São Carlos is a Brazilian municipality in the interior of the state of São Paulo, 254 kilometers from the city of São Paulo. With a population of 249,415 inhabitants, it is the 13th largest city in the state in terms of the number of residents, being in the center of the state of São Paulo; the municipality is formed by the headquarters and the districts of Água Vermelha, Bela Vista São-Carlense, Santa Eudóxia and Vila Nery. The city is an important regional industrial center, with the economy based on industrial activities and farming, such as the production of sugar cane, orange and chicken. Served by road and rail systems, São Carlos houses several multinational companies. Given local and, in some ways, regional needs, there is a network of commerce and services distributed in street stores, convenience stores and a mall of the Iguatemi network. In the field of research, besides the universities, two centers of technical development of Embrapa are present in the municipality. São Carlos is the first city in South America in numbers of doctors per inhabitant, according to a survey done since 2006 by UFSCar.
In all, there are 1,700 PhDs. In Brazil, the ratio is one PhD per 5423 inhabitants; the city is home to several public higher education institutions, such as the Federal University of São Carlos, two campi of the University of São Paulo, the Federal Institute of São Paulo and FATEC, as well as a private higher education institution. This makes intense the university activity in the city. For this reason, São Carlos has a floating population of more than twenty-nine thousand graduates and graduate students from other cities and states; the region started to be settled in the end of the 18th century, with the opening of a road that led to the gold mines in Cuiabá and Goiás. Leaving from Piracicaba, passing through Rio Claro, the hills, fields and by typical vegetations of the Brazilian countryside, settlers established in the region. São Carlos' history started in 1831. On the city's foundation date, 4 November 1857, the population resided in some houses around the chapel and the inhabitants were Arruda Botelho's family heirs, who were the first owners of the "Pinhal" alloments.
Between 1831 and 1857 the pioneer coffee farms were formed, starting the first economic activity in the city. The coffee crops came to the "Pinhal" farm in 1840 and spread throughout the fertile lands around, becoming the main export item; the city foundation is credited to Antônio Carlos de Arruda Botelho, Count of Pinhal, an influent farmer and entrepreneur. São Carlos was elevated to village in 1865, when ruling chamber, was created. In 1874, the village had 6,897 inhabitants, as a humble highlight of its fast growth and regional importance, it became a city in 1880 and in 1886, with a population of 16,104, its urban structure was settled. The city arises on the coffee crops expansion context, relevant to the last two decades of the 19th century and to the first two of the 20th century; the arrival of the railway in 1884 provided an efficient system to transport the coffee production to the Santos harbor and boosted the economy of the region. The railway contributed to the political and economic consolidation of the central area of the city.
When slavery ended, government created incentives to bring in immigrants. São Carlos had received German nationals brought by the Count of Pinhal in 1876. Between 1880 and 1904, the city was one of the most important immigration centers in São Paulo state, the majority of them being Italians – Northern Italians, they worked in manufacturing factories, as well as trading activities. In the beginning of the 20th century, countless cultural societies developed social activities aiming to promote literacy. Vittorio Emanuele Society in 1900 and Dante Alighieri in 1902 were but a few of them; the Italian presence was so significant that during the first half of the 20th century, the Italian government had a consulate branch in São Carlos. With the Wall Street crash of 1929, coffee production went through a crisis, which made many immigrants leave rural areas for factories, wood artifact production and construction. Farmers had applied the profits obtained with coffee in the constitution of several types of companies in São Carlos: banks, cable cars, water pumps, theaters and schools.
This established a foundation for industrialization in the city. With the arrival of immigrants from other urban centers from the 1930s – 1940s, their expertise was used to consolidate industrialization as the main economic activity in the city, its peak years were the 1950s, when São Carlos became a manufacturing center, with relevant industrial expression in São Paulo state. The industrial sector developed through workshops that incorporated the coffee industry; the manufacture of processing machinery, fertilizers, furniture, cigars, as well as activities such as tailory, foundries, weaving and pencil production expanded the economy of São Carlos in the 1930s. In the 1950s and 1960s, with the expansion of refrigeration, new factories of machinery and tractors arrived. Numerous small- and medium-sized companies which provided products and services were established. In the second half of the 20th century, the city received a boost of technological and higher educational development when in 1953 the Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, or the Engineering School of the University of São Paulo, was created.
Alfred Ronald "Ronnie" Dawson played hooker for Ireland. He was captain of the British and Irish Lions rugby union team on their 1959 tour to Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Dawson was born in Ireland, he was educated in St. Andrew's College in Dublin, Dublin Institute of Technology Bolton Street where he qualified as an architect and he worked as such for the Bank of Ireland for most of his professional career, he was Chief Head of their Premises Division when he retired. Dawson joined Wanderers F. C. in August 1950 and played his club rugby on the 1st XV between 1950 and 1965, was Captain for the 1955-56 season and Coach/Selector from 1964 to 1968. He was a member of the administrative Executive Committee from 1962 until he retired in 1994, he was President of the club for the 1991-92 season. Dawson played provincial rugby 28 times for Leinster between 1958-1964, was President during the 1972-73 season and was an administrator on the Leinster Branch Executive Committee from May 1965 until he retired in 1986.
Dawson won the first of his 27 Irish caps in 1958, a match in which Ireland beat Australia and Ronnie scored a try - this being his only try and indeed points scored in an Irish jersey. Ronnie was Captain of the side on 11 occasions between 1958-62 and retired from International rugby in 1964. Dawson was a keen member of the Barbarians, playing 22 times on their Easter Tour and other matches between 1956-1965, he selected and played for the Barbarians against several incoming touring teams, including Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. He was a member of the Barbarians Committee for a number of years. Dawson was Captain of the British Lions on their 1959 tour to Australia, New Zealand and Canada - playing in 6 Tests as Captain, he established a Lions record. Notably, he was captain during the final test in Eden Park which the lions won 6-9, remains the only victory home nations players have enjoyed in Eden Park, he was unavailable as a player for the 1962 Lions tour to South Africa. Dawson was Assistant Manager/Coach in 1968 for the Lions tour to South Africa and was a Lions selector.
Following his retirement from playing rugby union at the highest level, Dawson was instrumental in developing coaching of the game in Ireland, setting up coaching structures and was the first Irish coach - a role he undertook between 1969-1972. He was an International Selector from 1968-1972. Dawson moved into administration and was elected to the Irish Rugby Football Union Executive Committee in June 1970 and was President of the IRFU for the 1989-90 season, he is now a Trustee of the IRFU. Dawson was an Irish representative on the Five Nations Committee and Committee of Home Unions from 1973 to 1994 - during this period he was elected to many roles, such as Chairman of Tours Committee, Chairman of Committee of Home Unions and Five Nations Committee, he was an Irish representative on the International Rugby Board from 1974 to 1994, was a member of the Rugby World Cup Organising Committee in 1987 and the International Rugby Settlement between 1990-'94. His lifetime contribution to the game of rugby union was acknowledged by the International Rugby Board firstly in 2004, when he was awarded the Vernon Pugh Award for Distinguished Service and again in 2013, when he was inducted into the IRB Hall of Fame.
His achievements were recognised by the Dublin Institute of Technology, who conferred on him an Honorary Doctorate on 1 November 2014, in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. Rugby statistics site IRB 2013 Hall of Fame Induction DIT Honorary Doctorate
Contra el Viento is the sixth studio album by singer-songwriter Kany García. The album was released on May 17, 2019; the album earned 2,000 album-equivalent units in the week ending May 23. The album was included in Billboard magazine's "The 50 Best Albums of 2019" list; each track of Contra el Viento is preceded by a spoken-word intro. These commentaries were recorded by a range of women García identifies with, including Mercedes Sosa, Natti Natasha, Lila Downs, Sofía Vergara. According to Billboard, the commentaries serve "as the framework for a deep dive into the full range of a personal evolution, going from loss and disillusionment to self-awareness and love again"; the album was produced by Marcos Sánchez and recorded by Orlando Di Pietro, Larry Coll, José E. Diaz, Orlando Ferrer, Harold W. Sanders, Ismar Colón and Daniel Bitran Arizpe. Contra el Viento at AllMusic
The Saracá-Taquera National Forest is a national forest in the state of Pará, Brazil The Saracá-Taquera National Forest is in the Amazon biome. It has an area of 441,282.63 hectares. It covers parts of the municipalities of Faro, Oriximiná and Terra Santa in the state of Pará; the forest is adjacent to the Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve. It is accessed via Porto Trombetas on the left bank of the Trombetas and via Faro and Terra Santa on the Nhamundá. Altitudes are from 100 to 350 metres above sea level. Average annual rainfall is 2,141 millimetres. Temperatures range from 26 to 32 °C with an average of 27 °C; the national forest lies in the basins of the Trombetas and Nhamundá rivers, within the Amazon River basin. About 10% of the area is covered by plateaus with flat tops and steep slopes, while the remainder is undulating lowlands cut by many streams and flooded when the Trombetas spreads over its banks in the rainy season; the Nhamundá River, which forms the border between the states of Pará and Amazonas, has a sandy bottom and clear waters with several waterfalls in its upper reaches.
The streams in the forest that feed the Nhamundá are the Jamari, Teófilo and Araticum. The main streams in the Trombetas basin in the national forest are the Papagaio, Água Fria, Jamari, Ajará, Terra Preta and Saracá; the river reaches its highest levels in April and May, since the rainy season peaks in April. Dense rainforest covers 94.1% of the national forest. Fluvial pioneer formations cover 0.2 % is campinarana. Areas that have suffered from human activity account for 2% of the total. Migratory birds include collared plover and large-billed tern; the glossy antshrike is endemic. The Saracá-Taquera National Forest was created by decree 98.704 of 27 December 1989 and is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. Since 2002 management of the Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve and the national forest has been combined; the management plan for the forest was approved in 2002 and allows about 154,000 hectares to be used for sustainable forestry. The forest is classed as IUCN protected area category VI with the objective of sustainable multiple use of forest resources and scientific research, with emphasis on methods for sustainable exploitation of native forests.
The area has great potential for renewable natural resources include wood and other non-wood products, has bauxite deposits. Two 40-year leases on a total area of 48,000 hectares were sold by auction in 2009. Bauxite ore has been extracted since 1976, the decree that created the forest allowed this to continue. Bauxite extraction is undertaken by Mineração Rio do Norte
Dendrobium mortii known as the slender pencil orchid, is a species of orchid, endemic to eastern Australia. It is an epiphyte with hanging stems and leaves and flowering stems with up to three pale green to dark green flowers; the flowers have a white labellum with purple markings. It grows near the tops of rainforest trees that are shrouded in mist. Dendrobium mortii is an epiphytic herb with pendulous stems 1 mm thick and up to 0.7 m long. The leaves are cylindrical and dark green, 40–100 mm long, 2–4 mm in diameter with a longitudinal groove. Up to three pale green to dark green flowers 12–14 mm long and 17–20 mm wide are arranged on a flowering stem about 10 mm long; the sepals are 12–15 mm long and 2.5–3.5 mm wide and the petals are 10–13 mm long and about 1 mm wide. The labellum has three lobes; the side lobes are upright and the middle lobe curves downwards and has crinkly edges. Flowering occurs from September to November. Dendrobium mortii was first formally described in 1859 by Ferdinand von Mueller and the description was published Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae from a specimen collected near the Hastings River by Hermann Beckler.
The slender pencil orchid grows on the upper branches of rainforest trees on ridge tops that are exposed to breezes and mists. It occurs between the McPherson Range in Queensland and Barrington Tops in New South Wales
Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia, known as Maria Pavlovna the Younger, was a granddaughter of Alexander II of Russia. She was a paternal first cousin of Nicholas II and maternal first cousin of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, her early life was marked by the death of her mother and her father's banishment from Russia when he remarried a commoner in 1902. Grand Duchess Maria and her younger brother Dmitri, to whom she remained close throughout her life, were raised in Moscow by their paternal uncle Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich and his wife Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. In 1908, Maria Pavlovna married Prince Duke of Södermanland; the couple had only one son, Prince Lennart, Duke of Småland Count Bernadotte af Wisborg. The marriage was unhappy and ended in divorce in 1914. During World War I, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna served as a nurse until the fall of the Russian monarchy in February 1917. In September 1917, during the period of the Russian Provisional Government, she married Prince Sergei Putyatin.
They had Prince Roman Sergeievich Putyatin, who died in infancy. The couple escaped revolutionary Russia through Ukraine in July 1918. In exile, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna lived in Bucharest and London before she settled in Paris in 1920. In the 1920s, she opened Kitmir, an embroidering fashion atelier that achieved some level of success. In 1923, she divorced her second husband and after selling Kitmir in 1928, she emigrated to the United States. While living in New York City, she published two books of memoirs: The Education of a Princess, A Princess in Exile. In 1942, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna moved to Argentina where she spent the years of World War II, she returned permanently to Europe in 1949. She died in Konstanz, Germany, in 1958. Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna was born 18 April 1890 in Saint Petersburg, she was the first child and only daughter of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia and his first wife, Grand Duchess Alexandra Georgievna of Russia, born Princess Alexandra of Greece and Denmark.
The baby was named after her late paternal grandmother, the Empress Maria Alexandrovna, her paternal aunt and godmother, the Empress Maria Feodorovna. Maria was not yet two years old when her mother died from complications after giving birth to Maria's younger brother, Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich of Russia in 1891. Grand Duke Paul was so distraught by the unexpected death of his young wife that he neglected his two small children, who were left in the care of his elder brother, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, who had no children of his own. Once he recovered Grand Duke Paul took the two children away with him. A commander of the Imperial horse Guards, Grand Duke Paul loved his children, but as was customary at the time, he refrained from showing them spontaneous affection. Maria and her brother were raised by governesses and tutors, but they adored their father who visited them twice a day; the children spent Christmases and some summer holidays with Grand Duke Sergei and his wife Grand Duchess Elisabeth Feodorovna.
The couple set aside a playroom and bedrooms for the youngsters at Ilinskoe. Maria Pavlovna childhood was spent in splendor, her early memories were of magnificent palaces and lazy country estates populated by armies of servants. Until she was six, Maria spoke Russian badly as all of her governesses and the immediate family spoke English, she had another governess, Mademoiselle Hélène who taught her French and stayed with her until her marriage. At the age of seven she traveled in her own personal railway car accompanied by her governess to visit Germany and France. On Sundays and her brother were allowed to play with children from aristocratic families. Growing up without a mother and with a absent father, Grand Duchess Maria and her brother Dimitri became close, relying on each other for affection and companionship. In 1895, Grand Duke Paul began an affair with Olga Valerianova Pistolkors, he was able to obtain a divorce for her and he married Olga in 1902, while the couple was staying abroad.
As they had married defying Nicholas II's opposition, the Tsar forbade them to return to Russia. Left fatherless, twelve-year-old Maria and eleven-year-old Dmitri moved to Moscow placed under the custody of their uncle Grand Duke Sergei and his wife, Grand Duchess Elisabeth Feodorovna, a sister of the Tsarina Alexandra. Maria and Dimitri resented their aunt and uncle, blaming them for the forced separation from their real father, who had abandoned them. Grand Duke Sergei was demanding, but devoted and affectionate towards the children. Marie wrote in her memoirs: "In his fashion he loved us deeply, he liked to have us near him, gave us a good deal of his time. But he was always jealous of us. If he had known the full extent of our devotion to our father it would have maddened him." Maria Pavlovna commented that she could not disagree with those who thought Grand Duke Sergei heartless, self-centered and cruel. Maria had a somewhat strained relationship with her aunt. Grand Duchess Elisabeth Feodorovna found difficult to relate to the children and was cold and distant towards them.
The teenage Maria was described by her maternal aunt, Grand Duchess Maria Georgievna of Russia, as "full of life and jolly, but inclined to be self-willed and selfish, rather difficult to deal with."Grand Duke Sergei, who served as Governor General of Moscow, was a polarizing figure. Targeted by the SR Combat Organization, he was assassinated by a terrorist bomb at the Kremlin in February 1905; the bomber