots Flying School. In 1944, Kabanov graduated from the Balashov Military Pilots Flying School, he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union around this time. In June 1944, he was sent to the front and became an Il-2 pilot in the 332nd Assault Aviation Division's 593rd Attack Aviation Regiment.

During the summer, Kabanov fought in Operation Bagration. On 25 July, he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. During the fall, he flew sorties during the Baltic Offensive. On 16 September 1944, he was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War 2nd class. In February 1945, he fought in the East Pomeranian Offensive. Kabanov led his flight of Il-2s in attack on Danzig in 27 sorties. On 30 March, he was awarded a second Order of the Red Banner. In April, he fought in the Berlin Offensive. Kabanov received the Order of the Patriotic War 1st class on 30 April. By the end of the war, he had made 103 sorties, destroyed 158 vehicles, 11 tanks, 6 artillery pieces, 27 anti-aircraft batteries, 9 warehouses, a railway train. Kabanov's sorties were reported to have killed a thousand German military personnel. On 18 August, Kabanov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin for his actions. Postwar, Kabanov continued to serve in the Soviet Air Force. In 1953, he graduated from the Air Force Academy.

He was a test pilot with the Air Force Research Institute for the next two years. Between 1955 and 1965 he was assistant chief engineer with the institute. Abanov retired in 1978 with the rank of Colonel, he lived in Moscow and died on 13 April 1979. He was buried in the Khovanskoye Cemetery


Galectin-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGALS7 gene. The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. Differential and in situ hybridizations indicate that this lectin is expressed in keratinocytes, it is expressed at all stages of epidermal differentiation. It is moderately repressed by retinoic acid; the protein was found in stratified squamous epithelium. The antigen localized to basal keratinocytes, although it was found, albeit at lower levels, in the suprabasal layers where it concentrated to areas of cell-to-cell contact; the cellular localization and its striking down-regulation in cultured keratinocytes imply a role in cell–cell and/or cell–matrix interactions necessary for normal growth control

Kat Chapman

Katarina Chapman is a fictional character from the Australian soap opera Home and Away, played by Pia Miller. The actress joined the cast in July 2014 following a successful audition, she began filming during the following month, commuted from her home in Melbourne to the set in Sydney. Home and Away marked Miller's first major acting role, she made her first appearance during the episode broadcast on 5 February 2015. The actress was drawn to the part after reading that her character was a strong and resilient policewoman, not sexualised in any way. Miller wanted viewers to not her appearance; the actress filmed her final scenes in August 2017 and Kat was killed off in the season finale, broadcast on 18 December 2017. Kat's first storylines saw her interact with Darryl Braxton, she forms a relationship with local doctor Nate Cooper, tested a number of times. Kat has survived being shot. Towards the end of 2015, she was targeted by villain Charlotte King; the character's background was explored further with the introduction of her abusive former fiancé Dylan Carter, who arrived in the Bay to lead the investigation into Charlotte's murder.

Following Dylan's departure, Kat began a relationship with Martin "Ash" Ashford. She faced problems in her career and resigned from the police force. Miller earned a nomination for the Logie Award for Best New Talent for her portrayal of Kat. On 4 August 2014, Luke Dennehy of the Herald Sun reported actress and model Pia Miller had joined the regular cast of Home and Away as Katarina. Miller said joining the show had been "such a whirlwind", she auditioned for the role in July, two weeks before the casting announcement, began filming her first scenes on 5 August. She commuted from her home in Melbourne to Sydney, where the show's studios are based, she relocated to the city to be closer to the set. Home and Away marked Miller's first major acting role, she made her debut as Kat on 5 February 2015. Miller marked two years on the show in 2017, she stated "To get a job like this, consistent, I have a character I can work in all those nuances and little things about her that I can relate to and make up and put my own touch on.

It is just so much fun to have a character I can sink my teeth into." Ahead of her introduction, Jonathon Moran of The Daily Telegraph described Kat as "a tough and resilient police officer driven by success in her work life." Miller explained that Kat is dedicated to her career, but she feels that "she has a lot to prove to others and to herself." Miller said Kat displayed a "laid back charm" on the surface, but she was "her own harshest critic." In an interview published on the official website, Miller said she shared some similarities with the character. Both she and Kat were "straight down the line" people. Series producer Lucy Addario said it would not be clear why Kat has moved to the Bay, that she would have "a darker story behind her." As she settles into the Bay, Kat's walls begin to come down. Miller wanted viewers to focus on the character and not her looks, commenting "Katarina is quite removed from being the'hot chick' that comes into town." Miller was drawn to the role. She comes to Summer Bay to help people.

Miller continued, "She is the coolest chick ever! I'm proud to get to play her, she is a strong woman, a city girl, she's been through a bit and had experiences – some good and some not so great. She came to Summer Bay with the idea of putting her head down and getting back to the city." Some critics and fans pointed out. Miller replied that although Kat and Charlie were both women and were in the police force, they were two different characters. Kat's introductory storyline saw. Evidence leads the police to Darryl Braxton. Though Kat is from the city, she has heard all about the reputation of the Braxton family; as she investigates the case, she feels sympathy for them. Miller explained that the human aspect of Kat comes into play during the story, she is battling against her professionalism, she continued by saying. Brax's friend Martin "Ash" Ashford confronts Kat with a theory that Dean was murdered by Sam Kennedy. Kat is "less than enthusiastic" about Ash's hunch, will not listen to his theory, unless he can produce some evidence to back it up.

She reminds Ash that the police have looked into Sam and dismissed him as a suspect, since he has no criminal history or connection to the murder. When asked if there was any romance ahead for Kat, Miller said Kat was "not immune to the Summer Bay romance", but it was not high on her agenda after her arrival. A few weeks Kat befriends local doctor Nate Cooper, ready to move on from his failed marriage to Sophie Taylor. Pryor said Nate is attracted to Kat's cheeky personality, thinks he can "press her buttons." Kat agrees to go on a date with Nate, she takes the opportunity to learn more about his former relationship with Bay resident Ricky Sharpe. Following their date and Nate spend the night together at his place. Pryor commented that Kat and Nate had a lot in common, there was an undeniable spark between them. Believing that they are forming a connection, Nate is left disappointed when Kat leaves early the following morning. Wh