SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sápmi

Sápmi is the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sámi people. Sápmi includes the northern parts of Fennoscandia; the region stretches over four countries: Norway, Sweden and Russia. On the north it is bounded by the Barents Sea, on the west by the Norwegian Sea and on the east by the White Sea. In practice most of the Sámi population is concentrated in a few traditional areas in the northernmost part of Sápmi, such as Kautokeino and Karasjok, with the exception of those who have left for the larger cities. Sápmi refers to the areas where the Sámi people have traditionally lived, but overlaps with other regions and definitions, including regions where Scandinavian settlement predates Sámi settlement and where the Sámi are only a tiny minority, e.g. Trøndelag; the Sami people are estimated to only make up around 2.5% to 5% of the total population in the Sápmi area. No political organization advocates secession, although several groups desire more territorial autonomy and/or more self-determination for the region's indigenous population.

The area was referred to in English as Lapland, but this term is now deprecated. Sápmi refers to both the Sami people. In fact, the word "Sámi" is only the accusative-genitive form of the noun "Sápmi"—making the name's meaning "people of Sápmi." The origin of the word is speculated to be related to the Baltic word *žēmē that means "land". "Häme", the Finnish name for Tavastia, a historical province of Finland, is thought to have the same origin, the same word is at least speculated to be the origin of "Suomi", the Finnish name for Finland. Sápmi is the name in North Sami, while the Julev Sami name is Sábme and the South Sami name is Saepmie. In Norwegian and Swedish the term Sameland is used. In modern Swedish and Norwegian, Sápmi is known as "Sameland", but in older Swedish it was known as "Lappmarken", "Lappland", Finnmark, respectively; these two names did refer to the entire Sápmi, but subsequently became applied to areas inhabited by the Sami. "Lappland" became the name of Sweden's northernmost province which in 1809 was split into one part that remained Swedish and one part falling under Finland.

"Lappland" survives as the name of both Sweden's northernmost province and Finland's containing part of the old Ostrobothnian province. The terms "Lapp" and "Lappland" are regarded as offensive by some Sami people, who prefer the area's name in their own language, "Sápmi". In older Norwegian, Sápmi was known as "Finnmork" or "Finnmark". Both Northern Norway and Murmansk Oblast are sometimes marketed as Norwegian Lapland and Russian Lapland, respectively. In the 17th century, Johannes Schefferus assumed the etymology of the lesser used term "Lapland" to be related to the Swedish word for "running", "löpa"; the largest part of Sápmi lies north of the Arctic Circle. The western portion is an area of fjords, deep valleys and mountains, the highest point being Mount Kebnekaise, in Swedish Lapland; the Swedish part of Sápmi is characterized by great rivers running from the northwest to the southeast. From the Norwegian province of Finnmark and eastward, the terrain is that of a low plateau with many marshes and lakes, the largest of, Lake Inari in Finnish Lapland.

The extreme northeastern section lies within the tundra region. In the 19th century scientific expeditions to Sápmi were undertaken, for instance by Jöns Svanberg; the climate is subarctic and vegetation is sparse, except in the densely forested southern portion. The mountainous west coast has milder winters and more precipitation than the large areas east of the mountain chain. North of the Arctic Circle polar night characterize the winter season and midnight sun the summer season—both phenomena are longer the further north you go. Traditionally, the Sami divide the year in eight seasons instead of four. Reindeer, wolf and birds are the main forms of animal life, in addition to a myriad of insects in the short summer. Sea and river fisheries abound in the region. Steamers are operated on some of the lakes, many ports are ice-free throughout the year. All ports along the Norwegian Sea in the west and the Barents Sea in the northeast to Murmansk are ice-free all year; the Gulf of Bothnia freezes over in winter.

The ocean floor to the north and west of Sápmi has deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Sápmi contains valuable mineral deposits iron ore in Sweden, copper in Norway, nickel and apatite in Russia. East Sápmi consists of the Kola peninsula and the Lake Inari region, is home to the eastern Sami languages. While being the most populated part of Sápmi, this is the region where the indigenous population and their culture is weakest. Corresponds to the regions marked 6 through 9 on the map below. Central Sápmi consists of the western part of Finland's Sami Domicile Area, the parts of Norway north of the Saltfjellet mountains and areas on the Swedish side corresponding to this. Central Sápmi is the region where Sami culture is strongest, home to North Sami—the most used Sami language. In the southernmost part of this subregion, Sami culture is rather weak—this is where the moribound Bithun Sami language is used; the areas around the Tysfjord fjord in Norway and the river Lule in Sweden are home to the Julev Sami language, one of the more used Sami

Westland Wizard

The Westland Wizard was Westland Aircraft's first attempt to produce a monoplane fighter. The project was funded and the prototype design was done in the spare time of the company's engineers; this all happened with high-speed performance as the primary goal. Development of the aircraft known as the Westland Wizard began in 1925, when some of the company's engineers drew up, in their spare time, the design for a single seat racing aircraft, the Westland Racer; this was a parasol monoplane, of mixed construction, with a Duralumin and steel-tube forward fuselage covered with metal and fabric skinning, a wood and fabric rear fuselage and a wooden wing. The Westland Widgeon a monoplane, had influenced the designers in their choice of wing arrangement. After receiving permission from Westland's management, a prototype was constructed, powered by a surplus 275 hp Rolls-Royce Falcon III engine salvaged from the prototype Westland Limousine transport after the Limousine was wrecked in a taxying accident.

The Racer made its maiden flight in the spring of 1926. That year, however, it was badly damaged in an emergency landing at Westland's Yeovil factory, it was decided to rebuild the aircraft with a new, all-metal, fuselage. The Falcon was replaced by one of Rolls-Royce's new F. XI (later known as the Kestrel engines giving 490 hp in a more streamlined nose, while two Vickers machine guns were mounted semi-externally in the fuselage sides, it retained the wooden parasol wing of the Racer, mounted close to the fuselage on tandem pylons on the fuselage centreline. The undercarriage was of tailwheel type, while the thick section wing allowed the aircraft's fuel tanks to be buried in the wing, saving space in the fuselage while keeping wing drag low allowing a gravity feed to the engine and reducing fire risks; the cockpit was less in line with the trailing edge of the wing. The seat was of such a height that the pilot's eyes were in the neighbourhood of being level with the wing; this enabled him to look either under the wing.

The height of the seat was adjustable on the ground, the rudder bar could be set up for two positions to suit different pilots. The rebuilt aircraft, now known as the Wizard, flew in November 1927; the Wizard was fast and had impressive climb performance, was tested by the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment at RAF Martlesham Heath from the end of January 1928. While the A&AEEs test pilots praised the Wizard's performance, they criticised the pilot's forward view and considered the aileron control loads too heavy. During the summer of 1928, the Wizard made its first public appearance at the Royal Air Force Display at Hendon, among the other new single-seater fighters; the Wizard attracted a great deal of attention because of its clean lines and attractive appearance, as well as its unusual layout.. The Air Ministry remained interested in the Wizard and gave Westland a contract to further develop the Wizard, it was fitted with a all-metal wing of increased span and reduced chord.

In order to improve the view for the pilot, the wing was fitted with a much thinner centre section and was mounted on more conventional cabane strutting. It had new inset ailerons; the engine was replaced by a supercharged 500 hp Rolls-Royce F. XIS. In this form it was known as the Wizard II; the Wizard II had lower performance than the earlier version, did not impress the Air Ministry sufficiently for it to override its long standing preference for biplane fighters. Data from The Westland "Wizard". General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 26 ft 10 in Wingspan: 39 ft 6 in Height: 9 ft 4 in Wing area: 238 sq ft Airfoil: RAF 34 Empty weight: 2,467 lb Loaded weight: 3,326 lb Fuel capacity: 68 gallons Oil capacity: 5 gallons Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce F. XI liquid-cooled V12 engine, 490 hp Performance Maximum speed: 188 mph at 10,000 ft Endurance: 30 minutes at ground level, plus 2 hours at 15,000 ft Service ceiling: 17,500 ft Rate of climb: 1,945 ft/min at 10,000 ft Armament Guns: 2× Vickers machine guns Bombs: 4× 20 pound high explosive bombs.

Monoplane Westland Aircraft Aircraft of comparable role and era Westland Widgeon Related lists List of Air Ministry specifications

HMS St Vincent (1815)

HMS St Vincent was a 120-gun first-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, laid down in 1810 at Devonport Dockyard and launched on 11 March 1815. She was one of class of three, the only one to see active service, though she was not put into commission until 1829, when she became the flagship of William Carnegie, 7th Earl of Northesk, under Northesk's flag captain, Edward Hawker, at Devonport Dockyard. After paying-off in April 1830 she was recommissioned the following month and was made flagship at Portsmouth Dockyard. From 1831 until 1834 she served in the Mediterranean. On 18 February 1834, St Vincent was at Malta when the British merchant schooner Meteor was destroyed there by the explosion of her cargo of gunpowder with the loss of 28 lives; the explosion damaged St Vincent and drove her aground. She was refloated on 21 February 1834 after discharging all 120 of her cannon. and subsequently was repaired and returned to service. Placed on harbour service at Portsmouth in 1841, St Vincent joined the Experimental Squadron in 1846.

From May 1847 until April 1849 she was the flagship of Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Napier, commanding the Channel Fleet. After a spell in ordinary at Portsmouth, from July to September 1854, during the Crimean War, she was used to transport French troops to the Baltic. Subsequently she became a depot ship at Portsmouth, she was refloated. She was commissioned as a training ship in 1862, as a training ship for boys, moored permanently at Haslar from 1870. In this role she retained 26 guns, she continued as a training ship until 1905. Commander Cecil Thursby was in command from April 1899, succeeded by Commander Bentinck J. D. Yelverton from January 1902; the final commander was G. C. Cayley, who captained the ship from 1904 until its decommissioning in 1906. St Vincent was sold out of the service in 1906 for breaking up. Media related to HMS St Vincent at Colin. "Entente Cordiale, 1865". In McLean, David & Preston, Antony. Warship 1996. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-685-X. Lavery, Brian The Ship of the Line - Volume 1: The development of the battlefleet 1650-1850.

Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-252-8