São Jorge Castle is a historic castle in the Portuguese capital of Lisbon, located in the freguesia of Santa Maria Maior. Human occupation of the castle hill dates to at least the 8th century BC while the first fortifications built date from the 1st century BC; the hill on which São Jorge Castle stands has played an important part in the history of Lisbon, having served as the location of fortifications occupied successively by Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Moors, before its conquest by the Portuguese in the 1147 Siege of Lisbon. Since the 12th century, the castle has variously served as a royal palace, a military barracks, home of the Torre do Tombo National Archive, now as a national monument and museum. Although the first fortifications on this hilltop date from the 1st century BC, archaeological excavations have identified a human presence in the Tagus valley as far back as the 8th century BC; the first fortification was erected in 48 BC, when Lisbon was classified as a Roman municipality.
The hill was first used by indigenous Celtic tribes by Phoenicians, followed by Greeks and the Carthaginians as a defensive outpost, expropriated successively by the Romans, the Suebi, the Visigoths, the Moors. During the 10th century, the fortifications were rebuilt by Muslim Berber forces. In the context of the Christian Reconquista, the castle and the city of Lisbon were freed from Moorish rule in 1147 by Afonso Henriques and northern European knights in the Siege of Lisbon during the Second Crusade. According to an oft-repeated legend, the knight Martim Moniz, noticing that one of the doors to the castle was open, prevented the Moors from closing it by throwing his own body into the breach, thus allowing Christian soldiers to enter at the cost of his own life. With the taking of the castle Christian forces were able to maintain the defense of Lisbon until the end of the 12th century; when Lisbon became the capital of the Kingdom of Portugal in 1255, the castle served as the alcáçova, a fortified residence for Afonso III, in his role as governor.
It was extensively renovated around 1300 by King Denis I, transforming the Moorish alcáçova into the Royal Palace of the Alcáçova. Between 1373 and 1375, King Ferdinand I ordered the building of the Cerca Nova or Cerca Fernandina, the walled compound that enclosed the entirety of the castle; the master builders. This wall, which replaced the old Moorish walls, was designed to encircle unprotected parts of the city. Completed in two years, it had 77 towers, 34 or 38 gates, a perimeter of 5,400 metres; the castle and the city resisted the forces of Castile several times during the 14th century. It was during this period that the castle was dedicated to Saint George by King John I, who had married the English princess Philippa of Lancaster. Saint George, the warrior-saint, was represented slaying a dragon, was popular in both countries. From this point onward many of the kingdom's records were housed in the Torre de Ulisses known as the Torre Albarrã, until the reign of Manuel I; the Portuguese National Archive, where the eminent Portuguese chroniclers Fernão Lopes and Damião de Góis once worked, is still referred to as the Torre do Tombo.
On 9 December 1448, Gil Pires was named the castle master builder to replace Afonso Esteves, being paid 400 réis for his work. Between 1448 and 1451, the master builder was paid several stipends for his work on the palace; the mason João de Alverca was paid a substantial sum for stonework. These public works continued from 1449 until 1452, with additional payments being made for labor and materials to convert the building from a fortified castle to a royal residence; as the royal palace, the castle was the setting for the reception by King Manuel I of the navigator Vasco da Gama when he returned from discovering the maritime route to India in 1498. The castle served as a theater in 1502 when pioneering playwright Gil Vicente staged his Monólogo do Vaqueiro to honor the birth of Manuel I's son and heir, the future João III. Around the early 16th century, following the construction of the Ribeira Palace beside the Tagus river, the Palace of Alcáçova began to lose its importance. An earthquake occurring in 1531 further damaged the old castle, contributing further to its decay and neglect.
In 1569, King Sebastian ordered the rebuilding of the royal apartments in the castle, intending to use it as his official residence. As part of the rebuilding, in 1577 Filippo Terzi demolished one of the towers near the principal facade of the Church of Loreto. However, many of the works were never completed after the young king's apparent death during the Battle of Alcácer Quibir; the following Portuguese dynastic crisis opened the way for sixty years of Spanish rule and the castle was converted into military barracks and a prison. On 30 December 1642, Teodósio de Frias the Younger was appointed master builder to continue the works begun by his father, Luís de Frias, his grandfather, Teodósio de Frias; this was part of a greater plan by the Spanish forces to recommission the fortification. However, after Portugal regained its independence following the Portuguese Restoration War, the works were taken over by the Portuguese government. On 6 November 1648, Nicolau de Langres was called upon to take over the design and construction of a new fortification that woul
Eunice is a 1982 American made-for-television comedy-drama film starring Carol Burnett, Harvey Korman, Vicki Lawrence, Ken Berry and Betty White, based on characters of a recurring series of comedy sketches called "The Family" featured on The Carol Burnett Show and Carol Burnett & Company. The film was broadcast as a "CBS Special Presentation" on March 15, 1982 and served as a precursor to the spin-off television sitcom Mama's Family, it was directed by Harvey Korman. Eunice is divided into four acts, spanning 23 years in the life of Eunice Harper Higgins: 1955: A young Eunice Harper is looking forward to going to a party with her date Ed Higgins. Eunice's brother Phillip, a recent college graduate, comes home and announces that he has a chance to go to New York City in hopes of becoming a writer and has to leave that day. In the meantime, their mother Thelma Harper is frantic about Phillip going so spontaneously and is trying to get her husband Carl out of the bathroom to stop their son from leaving.
Ed and Eunice have a fight on the porch. Ed storms off, they break up, Eunice goes to the party. 1963: Ed and Eunice are married and have two sons and Bubba. Ed and Eunice come to Thelma's house to see Phillip, visiting from New York. Phillip is now a bestselling author of a historical novel, he announces. Carl had died years earlier and Thelma wants to visit his grave. Eunice, who wants to be an actress, wants to leave with Phillip. 1973: Ed and Eunice are divorced and Phillip, who has won the Pulitzer Prize, is visiting again, this time from Los Angeles. Although many of his books were made into movies, he decides this time to write the screenplay for a new film. Eunice still wants a part in Phillip's film. At the same time, missing for a year, calls to a frantic Eunice demanding to know where he is. 1978: Eunice and their sister Ellen come home from Thelma's funeral. The three siblings are discussing the funeral and the future. Ed shows up to give his condolences, seems to want to reconcile with Eunice, after she agrees to give it a try, he mentions he had remarried, it turns out he was hoping to get Phillip to invest in his new hardware business.
After Eunice throws Ed out, she gets into an argument with Ellen, who storms out. Eunice, in a frenzy breaks down yelling out for Thelma. In Thelma's bedroom, Phillip tells Eunice that the only thing stopping her from the life she wants to live is herself. Phillip convinces Eunice to spontaneously come to Los Angeles with him, she decides to leave with Phillip and in her excitement, she calls her aunt Ina to let her know what her plans are, but aunt Ina wants her to help her with her sore back and Eunice postpones her trip for a few days. Carol Burnett as Eunice Harvey Korman as Ed Vicki Lawrence as Mama Ken Berry as Phillip Betty White as Ellen Dick Clair as Carl Lawrence was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie for her role as Thelma Harper. Eunice was released as a bonus feature on Mama's Family: The Complete Second Season DVD set on September 10, 2013. Eunice on IMDb
Hermenegildo Gutiérrez, was a distinguished Galician noble who lived during the 9th and 10th centuries. As the Mayordomo mayor of King Alfonso III, he was an active member of the curia regia, his daughter Elvira, as the first wife of King Ordoño II, was queen consort of León. Count Hermenegildo, the son of count Gutierre and his wife Elvira, appears in medieval documentation starting in 869 — when with his father-in-law, Gatón, count in Astorga and El Bierzo, settled a dispute between the king of Asturias and bishop Mauro — until his last appearance in May 912, when he confirmed a donation made by his son-in-law, king Ordoño II, to the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, he was one of the most loyal vassals of King Alfonso III, who named him his mayordomo mayor and compensated his efforts and services to the crown with many properties and tenencias. Hermenegildo played an active role in military operations during the Reconquista. In 878, he defeated the Muslim troops who had attacked Oporto and Coimbra, repopulating these cities, as well as neighboring Braga and Lamego, with people from Galicia after expelling the Moors.
His holdings there would pass to his descendants and come to be called the County of Coimbra, retaken again in 987 by Almanzor and it was not until 1064 that the city was permanently reconquered by the Christian armies of Ferdinand I of León. In 895, Hermenegildo defeated and captured the Galician noble Witiza who had taken up arms against the king of Asturias, taking him in chains before the monarch who compensated the count with many of the rebel's estates and tenencias, it was claimed that Hermenegildo was descended from Count Ardabastus, an individual descended from the Constantinian and Theodosian dynasties of the Roman Empire. The line is documented in a controversial and dubious deed, while some have suggested that the genealogy it contains could still be authentic, the lack of surviving documentation from the period spanned makes independent evaluation impossible. If true, it would be a rare example of Descent from antiquity, he married daughter of count Gatón. She was a first cousin of King Alfonso since Gatón is believed to have been the brother of Ordoño I, or of his wife.
This marriage gave rise to one of the most prominent noble families in medieval Galicia and in the County of Portugal. The offspring of this marriage were: Arias Menéndez count, married to Ermesenda Gundesíndez, he had at least one daughter, Elvira Arias, married to her cousin Munio Gutiérrez. Elvira Menéndez, who married around the year 900 the future king of Galicia and León, Ordoño II of León, was mother of his children, including Kings Ramiro II and Alfonso IV of León. Gutierre Menéndez, who married Ilduara Ériz, daughter of count Ero Fernández and countess Adosinda; this couple had several children, including Saint Rudesind. Enderquina "Palla" Menéndez, who married Gundesindo Eriz, son of count Ero Fernández. Ildonza or Aldonza Menéndez who married Gutierre Osorio, count in Lourenzá, with whom she had several children, including Queen Adosinda Gutiérrez, the first wife of King Ramiro II of León, Count Osorio Gutiérrez, called el conde santo, founder of the Monastery of Lourenzá Patruina Menéndez Gudilona Menéndez, the wife of count Lucidio Vimáraz of Portucale, son of count Vimara Pérez and Trudildi.
Her filiation, a hypothesis by Almeida Fernández, is not documented. López Sangil, José Luis. "La fundación del Monasterio de San Salvador de Cines". Anuario Brigantino. Betanzos. Pp. 139–156. ISSN 1133-1240. OCLC 402770925. López Sangil, José Luis. La nobleza altomedieval gallega, la familia Froílaz-Traba. La Coruña: Toxosoutos, S. L. ISBN 84-95622-68-8. Martínez Díez, Gonzalo. El Condado de Castilla: la historia frente a la leyenda. I. Valladolid. ISBN 84-9718-276-6. Mattoso, José. A nobreza medieval portuguesa, a família e o poder. Published in 1968 in Studium Generale, vol. 12, pp 59-115. Lisbon: Editorial Estampa. OCLC 8242615. Sáez, Emilio. "Notas al Episcopologio Minduniense del Siglo X". Hispania: revista española de Historia. Madrid: CSIC, Instituto Jerónimo Zurita: 3–79. Sáez, Emilio. "Los ascendientes de San Rosendo: notas para el estudio de la monarquía astur-leonesa durante los siglos IX y X". Hispania: revista española de Historia. Madrid: CSIC, Instituto Jerónimo Zurita: 139–156. OCLC 682814356. Torres Sevilla-Quiñones de León, Margarita Cecilia.