São Tomé is the capital and largest city of São Tomé and Príncipe. Its name is Portuguese for "Saint Thomas", it had an estimated population of 71,868 in 2015, accounting for over a third of the total population of the country. Álvaro Caminha founded the colony of São Tomé in 1493. The Portuguese came to São Tomé in search of land to grow sugarcane; the island was uninhabited before the arrival of the Portuguese sometime around 1470. São Tomé, situated about 40 kilometres north of the equator, had a climate wet enough to grow sugarcane in wild abundance; the nearby African Kingdom of Kongo became a source of slave labourers to work the sugar plantations. São Tomé is centred on a sixteenth-century cathedral, rebuilt in the 19th century. Another early building is Fort São Sebastião, now the São Tomé National Museum. On July 9, 1595, a slave revolt led by Rei Amador took control of the capital. In 1599, the Dutch took the city as well as the islands for two days; the city served as the capital of the Portuguese colony of São Tomé and Príncipe and, from São Tomé and Príncipe's independence in 1975, as capital of the sovereign nation.
Important as a port, São Tomé is located on Ana Chaves Bay in the northeast of São Tomé Island, Ilhéu das Cabras lies nearby offshore. São Tomé is located northeast of Trindade, southeast of northwest of Santana, it is linked to these towns by a highway which encircles the entire island of São Tomé. It is linked to Cape Verde by a weekly ferry. Features of the town include the Presidential Palace, the cathedral, a cinema; the city is home to schools,and middle schools, high schools, one polytechnic, two markets, three radio stations, the public television station TVSP, several clinics and hospitals, the country's main airport - São Tomé International Airport, many squares. São Tomé serves as the centre of the island's road and bus networks; the town is well known for the tchiloli playing. São Tomé is served by São Tomé International Airport with regular flights to Europe and other African Countries. São Tomé features a tropical wet and dry climate with a lengthy wet season and a short dry season.
The wet season runs from October through May. São Tomé sees on average just under 1,000 mm of precipitation per year. Temperatures in the city are constant, with average high temperatures around 30 °C and average low temperatures around 22 °C. University of São Tomé and Príncipe, formed in 2016 National Lyceum Patrice Lumumba Preparatory School National Library of São Tomé and PríncipeThe following Portuguese international schools are in the city: Escola Portuguesa de S. Tomé Instituto Diocesano de Formação João Paulo II Escola Bambino Escola Internacional de S. Tomé e Príncipe The main hospital of the country is Hospital Ayres de Menezes. Sports clubs based in the city include Sporting Praia Cruz and Vitória FC based in the neighborhood of Riboque. All clubs play at Estádio Nacional 12 de Julho. José Vianna da Motta Portuguese pianist and composer Alfredo Azancot Portuguese architect who emigrated to Chile José de Almada Negreiros Portuguese artist, created literature and painting, developed ballet choreographies Francisco José Tenreiro geographer and writer of the colonial era Alda Neves da Graça do Espírito Santo poet working in Portuguese, who served in the Santomean government after independence Guadalupe de Ceita writer and a doctor and national hero Miguel Trovoada was Prime Minister 1975–1979 and President 1991–2001 of São Tomé and Príncipe Fradique de Menezes President of São Tomé and Príncipe from 2003 to 2011 Olinda Beja poet and narrator, emigrated to Portugal and moved to Viseu Tomé Vera Cruz Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe from April 2006 to February 2008 Conceição Lima poet from the town of Santana Patrice Trovoada politician, Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe 2008 to June 2008, 2010 to December 2012 and since November 2014 Aurélio Martins journalist and politician Nuno Espírito Santo retired Portuguese footballer, head coach of English club Wolverhampton Wanderers F.
C. Naide Gomes former heptathlete and long jumper, competed in 100 metres hurdles at the 2000 Summer Olympics Lasset dos Santos, footballer Yazaldes Nascimento Portuguese athlete, runs the 100 metres, competed in the 2004 Summer Olympics Alcino Silva sprint canoer, competed in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing Harramiz professional footballer who plays in Portugal José da Silva local footballer Buly Da Conceição Triste sprint canoeist, competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics Faduley footballer in Portugal Charles Monteiro footballer who plays in Portugal Gilson Costa Portuguese professional footballer Romário Leitão long distance runner, competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in the men's 5000 metres Gedson Fernandes Portuguese professional footballer São Tomé is twinned with: Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Luanda, Angola Libreville, Gabon Accra, Ghana Lisbon, Portugal Sao Tome and Principe at Curlie www.saotome.st - Facts about the country, how to get there, where to stay, what to do, images etc.
Local travel agency Navetur-Equatour - information&pictures http://www
The Cameroon line is a 1,600 km chain of volcanoes. It includes islands in the Gulf of Guinea and mountains that extend along the border region of eastern Nigeria and western Cameroon, from Mount Cameroon on the Gulf of Guinea north and east towards Lake Chad; the islands, which span the equator, have tropical climates and are home to many unique plant and bird species. The mainland mountain regions are much cooler than the surrounding lowlands, contain unique and ecologically important environments; the Cameroon volcanic line is geologically unusual in extending through both the ocean and the continental crust. Various hypotheses have been advanced by different geologists to explain the line. In the Gulf of Guinea, the Cameroon line consists of six offshore volcanic swells that have formed islands or seamounts. From the southwest to the northeast the island groups are São Tomé, Príncipe and Bioko. Two large seamounts lie between São Tomé and Príncipe, between Principe and Bioko. On the mainland, the line starts with Mount Cameroon and extends northeast in a range known as the Western High Plateau, home to the Cameroonian Highlands forests.
Volcanic swells further inland are Manengouba and the Oku Massif. East of Oku there are further volcanic mountains in the Ngaoundere Plateau, some of which appear to have similar origins; the southernmost island in the chain is Annobón known as Pagalu, with an area of about 17.5 km2. It is an extinct volcano; the average temperature is 26.1 °C, with little seasonal variation. Most rain falls from November to May, with annual precipitation averaging 1,196 mm - less than on the mainland. Annobón has steep mountains, covered with rich woods and luxuriant vegetation; the island belongs to Equatorial Guinea. The small population lives in one community, practicing some agriculture but living by fishing. São Tomé Island is 854 km2 in area, lying on the equator; the entire island is a massive shield volcano which rises from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, over 3,000 m below sea level, reaches 2,024 m above sea level in the Pico de São Tomé. The oldest rock on Sao Tome is 13 million years old. Most of the lava erupted on São Tomé over the last million years has been basalt.
The youngest dated rock on the island is about 100,000 years old, but numerous more recent cinder cones are found on the southeast side of the island. Due to the prevailing southwesterly winds, there is great variability in rainfall. In the rain shadow to the northeast of Sao Tome the vegetation is dry savannah, with only 60 cm of rain each year. By contrast, the lush south and west of the island receive about 6 m of rain falling in March and April; the climate is humid with the rainy season from October to May. The higher slopes of the island are form part of the Obo National Park. São Tomé has never been connected to Africa, therefore has many unique plants and birds. Of the bird species, 16 are endemic and six are near endemic, of which four are only shared with Príncipe. Six species are considered vulnerable, three are critically endangered. Schistometopum thomense, a bright yellow species of caecilian, is endemic to São Tomé; as of 2010, São Tomé and Príncipe, an independent nation, had an estimated population of 167,000, most of whom lived on São Tomé island.
The main language is Portuguese, but there are many speakers of Forro and Angolar, two Portuguese-based creole languages. The economy is based on tourism. Agriculture is important near the north and east coasts, with the chief exports being cocoa, coffee and palm products. There are large reserves of oil in the ocean between Nigeria and São Tomé which have not yet been exploited. Príncipe is the smaller of the two major islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, with an area of 136 km2. Volcanic activity stopped around 15.7 million years ago, the island has been eroded apart from spectacular towers of phonolite. The island is surrounded by smaller islands including Ilheu Bom Bom, Ilhéu Caroço, Tinhosa Grande and Tinhosa Pequena, lies in ocean 3,000 m deep, it rises in the south to 946 m at Pico de Príncipe, in a thickly forested area within the Obo National Park. The north and centre of the island were plantations but have reverted to forest; as with São Tomé, the island has always been isolated from the mainland and therefore has many unique species of plants and animals, including six endemic birds.
Príncipe has a population of around 5,000 people. Other than Portuguese, some speak Lunguyê with a few Forro speakers. Bioko is just 32 km off the coast of Cameroon, on the continental shelf; the island used to be the end of a peninsula attached to the mainland, but was cut off when sea levels rose 10,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. With an area of 2,017 km2 it is the largest island in the Cameroon line. Bioko has three basaltic shield volcanoes, joining at the lower levels. San Carlos is 2,260 m high with a broad summit caldera, lying at the extreme SW of the island; the volcano has been active within the last 2000 years. Santa Isabel is the largest volcano at 3,007 m in height, contains many satellite cinder cones. Three eruptions have been reported from vents on the southeast flank during the late-19th and early-20th centuries. San Joaquin known as Pico Biao or Pico do Moka, is 2,009 m high, on the southeast of the island; the summit is cut by a small lake-filled caldera, there is a crater lake on the NE
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, country or other defined zone, or habitat type. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species, endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area; the word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", dēmos meaning "the people"; the term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was first used by Frank and McCoy. Precinctive seems to have been coined by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian fauna in 1900: "I use the word precinctive in the sense of'confined to the area under discussion'...'precinctive forms' means those forms that are confined to the area specified." That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks.
Physical and biological factors can contribute to endemism. The orange-breasted sunbird is found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa; the glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska. Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another. There are two subcategories of endemism: neoendemism. Paleoendemism refers to species that were widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants. Endemic types or species are likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, Socotra. Hydrangea hirta is an example of an endemic species found in Japan. Endemics can become endangered or extinct if their restricted habitat changes, particularly—but not only—due to human actions, including the introduction of new organisms.
There were millions of both Bermuda petrels and "Bermuda cedars" in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct. Cedars ravaged by centuries of shipbuilding, were driven nearly to extinction in the twentieth century by the introduction of a parasite. Bermuda petrels and cedars are now rare. Principal causes of habitat degradation and loss in endemistic ecosystems include agriculture, urban growth, surface mining, mineral extraction, logging operations and slash-and-burn agriculture
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance, a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic and lipophilic. Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are flammable and surface active; the general definition of oil includes classes of chemical compounds that may be otherwise unrelated in structure and uses. Oils may be animal, vegetable, or petrochemical in origin, may be volatile or non-volatile, they are used for food, medical purposes and the manufacture of many types of paints and other materials. Specially prepared oils are used in some religious rituals as purifying agents. First attested in English 1176, the word oil comes from Old French oile, from Latin oleum, which in turn comes from the Greek ἔλαιον, "olive oil, oil" and that from ἐλαία, "olive tree", "olive fruit"; the earliest attested forms of the word are the Mycenaean Greek, e-ra-wo and, e-rai-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script. Organic oils are produced in remarkable diversity by plants and other organisms through natural metabolic processes.
Lipid is the scientific term for the fatty acids and similar chemicals found in the oils produced by living things, while oil refers to an overall mixture of chemicals. Organic oils may contain chemicals other than lipids, including proteins and alkaloids. Lipids can be classified by the way that they are made by an organism, their chemical structure and their limited solubility in water compared to oils, they have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are lacking in oxygen compared to other organic compounds and minerals. Crude oil, or petroleum, its refined components, collectively termed petrochemicals, are crucial resources in the modern economy. Crude oil originates from ancient fossilized organic materials, such as zooplankton and algae, which geochemical processes convert into oil; the name "mineral oil" is a misnomer, in that minerals are not the source of the oil—ancient plants and animals are. Mineral oil is organic. However, it is classified as "mineral oil" instead of as "organic oil" because its organic origin is remote, because it is obtained in the vicinity of rocks, underground traps, sands.
Mineral oil refers to several specific distillates of crude oil. Several edible vegetable and animal oils, fats, are used for various purposes in cooking and food preparation. In particular, many foods are fried in oil much hotter than boiling water. Oils are used for flavoring and for modifying the texture of foods. Cooking oils are derived either from animal fat, as butter and other types, or plant oils from the olive, maize and many other species. Oils are applied to hair to give it a lustrous look, to prevent tangles and roughness and to stabilize the hair to promote growth. See hair conditioner. Oil has been used throughout history as a religious medium, it is considered a spiritually purifying agent and is used for anointing purposes. As a particular example, holy anointing oil has been an important ritual liquid for Judaism and Christianity. Color pigments are suspended in oil, making it suitable as a supporting medium for paints; the oldest known extant oil paintings date from 650 AD. Oils are used for instance in electric transformers.
Heat transfer oils are used both as coolants, for heating and in other applications of heat transfer. Given that they are non-polar, oils do not adhere to other substances; this makes them useful as lubricants for various engineering purposes. Mineral oils are more used as machine lubricants than biological oils are. Whale oil is preferred for lubricating clocks, because it does not evaporate, leaving dust, although its use was banned in the USA in 1980, it is a long-running myth that spermaceti from whales has still been used in NASA projects such as the Hubble Telescope and the Voyager probe because of its low freezing temperature. Spermaceti is not an oil, but a mixture of wax esters, there is no evidence that NASA has used whale oil; some oils burn in liquid or aerosol form, generating light, heat which can be used directly or converted into other forms of energy such as electricity or mechanical work. To obtain many fuel oils, crude oil is pumped from the ground and is shipped via oil tanker or a pipeline to an oil refinery.
There, it is converted from crude oil to diesel fuel, fuel oils, jet fuel, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas. A 42-US-gallon barrel of crude oil produces 10 US gallons of diesel, 4 US gallons of jet fuel, 19 US gallons of gasoline, 7 US gallons of other products, 3 US gallons split between heavy fuel oil and liquified petroleum gases, 2 US gallons of heating oil; the total production of a barrel of crude into various products results in an increase to 45 US gallons. Not all oils used as fuels are mineral oils, see biodiesel and vegetable oil fuel. In the 18th and 19th cent
Gabon the Gabonese Republic, is a country on the west coast of Central Africa. Located on the equator, Gabon is bordered by Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, Cameroon to the north, the Republic of the Congo on the east and south, the Gulf of Guinea to the west, it has an area of nearly 270,000 square kilometres and its population is estimated at 2 million people. Its capital and largest city is Libreville. Since its independence from France in 1960, the sovereign state of Gabon has had three presidents. In the early 1990s, Gabon introduced a multi-party system and a new democratic constitution that allowed for a more transparent electoral process and reformed many governmental institutions. Abundant petroleum and foreign private investment have helped make Gabon one of the most prosperous countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, with the 7th highest HDI and the fourth highest GDP per capita in the region. GDP grew by more than 6% per year from 2010 to 2012. However, because of inequality in income distribution, a significant proportion of the population remains poor.
Gabon's name originates from gabão, Portuguese for "cloak", the shape of the estuary of the Komo River by Libreville. The earliest inhabitants of the area were Pygmy peoples, they were replaced and absorbed by Bantu tribes as they migrated. In the 15th century, the first Europeans arrived. By the 18th century, a Myeni speaking kingdom known as Orungu formed in Gabon. On February 10, 1722, Bartholomew Roberts, a Welsh pirate known as Black Bart, died at sea off Cape Lopez, he raided ships off the Americas and West Africa from 1719 to 1722. French explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza led his first mission to the Gabon-Congo area in 1875, he founded the town of Franceville, was colonial governor. Several Bantu groups lived in the area, now Gabon when France occupied it in 1885. In 1910, Gabon became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa, a federation that survived until 1959. In World War II, the Allies invaded Gabon in order to overthrow the pro-Vichy France colonial administration.
The territories of French Equatorial Africa became independent on August 17, 1960. The first president of Gabon, elected in 1961, was Léon M'ba, with Omar Bongo Ondimba as his vice president. After M'ba's accession to power, the press was suppressed, political demonstrations banned, freedom of expression curtailed, other political parties excluded from power, the Constitution changed along French lines to vest power in the Presidency, a post that M'ba assumed himself. However, when M'ba dissolved the National Assembly in January 1964 to institute one-party rule, an army coup sought to oust him from power and restore parliamentary democracy. French paratroopers flew in within 24 hours to restore M'ba to power. After a few days of fighting, the coup ended and the opposition was imprisoned, despite widespread protests and riots. French soldiers still remain in the Camp de Gaulle on the outskirts of Gabon's capital to this day; when M'Ba died in 1967, Bongo replaced him as president. In March 1968, Bongo declared Gabon a one-party state by dissolving the BDG and establishing a new party—the Parti Democratique Gabonais.
He invited all Gabonese, regardless of previous political affiliation. Bongo sought to forge a single national movement in support of the government's development policies, using the PDG as a tool to submerge the regional and tribal rivalries that had divided Gabonese politics in the past. Bongo was elected President in February 1975. Bongo was November 1986 to 7-year terms. In early 1990 economic discontent and a desire for political liberalization provoked violent demonstrations and strikes by students and workers. In response to grievances by workers, Bongo negotiated with them on a sector-by-sector basis, making significant wage concessions. In addition, he promised to open up the PDG and to organize a national political conference in March–April 1990 to discuss Gabon's future political system; the PDG and 74 political organizations attended the conference. Participants divided into two loose coalitions, the ruling PDG and its allies, the United Front of Opposition Associations and Parties, consisting of the breakaway Morena Fundamental and the Gabonese Progress Party.
The April 1990 conference approved sweeping political reforms, including creation of a national Senate, decentralization of the budgetary process, freedom of assembly and press, cancellation of an exit visa requirement. In an attempt to guide the political system's transformation to multiparty democracy, Bongo resigned as PDG chairman and created a transitional government headed by a new Prime Minister, Casimir Oye-Mba; the Gabonese Social Democratic Grouping, as the resulting government was called, was smaller than the previous government and included representatives from several opposition parties in its cabinet. The RSDG drafted a provisional constitution in May 1990 that provided a basic bill of rights and an independent judiciary but retained strong executive powers for the president. After further review by a constitutional committee and the National Assembly, this document came into force in March 1991. Opposition to the PDG continued after the April 1990 conference, in September 1990, two coup d'état attempts were uncovered and aborted.
Despite anti-government demonstrations after the untimely death of an opposition leader, the first multiparty National Assembly elections in almo
Mestiço, in Colonial Brazil, the Portuguese-speaking part of Latin America, was used to refer to mamelucos, persons born from a couple in which one was an Indigenous American and the other a European. It translates as "mameluke" referring to the common Iberian comparisons of swarthy people to North Africans; the term mameluco fell in disuse in Brazil and was replaced by the much more familiar-sounding caboclo or cariboca/curiboca, given the fact that most Brazilians those living in ubiquitously Christian villages and towns, spoke Tupi and the Tupi-derived línguas gerais until the 18th century, when they were banned by the Marquis of Pombal in 1777. A young Indigenous or caboclo boy would be a piá, from Tupi pyã, "heart", the way Indigenous mothers referred to their children. In modern-day Brazil this word became general slang for any boy, regardless of race. Before the use of the Portuguese language in public became mandatory for Brazilians other categories of mestiço appeared, with the introduction of African slavery by the Portuguese to Brazil and subsequent assimilation of them, whether enslaved, free or runaway, in both Portuguese settlements and Indigenous villages, as well as the Portuguese colonization of Africa and Asia.
A mulato was a person of simultaneous visible African descent. A cafuzo, cafuz, carafuzo, cafúzio, cabo-verde, caburé or caboré was a person of Amerindian and African descent, with jíbaro being someone, a quarter Amerindian and three quarters African, a juçara would be a visibly tri-racial person of mixed African and Amerindian descent. Any person of mixed African descent could be referred to as cabrocha, which referred to a young child of a black and a white person. Pardo, the Portuguese word for a light brown color, evolved to mean any visibly mixed-race person that would not pass for any other race, to the exception of those of lighter complexion, who could be morenos or sararás. In Brazil, the word mestiço was substituted for "pardo" in the 1890 census, alongside "caboclo", but returned to "pardo" in subsequent censuses; the term is used to describe individuals born from any mixture of different ethnicities. These individuals have a blend in African, Native American, European Caucasian. There are specific groups like - European/Portuguese and Native American parents are known as caboclo or, more in the past, mameluco.
Individuals of European and African ancestry are described as mulato. Cafuzos are the production of Native African ancestors. If someone has a mix of all three they are known as "pardo". Brazil celebrates The Mixed Race Day to celebrate racial unity in Paraíba and Roraima; the Day of the Caboclo occurs June 24. The Mestiço are of mixed European, native born indigenous Angolan and/or other indigenous African lineages, they tend to have full Portuguese names. Although they make up about 2% of the population, they are the elite, racially privileged, group in the country. Mestiços formed social and cultural allegiances with Portuguese colonists, subsequently identifying with the Portuguese over and above their indigenous identities. Despite their loyalty, the ethnic group faced economic and political adversity at hands of the white population during times of economic hardship for whites; these actions lead to ostracizing Mestiços from their inherited economic benefits which sparked the group to take a new sociopolitical direction.
However, since the 400 year Portuguese presence in the country, the ethnic group has retained their position of entitlement, evident in the political and cultural hierarchy in present-day Angola. Their phenotype range is broad with a number of members possessing physical characteristics that are close to others within the indigenous black non-mixed population. Since the Mestiços are better educated than the rest of the indigenous black population, they exercise influence in government disproportionate to their numbers. In Guinea-Bissau 1 % of the population is of mixed African Portuguese descent. In Cape Verde mestiço designated an individual of mixed European and African descent. A minority of the population of Mozambique are of mixed Portuguese heritage. Mestiços of São Tomé and Príncipe are descendants of Portuguese colonists and African slaves brought to Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe islands during the early years of settlement from modern Benin, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola (these people are known as filhos
A cinder cone is a steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments, such as either volcanic clinkers, volcanic ash, or cinder, built around a volcanic vent. They consist of loose pyroclastic debris formed by explosive eruptions or lava fountains from a single cylindrical, vent; as the gas-charged lava is blown violently into the air, it breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as either cinders, clinkers, or scoria around the vent to form a cone, symmetrical. Most cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit; the rock fragments called cinders or scoria, are glassy and contain numerous gas bubbles "frozen" into place as magma exploded into the air and cooled quickly. Cinder cones range in size from tens to hundreds of meters tall. Cinder cones are made of pyroclastic material. Many cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit. During the waning stage of a cinder-cone eruption, the magma has lost most of its gas content; this gas-depleted magma does not fountain but oozes into the crater or beneath the base of the cone as lava.
Lava issues from the top because the loose, uncemented cinders are too weak to support the pressure exerted by molten rock as it rises toward the surface through the central vent. Because it contains so few gas bubbles, the molten lava is denser than the bubble-rich cinders. Thus, it burrows out along the bottom of the cinder cone, lifting the less dense cinders like a cork on water, advances outward, creating a lava flow around the cone's base; when the eruption ends, a symmetrical cone of cinders sits at the center of a surrounding pad of lava. If the crater is breached, the remaining walls form an amphitheatre or horseshoe shape around the vent. Cinder cones are found on the flanks of shield volcanoes and calderas. For example, geologists have identified nearly 100 cinder cones on the flanks of Mauna Kea, a shield volcano located on the island of Hawaii; these cones are referred to as'scoria cones' and'cinder and spatter cones.'The most famous cinder cone, grew out of a corn field in Mexico in 1943 from a new vent.
Eruptions continued for nine years, built the cone to a height of 424 meters, produced lava flows that covered 25 km². The Earth's most active cinder cone is Cerro Negro in Nicaragua, it is part of a group of four young cinder cones NW of Las Pilas volcano. Since its initial eruption in 1850, it has erupted more than 20 times, most in 1995 and 1999. Based on satellite images it was suggested that cinder cones might occur on other terrestrial bodies in the solar system too, they were reported on the flanks of Pavonis Mons in Tharsis, in the region of Hydraotes Chaos on the bottom of the Coprates Chasma, or in the volcanic field Ulysses Colles. It is suggested that domical structures in Marius Hills might represent lunar cinder cones; the size and shape of cinder cones depend on environmental properties as different gravity and/or atmospheric pressure might change the dispersion of ejected scoria particles. For example, cinder cones on Mars seem to be more than two times wider than terrestrial analogues as lower atmospheric pressure and gravity enable wider dispersion of ejected particles over a larger area.
Therefore, it seems that erupted amount of material is not sufficient on Mars for the flank slopes to attain the angle of repose and Martian cinder cones seem to be ruled by ballistic distribution and not by material redistribution on flanks as typical on Earth. Some cinder cones are monogenetic -- the result of a never-to-be-repeated eruption. Parícutin in Mexico, Diamond Head, Koko Head, Punchbowl Crater and some cinder cones on Mauna Kea are monogenetic cinder cones. Monogenetic eruptions can last for more than 10 years. Parícutin erupted from 1943 to 1952. List of cinder cones Volcanic cone – Landform of ejecta from a volcanic vent piled up in a conical shape Capulin Volcano National Monument