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Ryukyuan people

The Ryukyuan people Lewchewan, are an East Asian ethnic group native to the Ryukyu Islands between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan. Politically, they live in either Okinawa Kagoshima Prefecture. There are different subgroups of the Ryukyuan ethnic group, them being the Okinawan, Miyako and Yonaguni peoples, their languages make up the Ryukyuan languages, considered to be one of the two branches of the Japonic language family, the other being Japanese and its dialects. Ryukyuans are not a recognized minority group in Japan, as Japanese authorities consider them just a subgroup of the Japanese people, akin to the Yamato people. Although unrecognized, Ryukyuans constitute the largest ethnolinguistic minority group in Japan, with 1.3 million living in Okinawa Prefecture alone. Ryukyuans inhabit the Amami Islands of Kagoshima Prefecture as well. There is a considerable Ryukyuan diaspora; as many as 600,000 more ethnic Ryukyuans and their descendants are dispersed elsewhere in Japan and worldwide. In the majority of countries, the Ryukyuan and Japanese diaspora are not differentiated so there are no reliable statistics for the former.

Recent genetic and anthropological studies indicate that the Ryukyuans are related to the Yamato people but have a relative closer relation to the Ainu people, compared with the Yamato people. This is explained with shared ancestry of the population during the Jōmon period and with the population of the Yayoi period, which were migrants from other parts of East Asia; the Ryukyuans have a specific culture with some matriarchal elements, native religion, cuisine which had late introduction of rice. The population lived on the islands in isolation for many centuries, in the 14th century from the three divided Okinawan political polities emerged the Ryukyu Kingdom which continued the maritime trade and tributary relations started in 1372 with Ming dynasty China. In 1609 the kingdom was invaded by Satsuma Domain which allowed its independence being in vassal status because Tokugawa Japan was prohibited to trade with China, being in dual subordinate status between both China and Japan. During the Meiji period, the kingdom became Ryukyu Domain, after which it was politically annexed by the Empire of Japan.

In 1879, after the annexation, the territory was reorganized as Okinawa Prefecture with the last king Shō Tai forcibly exiled to Tokyo. China renounced its claims to the islands in 1895. During this period, Ryukyuan ethnic identity, tradition and language were suppressed by the Meiji government, which sought to assimilate the Ryukyuan people as Japanese. After World War II, the Ryūkyū Islands were occupied by the United States between 1945 and 1950 and 1950–1972. During this time, there were many violations of human rights. Since the end of World War II, there exists strong resentment against the Japanese government and US military facilities stationed in Okinawa. United Nations special rapporteur on discrimination and racism Doudou Diène, in his 2006 report, noted perceptible level of discrimination and xenophobia against the Ryukyuans, with the most serious discrimination they endure linked to their dislike of American military installations in the archipelago. An investigation into fundamental human rights was suggested.

Their usual ethnic name derives from the Chinese name for the islands, "Liuqiu", which in the Japanese language is pronounced "Ryuukyuu". The indigenous term for the island of Okinawa is Uchinaa, the people Uchinaanchu, their language Uchinaaguchi; these terms are used, are politicized markers of a distinct culture. According to the recent genetic studies, the Ryukyuan people share more alleles with the Jōmon period hunter-gatherers and Ainu people than the Yamato Japanese, have smaller genetic contributions from Asian continental populations, which supports the dual-structure model of K. Hanihara, a accepted theory which suggests that the Yamato Japanese are more admixed with Asian agricultural continental people than the Ainu and the Ryukyuans, with major admixture occurring in and after the Yayoi period. Within the Japanese population the Ryukyu make a separate and one of the two genome-wide clusters along the main-island Honshu; the Jomon ancestry is estimated at 28%. The admixture event which formed the admixed Ryukyuans was estimated at least 1100–1075 years ago, which corresponds to the Gusuku period, is considered to be related to the arrival of migrants from Japan.

Thus, the Ryukyuans appear to be genetically closest to the Ainu from the Ainu viewpoint, whereas it is the opposite from the Ryukyuans' viewpoint who are closest to the Yamato Japanese. The comparative studies on the dental diversity showed long-term gene flow from outside source, long-term isolation, genetic drift which produced the morphological diversification of the modern Ryukyuans. However, the analysis contradicts the idea of direct genetic continuity and affinity between the Jomon and the Ryukyuans, although several genetic, dental analyses, viral infection studies indicated their close relationship, while according to anthropological data are between the Yamato Japanese and Ainu people. A recent craniometric study shows that the Ryukyuan people are clo

Charles P. Stone

Charles P. Stone known as Charlie Stone, was a career United States Army officer during the middle of the 20th century. After serving in World War II, in 1968 Major General Stone commanded the U. S. Army's 4th Infantry Division in Vietnam, leading his division to success during the Tet offensive. Stone, who had served in North Africa and Sicily in World War II, was known for high self-regard. "I suppose I'm the most confident commander in Vietnam, but I think in the Highlands we are beating the hell out of the enemy," he told a war correspondent in 1968. He said later,"I was the best division commander in Vietnam."He had a right to that self-regard. His division had a three-week advance notice of the planned enemy Tet attack thanks to its capture in early January 1968 of "a five-page plan of movement and attack for Pleiku Province." Units were placed on alert and tanks in Pleiku were positioned "as a reaction force against the invaders." Stone briefed American officers and the area Vietnamese commander before the North Vietnamese attack.

Moreover, during the Tet offensive, according to one account, "the highest kill ratio registered was in the three highland provinces of the Cambodian border... where the enemy lost nearly 3000 troops, the United States fewer than fifty, the ARVN about 145." Stone's division operated in these provinces. He displayed his keen self-regard in needling the enemy. Before departing his command of the 4th Infantry Division, he had a caustic farewell message printed in Vietnamese on leaflets and air-dropped to enemy troops; the message read, in part: "I take with me sad memories. I recall seeing thousands of North Vietnamese sent to their death by the stupid tactics of your leaders... If your leaders continue their wasteful practice and stupid tactics, my successor will have a successful tour..." Despite his combat successes, Stone's tour in Vietnam was marred by controversy over his order that soldiers at the division base camp cited for failing to salute "will be transferred to the forward area." The order had taken effect after Stone had assumed command of the 4th Division in January 1968, but only appeared in print in September in a daily divisional bulletin.

The order garnered media attention in America and Stone said in an interview the Defense Department told him "the country is aroused over your saluting policy" so he withdrew it. According to The New York Times, Stone "said he had rescinded similar orders that sent to forward areas soldiers who had their driver's licenses revoked or who violated off-limits and curfew regulations." The general noted, with apparent bitterness, that unlike in World War II, where soldiers could be sent to a distinct front, "Here the front is all around us. Where is the front? There is no front."In retirement, Stone said the Pentagon should have addressed "the basic misconception" in the controversy. As he put it, "Stone is responsible for the lives of 22,000 men, twenty-four hours a day.... Permissiveness in the army, much less insolence and recalcitrance, cannot be tolerated; the military virtues are obedience and discipline at all times so that they can be counted on when necessary for the security of army units and the success of their missions."

Stone grew up in Queens, New York and he attended the City College of New York. He joined the Reserve Officers Training Corps and competed for a Regular Army commission under the federal Thomason Act; this legislation enabled a thousand top ROTC graduates to compete for 50 commissions during a year of active duty. For 1937-38, 41 were selected, including Stone, he had a daughter. He was an active outdoorsman and spent most of his retirement on a farm in Mathews, Virginia

It Did Make a Difference

It Did Make a Difference is the discography album of one of Sweden's first hardcore punk band, Step Forward. It is the complete discography of the band, released on CD. Being one of the few hardcore punk bands of Sweden back in 1989, their fast and energetic tunes were the starting point of Sweden's hardcore scene. Members of this band went to form bands like others. Does It Make A Difference Recordings Away For myself Think ahead Nothing to say My love Deal with it 3 mil till Vännäs Does it make a difference The dream Killing for profit Filler I Am Me Recordings Change today Stop the madness A point of view I am me False people Face the reality Tomorrows world 4 u Steppin stone It isn't funny at all Try I am me The dream 4 u We're gonna fight Live Recordings What do you say Moe? A point of view Nothing to say Feeding the fire Hide from truth Does it make a difference? Seeing is believing Racial hatred My love My life Mommy can I go out and kill tonight? Rehearsal Recordings Step forward Something else Dennis Lyxzén - lead vocals, production, master Toft Stade - bass, production, master Jens Norden - drums, percussion Henrik Janson - guitar José Saxlund - layout Eskil - production, mastering Jonas Lyxzén - photos

Elkhart Township, Elkhart County, Indiana

Elkhart Township is one of sixteen townships in Elkhart County, Indiana. As of the 2010 census, its population was 36,487; the Dierdorff Farmstead was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2011. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 35.69 square miles, of which 35.04 square miles is land and 0.65 square miles is water. Goshen Waterford Mills Jefferson Township Middlebury Township Clinton Township Benton Township Jackson Township Union Township Harrison Township Concord Township US 33 SR 4 SR 15 SR 119 The township contains seven cemeteries: Cripe, Elkhart Prairie, Oak Ridge, Sparklin and Violett. Elkhart Township residents may obtain a library card at the Goshen Public Library in Goshen. "Elkhart Township, Elkhart County, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-09-24. United States Census Bureau cartographic boundary files Indiana Township Association United Township Association of Indiana

Michèle Lamy

Michèle Lamy is a French culture and fashion figure of Algerian origin. She is best known as wife and creative accomplice of fashion designer Rick Owens, but she has been a clothing designer, film producer, restaurateur. Michèle Lamy was born in 1944 in Jura, into an Algerian family with a background in the fashion industry, her grandfather made accessories for one of Paul Poiret. During the 60s and 70s, Lamy worked as a defence lawyer, while studying with the postmodern philosopher Gilles Deleuze, she was involved in the May 1968 protests in Paris. She worked as a cabaret dancer and toured France before moving to the United States in 1979. In 1979, Lamy moved to New York and settled in Los Angeles, where she set up a fashion line and ran two cult restaurants/nightclubs – Café des Artistes and Les Deux Cafés in 1996 with her first husband, experimental filmmaker Richard Newton. With her tattooed fingers and gold-plated teeth, she was an emblematic figure of nightlife in Los Angeles in the middle of 90s.

Her tattoos were inspired by the Berbers, during her first trip to North Africa when she was around 17 or 18 years old. In 1990, Lamy created, she hired Rick Owens, who became her business partner and her companion and husband. In 2003, Lamy and Owens left Los Angeles to settle in Paris and got married in 2006. In 2004, the couple established their own fashion company Owenscorp, describing their business partnership as “asking a gypsy to organise a war with a fascist.”A muse and collaborator, Lamy shares responsibility for the expansion of Owens brand, as well as that of their protégé. Lamy produces the furniture that bears the Owens name, she designs jewelry with Loree Rodkin, makes music with her band LAVASCAR, has appeared in FKA twigs and Black Asteroid music videos. In November 2010, Lamy posed for a shoot for Vogue Paris with the photographer Steven Klein. In 2013, Lamy was featured in Forbes with her daughter from her first marriage, artist Scarlett Rouge. In 2015, she was featured in one of the videos for the EP M3LL155X by FKA Twigs.

Lamy appeared in the first clip. At the 2016 Venice Biennale, Lamy transformed an old container ship into a floating saloon; the same year, rapper A$ AP Rocky. Rocky said about Lamy, "Hardly anyone knows how important you have been behind the scenes for my career. You did not just design my album covers, you took me to art fairs and showed me the art world."In 2017, Lamy and Rick Owens were featured in Lou Stoppard's book about fashion’s most important and iconic duos, titled Fashion Together: Fashion’s Most Extraordinary Duos on the Art of Collaboration. In the book, Owens said that Lamy was more his "mate" than "muse." And, "I don’t think anyone would think of Michèle as a passive muse. I think that’s why she sparks people’s interest—because she doesn’t fit the typical role of a muse." Lamy has practiced boxing for 35 years. In 2018, she set up her own boxing gym "Lamyland" in London; the space was home to A$AP Rocky’s AWGE Bodega. It is now reinvented every few months. In October 2018, Lamy curated a performance series featuring a tour of "Outsider Art Fair Paris" by British performance artist David Hoyle.

In January 2019, Lamy held an installation art "Genius You" in collaboration with Dutch photographer Paul Kooiker, taking place all around Selfridges, London. From May to November 2019, her boxing installation: "What Are We Fighting For?", had been shown in Venice Biennale. Lamy said about her approach to fashion and design, “I like to be with a lot of people and exchange ideas and the best way to be is to do something together, so I’m seduced… And when it’s the idea or I want to lead a bunch of people somewhere and do something together, I think that’s generous.”In 2020, Lamy will collaborate with director Katya Bankowsky for Battle Royale, a series of short films that feature Bankowsky and Lamy preparing for a fight. Michèle Lamy has one daughter, artist Scarlette Rouge

D-Day (military term)

In the military, D-Day is the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. The best known D-Day is during World War II, on June 6, 1944—the day of the Normandy landings—initiating the Western Allied effort to liberate western Europe from Nazi Germany. However, many other invasions and operations had a designated D-Day, both before and after that operation; the terms D-Day and H-Hour are used for the day and hour on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. They designate the day and hour of the operation when the day and hour have not yet been determined, or where secrecy is essential. For a given operation, the same D-Day and H-Hour apply for all units participating in it; when used in combination with numbers, plus or minus signs, these terms indicate the point of time preceding or following a specific action. Thus, H−3 means 3 hours before H-Hour, D+3 means 3 days after D-Day. Planning papers for large-scale operations are made up in detail long. Thus, orders are issued for the various steps to be carried out on the D-Day or H-Hour minus or plus a certain number of days, hours, or minutes.

At the appropriate time, a subsequent order is issued that states times. Other days such as A-Day, L-Day etc. have different meanings for the military. Other languages have terms equivalent to D-Day such as "Hari H",Час Ч, Dagen D, Dan D, E eguna, Jour J, Lá L, Tag X, Ziua-Z; the initial D in D-Day has been given various meanings in the past, while more it has obtained the connotation of "Day" itself, thereby creating the phrase "Day-Day", or "Day of Days". The earliest use of these terms by the United States Army that the U. S. Army Center of Military History has been able to find was during World War I. In Field Order Number 9, First Army, American Expeditionary Forces, dated 7 September 1918: "The First Army will attack at H hour on D day with the object of forcing the evacuation of the St. Mihiel Salient." D-Day for the invasion of Normandy by the Allies was set for June 5, 1944, but bad weather and heavy seas caused U. S. Army General Dwight David Eisenhower to delay until June 6 and that date has been popularly referred to since by the short title "D-Day".

Because of the connotation with the invasion of Normandy, planners of military operations sometimes avoided the term to prevent confusion. For example, Douglas MacArthur's invasion of Leyte began on "A-Day", the invasion of Okinawa began on "L-Day"; the Allies' proposed invasions of Japan would have begun on "X-Day" and "Y-Day". "Digital Documents and Photographs Project". Documents and Photographs regarding the D-Day Invasion, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library. Archived from the original on 2011-08-10. Retrieved 2009-11-15. CS1 maint: others U. S. Army official Normandy D-Day web site