Sándor Ferenczi was a Hungarian psychoanalyst, a key theorist of the psychoanalytic school and a close associate of Sigmund Freud. Born Sándor Fränkel to Baruch Fränkel and Rosa Eibenschütz, both Polish Jews, he magyarized his surname to Ferenczi; as a result of his psychiatric work, he came to believe that his patients' accounts of sexual abuse as children were truthful, having verified those accounts through other patients in the same family. This was a major reason for his eventual disputes with Sigmund Freud. Prior to this conclusion he was notable as a psychoanalyst for working with the most difficult of patients and for developing a theory of more active intervention than is usual for psychoanalytic practice. During the early 1920s, criticizing Freud's "classical" method of neutral interpretation, Ferenczi collaborated with Otto Rank to create a "here-and-now" psychotherapy that, through Rank's personal influence, led the American Carl Rogers to conceptualize person-centered therapy. Ferenczi has found some favour in modern times among the followers of Jacques Lacan as well as among relational psychoanalysts in the United States.
Relational analysts read Ferenczi as anticipating their own clinical emphasis on mutuality, intersubjectivity, the importance of the analyst's countertransference. Ferenczi's work has influenced theory and praxis of the interpersonal-relational theory of American psychoanalysis, as typified by psychoanalysts at the William Alanson White Institute. Ferenczi was president of the International Psychoanalytical Association from 1918 to 1919. Ernest Jones, a biographer of Freud, termed Ferenczi as "mentally ill" at the end of his life, famously ignoring Ferenczi's struggle with pernicious anemia, which killed him in 1933. Though ill with the then-untreatable disease, Ferenczi managed to deliver his most famous paper, "Confusion of Tongues" to the 12th International Psycho-Analytic Congress in Wiesbaden, Germany, on 4 September 1932. Ferenczi's reputation was revived in 2002 by publication of Disappearing and Reviving: Sandor Ferenczi in the History of Psychoanalysis. One of the book's chapters dealt with the nature of the relationship between Ferenczi.
Contrary to Freud's opinion of therapeutic abstinence, Ferenczi advocated a more active role for the analyst. For example, instead of the relative "passivity" of a listening analyst encouraging the patient to associate, Ferenczi used to curtail certain responses and non-verbal alike, on the part of the analysand so as to allow suppressed thoughts and feelings to emerge. Ferenczi described in a case study how he used a kind of behavioral activation when he asked an opera singer with performance anxiety to “perform” during a therapy session and in this way to struggle with her fears. Ferenczi believed, he based his intervention on responding to the subjective experience of the analysand. If the more traditional opinion was that the analyst had the role of a physician, administering a treatment to the patient based upon diagnostic judgment of psychopathology, Ferenczi wanted the analysand to become a co-participant in an encounter created by the therapeutic dyad; this emphasis on empathic reciprocity during the therapeutic encounter was an important contribution to the evolution of psychoanalysis.
Ferenczi believed that self-disclosure of the analyst is an important therapeutic reparative force. The practice of including the therapist's personality in therapy resulted in the development of the idea of mutual encounter: the therapist is allowed to discuss some content from his/her own life and thoughts, as long as it is relevant to the therapy; this is in contrast to the Freudian therapeutic abstinence according to which the therapist should not involve his/her personal life with the therapy, should remain neutral. The mutual encounter is a precedent for the psychoanalytic theory of two-person psychology. Ferenczi believed that the persistent traumatic effect of chronic overstimulation, deprivation, or empathic failure during childhood is what causes neurotic, character and psychotic disorders. According to this concept, trauma develops as a result of the sexual seduction of a child by a parent or authority figure; the confusion of tongues occurs. The pathological adult interprets this infantile and innocent game according to his adult "passion tongue" and forces the child to conform to his passion tongue.
The adult uses a tongue the child does not know, interprets the child's innocent game according to his disturbed perspective. For example, a father is playing with his little girl. During their common game, she offers him the role of her husband and wants him to sleep with her just as he sleeps with her mother; the pathological father misinterprets this childish offer, touches his daughter in an inappropriate manner while they are in bed together. Here, the child spoke her innocent childish tongue, the father interpreted her offer with his passionate adult sexual tongue; the adult attempts to convince the child that the lust on his part is the love for which the child yearns. Ferenczi generalized the idea of trauma to emotional neglect, physical maltreatment, empathic failure; the prominent manifestation of these disturbances would be the sexual abuse. In Thalassa: A Theory of Genitality, Ferenczi suggested that the wish to return to the womb and the comfort of its amniotic fluids symbolizes a wish to
James Woodward Downey is an American comedy writer and occasional actor. Downey has written for over 30 seasons of Saturday Night Live; this makes him the longest associated writer with the show. He has been called the "best political humorist alive". Downey is the brother of filmmaker Robert Downey Sr. and the uncle of actor and fellow Saturday Night Live alum and actor Robert Downey Jr. He attended Harvard University. Downey toured Eastern Europe by train after graduating from Harvard, returned to the US to work for TV, he is believed to be one of the first Harvard Lampoon writers to get a break in TV and the youngest writer on Saturday Night Live. While at Harvard, Downey wrote for the Harvard Lampoon where he became president, at a time when "the proliferation of cable and the proliferation of comedy the sensibilities of the Lampoon a little closer to the sensibilities of the mass media." Downey, a member of that first generation of Lampoon writers to make a career in television, has been credited with playing a role in the shift.
In 1976, 100 Years of Harvard Lampoon Parodies was published in magazine format, edited by Downey and Eric Rayman. In 1976, Downey became a writer for Saturday Night Live, he worked on one of the longest tenures in the show's history. He arrived at Saturday Night Live the same week as Bill Murray with whom he ended up sharing an office overlooking 50th Street, but he began writing at SNL with Al Franken, Tom Davis, Dan Aykroyd, his first stretch as writer for the show ran from 1976 to 1980, culminating in a brief stint as a featured cast member. By the 1979–1980 season, Lorne Michaels had lost both Dan Aykroyd and John Belushi to feature film careers, causing him to look to writers like Downey, Tom Schiller, Dan Aykroyd's brother Peter, Al Franken, Alan Zweibel, Tom Davis to fill spots as cast members; when Michaels left the show in 1980, so did Downey, along with everyone else. After leaving SNL, Downey became head writer of Late Night with David Letterman for a little over a year, 1982 to 1983, during its formative stages.
He returned to SNL in 1984. When Norm Macdonald began as Weekend Update anchor in the mid-1990s, Downey wrote for that segment of the show. Downey and Macdonald subsequently became a team, working away from the rest of the crew, they were both fired from the show in 1998 at the request of NBC executive Don Ohlmeyer. Downey believes that it was a result of various jokes on Weekend Update calling O. J. Simpson a murderer. Downey returned to the show in 2000, he continued pausing only in 2005 to work on a novel. For an October 2000 skit satirizing a recent presidential debate, Downey coined the word "strategery" for then-presidential candidate George W. Bush to say, based on Bush's reputation for difficulty with public speaking; the word soon began to be used in a tongue-in-cheek fashion by members of Bush's own administration, as well as by political pundits on both sides, to refer to the Bush administration's political strategy. Former SNL Weekend Update anchor Dennis Miller has called him the second most important person in the history of Saturday Night Live, behind only creator Lorne Michaels.
In 2013, he retired from Saturday Night Live after the end of 38th season after working part-time, commuting from Upstate New York. Although he was only a credited actor on Saturday Night Live for one season, Downey appeared in over 40 sketches from 1977 to 2005, his most notable being parody commercials such as Craig's Travellers Checks, First CityWide Change Bank, Grayson Moorhead Securities. In 2007, he appeared in a Digital Short titled Andy's Dad, where he portrayed the father of cast member Andy Samberg, had a romantic relationship with guest star Jonah Hill. In movies, he is best remembered for playing the high school principal who judges the "academic decathlon" in Billy Madison, his brief role in that film included a famous monologue in which he insults the title character, played by Adam Sandler, concluding with the sentence "I award you no points, may God have mercy on your soul." The monologue was based on a response Downey gave to SNL cast member Chris Farley in the SNL writers' room when Farley presented certain ideas.
He appeared in the Norm Macdonald movie Dirty Work as one of the homeless guys. Downey had a bit part in Paul Thomas Anderson's 2007 film There Will Be Blood, where he plays Al Rose, Little Boston's real estate broker. Anderson's YouTube channel is a nod to Downey's role. Downey is the second SNL writer to have had a role in a PT Anderson picture, the first being Robert Smigel, who plays Barry Egan's brother-in-law in Punch-Drunk Love. Given Downey's role in writing much of the political humor featured on Saturday Night Live during his tenure there, his own political leanings have been a source of speculation. Downey has said that he began his career as "a standard-issue Harvard graduate commie", but turned into "a conservative Democrat", he is a registered Democratic Party member. In 2008 he expressed his support for then-Presidential-candidate Barack Obama. Nonetheless, his comedic targets have included American politicians across the political spectrum. TV critic Tom Shales, author of the book Live from New York: The Uncensored History of Saturday Night Live, called Downey, SNL, an "equal opportunity slasher" in political comedy.
Some have called Downey more right-wing than his self-description, including Shales, who described him in 2002
Cockfield Hall in Yoxford in Suffolk, England is a Grade I listed private house standing in 40 acres of historic parkland, dating from the 16th century. It was built by the Spring family, wealthy cloth merchants and baronets of Pakenham. Cockfield Hall takes its name from the Cokefeud Family, established there at the beginning of the 14th century, it passed to the Hopton Family, one of whom, Sir Arthur Hopton built the Gatehouses and North Wing in the mid 16th century and was said to have accompanied Henry VIII on the Field of the Cloth of Gold. His successor, Sir Owen Hopton, was lieutenant of the Tower of London and as such, was ordered in October 1567 by Queen Elizabeth to take into custody at Cockfield so that she could recover from her privations, Lady Catherine Grey, sister of Lady Jane Grey and granddaughter of Mary Tudor, she died there a year and was buried in the Cockfield Chapel in Yoxford Church. The estate was subsequently sold to the Brooke family; when Lady Brooke died in 1683, it passed to her daughter Martha's son, Sir Charles Blois, 1st Baronet, who came to live at Cockfield in 1686.
From the house remained in the ownership of the Blois family until 1997. The main part of the house had sash windows installed in the 18th century and in 1896 the Victorian Great Hall was created on the site of the original Tudor Hall in the Jacobean style; the house is now part of Wilderness Reserve. Catherine at Cockfield Hall — Tudor Place Hopton family — National Portrait Gallery The Cockfield Chest — JSTOR Historic England. "Cockfield Hall". National Heritage List for England