Château Suduiraut Cru du Roy and Château de Suduiraut, is a sweet white wine ranked as Premier Cru Classé in the original Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855. Belonging to the Sauternes appellation in Gironde, in the region of Graves, the winery is located in Preignac, adjacent to Château d'Yquem. Château Suduiraut official site
Margaret River, Western Australia
Margaret River is a town in the South West of Western Australia, located in the valley of the eponymous Margaret River, 277 kilometres south of Perth, the state capital. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Augusta-Margaret River. Margaret River's coast to the west of the town is a renowned surfing location, with worldwide fame for its surf breaks including, but not limited to, Main Break, The Box, Rivadog. Colloquially, the area is referred to Margie Rivs; the surrounding area is the Margaret River Wine Region and is known for its wine production and tourism, attracting an estimated 500,000 visitors annually. In earlier days the area was better known for agricultural production; the town is named after the river, presumed to be named after Margaret Whicher, cousin of John Garrett Bussell in 1831. The name is first shown on a map of the region published in 1839. Before British settlement the area was inhabited by the Noongar people; the first British settlers arrived as early as 1850, with timber logging commencing in around 1870.
By 1910, the town had a hotel which operated as a post office. After World War I, an attempt by the Government of Western Australia to attract migrants to Western Australia and establish farms in the region attracted new settlers to the town. In 1922 over 100 settlers moved into the district. In the early 1920s the Busselton to Margaret River Railway was built and in 1925 the Margaret River to Flinders Bay line opened. Margaret River is located 9 kilometres inland from the Indian Ocean at a point about halfway between Cape Naturaliste and Cape Leeuwin in Western Australia's South West region; the climate is warm-summer Mediterranean, with an average annual rainfall of around 1,130 millimetres. Most rain falls between May and August, when around two days in three record measurable rainfall and around one in ten over 10 millimetres. On occasions, as in August 1955, the town has had measurable rain on every day of a month in this period. During the summer, the weather is warm, though there are sea breezes, sunny.
The dry summers, coupled with strong winds, creates an environment where there is always a high risk of bush fires. Margaret River is the foremost Geographical Indication wine region in the South West Australia Zone, with nearly 55 square kilometres under vine and over 138 wineries as at 2008; the region is made up predominantly of boutique-size wine producers, although winery operations range from the smallest, crushing 3.5 tonnes per year, to the largest at around 7,000 tonnes. The region produces just three percent of total Australian grape production, but commands over 20 percent of the Australian premium wine market. Stretching some 100 kilometres from north to south and about 27 kilometres wide in parts, the region is bounded to the east by the Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge, between Cape Naturaliste and Cape Leeuwin, to the west by the Indian Ocean. A Mediterranean-style climate, lacking extreme summer and winter temperatures, provides ideal growing conditions; the climate is described as similar to that of Bordeaux in a dry vintage.
Humidity levels are ideal during the growing period and the combination of climate and viticulture practices leads to high quality fruit of intense flavour. Annual vintage results continue to exceed expectations and reinforce Margaret River's reputation as one of the premium wine-producing regions of the world; the principal grape varieties in the region are evenly split between red and white. Several hundred caves are located near Margaret River, all of them within Leeuwin-Naturaliste National Park. Six of these are open to the public. One of which being the multi-chambered Mammoth Cave, which lies 21 kilometres south of the town and contains fossils dating back over 35,000 years; the cave was first discovered by European settlers in 1850 and has been open to the public since 1904. The cave can be explored by a self-guided audio tour, is one of the few caves in Australia offering partial disabled access; the other five caves open to the public in the area are Jewel Cave, Lake Cave, Ngilgi Cave, Calgardup Cave and Giants Cave.
Many other caves can be accessed with a permit by experienced cavers. The Margaret River area has acquired a range of synonyms for the collection of surf breaks nearby, with some 75 breaks along 130 km of coastline. Significant surfing competitions concentrate their locale to Margarets Main Break which breaks in the vicinity of Prevelly at the mouth of Margaret River; the actual range of surf breaks range from the eastern side of Cape Naturaliste down to just south of Cape Hamelin, despite web sites and online sources calling the whole Cape Naturaliste to Cape Leeuwin region the Margaret River surfing area and break types vary along the coast. The Cowaramup Bombora big wave surf break 2 kilometers offshore produces one of the biggest waves in Australia. In December 2014, construction of the Margaret River Perimeter Road began; this is a bypass to take traffic, including heavy vehicles, from Bussell Highway, to the east of the town, connect to a new access road to the nearby airport.. The Perimeter Road was opened to traffic on 22 December 2018.
Some works are still being completed in early-2019. Https://project.mainroads.wa.gov.au/home/regional/south/margaretriver/Pages/default.aspx Arte-TV produced an episode of Nouveaux paradis about Margaret River. The 2008 documentary s
Idaho wine refers to wine made from the U. S. state of Idaho. Idaho has a long history of wine production with the first vineyards in the Pacific Northwest being planted here in the 1860s. Like in other areas Prohibition in the United States wiped out the Idaho wine industry in the early twentieth century only to have it resurrected again in the 1970s. Today, Idaho's wine industry is Idaho's fastest growing agricultural industry. Located in the Pacific Northwest, the wine regions of Idaho resembles Eastern Washington though the region is affected by a greater diurnal temperature variation; the average vineyard in Idaho sits at an altitude of 1,800 feet among the foot hills of the Rocky Mountains. A benefit of global warming has limited the severity of Idaho winters on the vineyards which were devastated with frost during the 1970s and 1980s. Since that era, the effect of global warming has been beneficial to the vineyards of southwestern Idaho. Although due to severe cold temperatures and frost in 2016 many growers lost a significant number of vines.
To grow better wines in the vineyards, several viticultural practices common in Idaho including the use of open canopies over the vines, drip irrigation and aggressive pruning to ensure lower yields. Since the 1970s, Idaho wine has been known for its cool climate white varietals like Riesling, Chenin blanc and Gewürztraminer. In recent years there have been an increased focus on red wine productions, notably Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah. In 1999, the Idaho Department of Agriculture reported a total of twenty-three farms producing wine grapes; the farms reported a total of 656 acres in production, which represented 7% of the state total area for fruit production. By the 2006 report, a total of forty-nine farms were included in the census; these operations reported a total of 1,214 acres in production with 843,052 vines of bearing age This represents a growth of 85.8% over the 1999 survey. Canyon County vineyards contain 81% of the state's total inventory of grape vines; as of 2017, The Idaho Wine Commission reports on about 1300 acres of grapes planted with expansions planned in each of the existing AVAs. in 2013, Idaho's Wine Industry had a $169.3 million impact, up from $73 million just 5 years before in 2008.
The majority of the state's wineries are located in the Snake River valley west of Boise. There are 52 wineries in Idaho; the Snake River Valley in Southwestern Idaho and two counties in Oregon was designated an American Viticultural Area by the US Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. A petition was filed by the growers in the Snake River Valley, the Idaho Grape Growers and Wine Producers Commission, the Idaho Department of Commerce and Labor; the petition was granted in 2007, for wines to bear the Snake River Valley AVA label, at least 85% of the grapes used for production must be grown in the designated area. Vintners may now use the term to describe Idaho and Oregon wines made from grapes grown in that geographic area; the Eagle Foothills AVA gained its designation in November 2015. It is credited as a specialized grape-growing region because of the influence of nearby Prospect Peak at 4,874 feet in elevation and the granite pebbles mixed with volcanic ash/sandy loam as a result of Ancient Lake Idaho.
Idaho Grape Growers and Wine Producers Commission
Pessac-Léognan is a wine growing area and Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée, in the northern part of the Graves region of Bordeaux. Unlike most Bordeaux appellations, Pessac-Léognan is famous for both red and white wines, although red wine is still predominant, it includes the only red-wine producer outside the Haut-Médoc classified in the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, the premier cru Château Haut-Brion, includes all of the châteaux listed in the 1953/59 classification of Graves. These classed growths account for a third of the wine produced in Pessac-Léognan. Pessac-Léognan, France lies on the left bank of the Garonne, it is south of the city of Bordeaux: indeed some of the northern vineyards of Pessac-Léognan are surrounded by the housing estates of Bordeaux, as a result of the city's southward expansion. It consists of 8 communes: Mérignac, Pessac, Villenave-d'Ornon, Cadaujac, Léognan and Martillac. A significant part of the area is forested, it includes 1580 hectares of vines.
The soil is gravelly. Pessac-Léognan has a long wine-making history. Red wine from this region was the wine loved by the English as claret, during the 300 years that Aquitaine was under English rule, from 1152 to 1453; the area includes the oldest named property in Bordeaux, Château Pape Clément, founded by Pope Clement V in 1306. In the mid-seventeenth century, Château Haut-Brion became the first château of international renown, being praised by Samuel Pepys in 1663, while the Médoc was still swamp. However, the appellation of Pessac-Léognan is recent, dating to 1987. Before the area was part of the Graves AOC, known informally as Haut-Graves; as with the Médoc to the north, Cabernet Sauvignon is the predominant grape, but a somewhat greater proportion of Merlot is used in the blend. Cabernet Franc is used, with small amounts of Petit Verdot and Malbec. Styles vary more than in most Bordeaux AOCs, but typical flavours are blackcurrant and cedar, the wines are described as'earthy'. Sauvignon blanc and Sémillon are the grapes used blended.
The wine is fermented in barrels at a low temperature. Nectarine is a typical flavor when the wines are young, maturing into flavours of nuts and custard, they are said to be among France's greatest whites. The traditional pairing for reds is with roast lamb, although they are flexible enough to have with ham, beef or game; the whites complement seafood. Château Haut-Brion Château Bouscaut, Château Bardins Domaine de Chevalier, Château Carbonnieux, Château de Fieuzal, Château Haut-Bailly, Château Malartic Lagravière, Château Olivier, Château Latour-Martillac, Château Smith Haut Lafitte Château Haut-Brion, Château Pape Clément, Château Le Sillage, de Malartic Château La Mission Haut-Brion, Château Laville Haut-Brion, Château La Tour Haut-Brion Château Couhins, Château Couhins-Lurton Château Les Carmes Haut-Brion, Château La Louvière, Château Rochemorin, Château Cruzeau, Château Haut-Lagrange French wine Bordeaux wine regions Clarke, Oz. Oz Clarke's New Essential Wine Book. New York: Websters International Publishers and Octopus Publishing Group.
Johnson, Hugh. World Atlas of Wine. London: Octopus Publishing Group Ltd. Johnson, Hugh. Pocket Wine Book 2010. London: Octopus Publishing Group Ltd. Rowe, David. Collins Gem Wine Dictionary. Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers. Union of Classed Growths of Graves official site
Sauternes is a French sweet wine from the Sauternais region of the Graves section in Bordeaux. Sauternes is made from Sémillon, Sauvignon blanc, Muscadelle grapes that have been affected by Botrytis cinerea known as noble rot; this causes the grapes to become raisined, resulting in concentrated and distinctively flavored wines. Due to its climate, Sauternes is one of the few wine regions where infection with noble rot is a frequent occurrence. So, production is a hit-or-miss proposition, with varying harvests from vintage to vintage. Wines from Sauternes the Premier Cru Supérieur estate Château d'Yquem, can be expensive, due to the high cost of production. Barsac lies within Sauternes, is entitled to use either name. Somewhat similar but less expensive and less-distinguished wines are produced in the neighboring regions of Monbazillac, Cérons and Cadillac. In the United States, there is a semi-generic label for sweet white dessert wines known as sauterne without the "s" at the end and uncapitalized.
As in most of France, viticulture is believed to have been introduced into Aquitania by the Romans. The earliest evidence of sweet wine production, dates only to the 17th century. While the English had been the region's primary export market since the Middle Ages, their tastes ran to drier wines, starting with clairet in medieval times and shifting to red claret, it was the Dutch traders of the 17th century. For years they were active in the trade of German wines but production in Germany began to wane in the 17th century as the popularity of beer increased; the Dutch saw an opportunity for a new production source in Bordeaux and began investing in the planting of white grape varieties. They introduced to the region German white wine making techniques, such as halting fermentation with the use of sulphur in order to maintain residual sugar levels. One of these techniques involved taking a candle with its wick dipped in the sulphur and burned in the barrel that the wine will be fermenting in; this would leave a presence of sulphur in the barrel that the wine would interact with as it was fermenting.
Being an anti-microbial agent, sulphur stuns the yeast that stimulates fermentation bringing it to a halt with high levels of sugars still in the wine. The Dutch began to identify areas that could produce grapes well suited for white wine production and soon homed in on the area of Sauternes; the wine produced from this area was known as vins liquoreux but it is not clear if the Dutch were using nobly rotted grapes at this point. Wine expert Hugh Johnson has suggested that the unappealing thought of drinking wine made from fungus-infested grapes may have caused Sauternes producers to keep the use of Botrytis a secret. There are records from the 17th century that by October, Sémillon grapes were known to be infected by rot and vineyard workers had to separate rotted and clean berries but they are incomplete in regards to whether the rotted grapes were used in winemaking. By the 18th century, the practice of using nobly rotted grapes in Tokaji and Germany was well known, it seems that at this point the "unspoken secret" was more accepted and the reputation of Sauternes rose to rival those of the German and Hungarian dessert wines.
By the end of the 18th century, the region's reputation for Sauternes was internationally known: Thomas Jefferson was an avid connoisseur. Jefferson recorded that after tasting a sample of Château d'Yquem while President, George Washington placed an order for 30 dozen bottles. Like most of the Bordeaux wine region, the Sauternes region has a maritime climate which brings the viticultural hazards of autumn frost and rains that can ruin an entire vintage; the Sauternes region is located 40 km southeast of the city of Bordeaux along the Garonne river and its tributary, the Ciron. The source of the Ciron is a spring. In the autumn, when the climate is warm and dry, the different temperatures from the two rivers meet to produce mist that descends upon the vineyards from evening to late morning; this condition promotes the development of the Botrytis cinerea fungus. By mid day, the warm sun will help dissipate the mist and dry the grapes to keep them from developing less favorable rot; the Sauternes wine region comprises five communes— Barsac, Bommes and Preignac.
While all five communes are permitted to use the name Sauternes, the Barsac region is permitted to label their wines under the Barsac appellation. The Barsac region is located on the west bank of the Ciron river where the tributary meets the Garonne; the area sits on an alluvial plain with limy soils. In general, Barsac wine is distinguished from other Sauternes in being drier with a lighter body. In years when the noble rot does not develop, Sauternes producers will make dry white wines under the generic Bordeaux AOC. To qualify for the Sauternes label, the wines must have a minimum 13% alcohol level and pass a tasting exam where the wines need to taste noticeably sweet. There is no regulation on the exact amount of residual sugar. Sauternes are characterized by the balance of sweetness with the zest of acidity; some common flavor notes include apricots, peaches but with a nutty note, a typical characteristic of noble semillon itself. The finish can resonate on the palate for several minutes. Sauternes are some of longest-lived wines, with premium examples from exceptional vintages properly kept having the pote
Hunter Valley wine
The Hunter Valley is one of Australia's best known wine regions. Located in the state of New South Wales, the region has played a pivotal role in the history of Australian wine as one of the first wine regions planted in the early 19th century. Hunter Valley Semillon is considered the iconic wine of the region but the Hunter produces wine from a variety of grapes including Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Verdelho. Under Australia's wine appellation system, the Hunter Valley zone Australian Geographical Indication covers the entire catchment of the Hunter River and its tributaries. Within that, the Hunter region is as large, includes most of the wine-producing areas, excluding the metropolitan area of Newcastle and nearby coastal areas, some national parks, any land, in the Mudgee Shire. There are three named subregions in the Hunter region; these are Broke Fordwich and Pokolbin subregions. The Lower Hunter Valley is not defined, but in general includes the Pokolbin subregion, along with the districts around Wollombi, Mount View and Lovedale.
Much of the history of Hunter was played out in this area and it is what is referred as the Hunter Valley wine country. The majority of the Hunter Valley's most prestigious vineyards are located on the southern valley and foothills of the Brokenback Range; the topography of the Hunter includes gently sloping hills with modest gradients. The one notable exception are the vineyards of Mount View just west of the town of Cessnock; the terrain of the Upper Hunter is noticeably flatter as the Goulburn River and other tributaries of the Hunter River dominate the area. The greater river system of the Hunter, which includes the Goulburn and important tributaries such as Giants Creek, do provide needed irrigation for areas such as the Upper Hunter than can be prone to drought condition; the success of the Hunter Valley wine industry has been dominated by its proximity to Sydney with its settlement and plantings in the 19th century fuelled by the trade network that linked the valley to the city. The steady demand of consumers from Sydney continues to drive much of the Hunter Valley wine industry, including a factor in the economy by the tourism industry.
The wine-making history of Hunter Valley begins with the European settlement of the Sydney and the New South Wales region of Australia in the late 18th century as a penal colony of the British Empire. The Hunter River itself was discovered, by accident, in 1797 by British Lieutenant John Shortland as he searched for escaped convicts; the region soon became a valuable source for timber and coal that fuelled the steamship trade coming out of Sydney. Grapevines were planted in Sydney soon after its discovery in 1788 and as settlements fanned northward up towards the Hunter, government authorities encouraged plantings as a means of promoting both public sobriety and safety; the logic behind the promotion of viticulture and winemaking was that men tend to become more drunk and disorderly when under the influence of alcoholic spirits. If enough wine was provided, it was believed, it could be a moderate influence that could tame the "savagery", it was under these auspices that the grapevine followed land prospector John Howe as he cut a path through the Australian wilderness from Sydney up to the overland area in what is now known as the Hunter Valley proper in 1820.
Today, the modern Putty Road between the cities of Windsor and Singleton follows Howe's exact path and is a major thoroughfare for wine tourists coming into the Hunter Valley from Sydney. As previous plantings in the coastal areas around Sydney succumbed to the humidity and wetness, plantings to the west were limited by spring frost damage, northern reaches leading to the Hunter became by default, the wine region of the new colony; the first major planting in the Hunter Valley came in 1825 when James Busby considered the father of Australian wine, purchased vineyard land between the settlements of Branxton and Singleton and named it Kirkton after his Scottish birthplace near Edinburgh. In 1831, Busby travelled extensively throughout Europe and South Africa, collected cuttings from over 500 vineyards, including six cuttings of Syrah from the Hermitage hill in the Rhône; when he returned, many of these cuttings were planted in the Hunter Valley at the Kirkton estate now owned by his brother-in-law William Kelman.
In the 1830s, several vineyards were planted in the Hunter Valley, including the first vineyards by George Wyndham of Wyndham Estate, many with cuttings directly provided by Busby at Kirkton. In 1847, the Hunter Valley Viticulture Society was founded with the mission of expanding viticultural knowledge and improving techniques in the region. By the end of the decade, plantings had expanded from 80 ha to over 200 ha. Between 1866 and 1876 the region saw further expansion as the acreage of planted vines topped 1800. Most of the early vineyards of the Hunter were located in the northeast section of the valley in the fertile alluvial plains along the Hunter River; the river provided easy transport of the wine down onto Sydney. By the 1860s, plantings began to move further south and west towards the foothills of the Brokenback range near Pokolbin and Rothbury where many of the most esteemed vineyards of the Hunter are now found. In the mid 19th century, wines from the Hunter Valley began to garner international acclaim.
In 1855, at the Paris Exhibition, Hunter Valley wines won numerous awards from tasting panel judges. In the official report for the exhibition, the judges wrote "T