Sport Lisboa e Benfica known as Benfica, is a professional football club based in Lisbon, that competes in the Primeira Liga, the top flight of Portuguese football, where they are the current champions and the most successful team in terms of overall titles. Founded on 28 February 1904 as Sport Lisboa, Benfica is one of the "Big Three" clubs in Portugal that have never been relegated from Primeira Liga, along with rivals Sporting CP and FC Porto. Benfica are nicknamed As Águias, for the symbol atop the club's crest, Os Encarnados, for the shirt colour. Since 2003, their home ground has been the Estádio da Luz, which replaced the larger, original one, built in 1954. Benfica is the most supported Portuguese club and the European club with the highest percentage of supporters in its own country, having over 230,000 members and an estimated 14 million supporters worldwide; the club's anthem, "Ser Benfiquista", refers to Benfica supporters. "E pluribus unum" is the club motto. Benfica is honoured of Prince Henry and of Merit.
With 83 major trophies won – 84 including the Latin Cup – Benfica is the most decorated club in Portugal. They have won 80 domestic trophies: a record 37 Primeira Liga titles, a record 26 Taça de Portugal, a record 7 Taça da Liga, 8 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira and 3 Campeonato de Portugal. Internationally, they won back-to-back European Cups in 1961 and 1962 – a unique feat in Portuguese football – and were runners-up at the Intercontinental Cup in 1961 and'62, at the European Cup in 1963,'65,'68,'88 and'90, at the UEFA Cup/Europa League in 1983, 2013 and'14. Benfica's ten European finals are a domestic record and ranked seventh all-time among UEFA clubs in 2014. Moreover, Benfica hold the European record for the most consecutive wins in domestic league and the record for the longest unbeaten run in Primeira Liga, where they became the first undefeated champions, in 1972–73. Benfica was ranked 12th in FIFA Club of the Century and 9th in the IFFHS Top 200 European clubs of the 20th century.
Benfica is ranked 7th in the UEFA all-time club ranking, 20th in the UEFA club coefficient rankings, has the second most participations in the European Cup/UEFA Champions League. In this tournament, they hold the overall record for the biggest aggregate win, achieved in 1965–66. On 28 February 1904, the Catataus group and members of Associação do Bem met at the back of Farmácia Franco on Rua de Belém with the goal of forming a social and cultural football club called Sport Lisboa, composed of Portuguese players only. 24 people attended the meeting, including Cosme Damião, who would be the club's most important leader in the first decades. In that meeting, José Rosa Rodrigues was appointed club president, along with Daniel Brito as secretary and Manuel Gourlade as treasurer; the founders decided that the club's colours would be red and white and that the crest would be composed of an eagle, the motto "E pluribus unum" and a football. Sport Lisboa played their first match on 1 January 1905, scoring their first goal.
Despite important victories, the club suffered from poor operating conditions, namely the football dirt field Terras do Desembargador. As a result, eight players moved to Sporting CP in 1907. On 13 September 1908, Sport Lisboa acquired Grupo Sport Benfica by mutual agreement and changed its name to Sport Lisboa e Benfica. Despite the club merger, they continued their respective club operations. For Sport Lisboa, they maintained the football team, the shirt colours, the eagle symbol and the motto. For Grupo Sport Benfica, they maintained the field Campo da Feiteira, the main directors and the club's house. Both clubs determined that the foundation date should coincide with Sport Lisboa's because it was the most recognised club and quite popular in Lisbon due to its football merits. In regard to the crest, a cycling wheel was added to Sport Lisboa's to represent the most important sport of Grupo Sport Benfica. Furthermore, the two entities of the "new" club had simultaneous members who helped stabilise operations, which increased the success of the merger.
However, problems with the club's rented field remained. Benfica moved to their first football grass field, Campo de Sete Rios, in 1913. Four years after refusing an increase in rent, they relocated to Campo de Benfica. In 1925, they moved to their own stadium, the Estádio das Amoreiras, playing there fifteen years before moving to the Estádio do Campo Grande in 1940; the Portuguese league began in 1934, after finishing third in its first edition, Benfica won the next three championships in a row – the club's first tri, achieved by Lippo Hertzka. Throughout the 1940s, Benfica would win three more Primeira Liga and four Taça de Portugal, with coach János Biri achieving the first double for the club in 1943. Benfica's first international success happened in 1950, when they won the Latin Cup, defeating Bordeaux with a golden goal from Julinho at the Estádio Nacional in Lisbon, with Ted Smith as coach, it was the first major international trophy won by a Portuguese club. They reached another final of the competition in 1957 but lost to Real Madrid at the Santiago Bernabéu.
With the election of president Joaquim Ferreira Bogalho in 1952 and the arrival of coach Otto Glória in 1954, Benfica became more modernised and professional and moved into the original Estádio da Luz, with an initial seating capacity of 40,000. During the 19
The Serra Negra State Park Portuguese: Parque Estadual da Serra Negra is a state park in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It protects a mountainous area in the Atlantic Forest biome, an important source of water in a dry region, a potential source of tourism revenue in an area with many social problems; the Serra Negra State Park is in the municipality of Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais in the districts of Padre João Afonso, Santa Joana and Santa Luzia de Minas. It has an area of 13,654.31 hectares. The perimeter is marked but not enclosed; the park is 33 kilometres from the municipal seat. It is 513 kilometres from Belo Horizonte; the park covers part of the Espinhaço Mountains. These are recognized by UNESCO as one of the world's biosphere reserves. An internal road leads to the former transmission tower of TV Leste on one of the highest points of the region at 1,581 metres. From this point there is an extensive view of the surrounding mountains; the park is in the Jequitinhonha River basin, contains the sources of many watercourses that feed that river, the Araçuaí River and tributaries of the Doce River.
The Serra Negra State Park was created by decree 39.907 of 22 September 1998. Objectives included protecting a large number of water sources of vital importance in the dry Upper Jequitinhonha region, protecting biological diversity in the Atlantic Forest, rocky field and gallery forest ecosystems, reducing the impact of charcoal production and encouraging ecotourism in a region with severe social problems; the park is part of the Espinhaço Mosaic of conservation units. In the dry season of 2007 a major fire swept through much of the park, but the vegetation is regenerating. In April 2013, the Public Ministry and Justice department of Minas Gerais charged that the State Forestry Institute had been failing to comply with environmental legislation. There were serious problems such as lack of a management plan, physical structures and personnel, land tenure issues with the ecological stations of Mata do Acauã and Mata dos Ausentes and the state parks of Biribiri, Alto Cariri, Rio Preto and Serra Negra.
The park is in the Atlantic Forest biome, with large remnants of the original vegetation preserved in areas that are hard to access and in some lowland areas. Tree species include cedro, braúna, ipê, jacarandá and vinhático. Large stands of canela-de-ema can be found in the mountains and in areas with sandy soil, reaching over 3 metres in height. There are several endemic species of grasses, high levels of endemism for ferns and velozias; the park is surrounded by eucalyptus plantations and pastures. Fauna is diversified and includes locally rare or endangered species such as lobo guará, barbado ou guariba, suçuarana and jaguatirica. Other species include paca, quati, roedores diversos and teiú; the park is lacking infrastructure. There is partial control of visits in one part of the park, open 8:30 to 17:30 daily. Visits must be pre-arranged with the park administration. Tourist attractions include lookouts, orchids and many waterfalls; some work has been done in environmental education in the communities around the park.
Volunteer fire brigades have been trained, environmental awareness signs erected and gazebos and ecological trails developed. However, lack of infrastructure and the impact of human activities remain challenges
George William Walker is an English cricketer. Walker is a left-handed batsman, he was born at Norfolk. Walker made his debut in county cricket for Norfolk against Suffolk in the 2000 Minor Counties Championship, he joined Leicestershire, making his first-class debut for the county against Kent in the 2002 County Championship. That was his only first-class appearance in that season, in the following season he made two further first-class appearances against Nottinghamshire and Sussex, he struggled in his three first-class appearances up to for the county, taking just a single wicket. He was released by Leicestershire at the end of the 2004 season, along with Damian Brandy and Darren Stevens. While studying at Loughborough University, Walker made a single first-class appearance in 2004 for Loughborough UCCE against Sussex at the County Ground, Hove. Having not secured any first-class contracts with other county sides, Walker returned to Minor counties cricket with Norfolk in 2005, his MCCA Knockout Trophy debut came four seasons in 2008, against Hertfordshire.
Following an injury to off-spinner Jigar Naik during the 2009 season, Walker was invited back to Leicestershire as cover for Naik, after taking five wickets for the Leicestershire Seconds, he was selected to play for the team in their County Championship match against Derbyshire. He made two further first-class appearances in that season, against Middlesex and Essex, though again he had little success, scoring 21 runs at an average of 5.25, while taking two wickets at an expensive bowling average of 79.50. Walker wasn't offered any long-term deal by Leicestershire and once again returned to Minor counties cricket with Norfolk, who he has appeared for to date in 28 Minor Counties Championship and 19 MCCA Knockout Trophy matches. George Walker at ESPNcricinfo George Walker at CricketArchive
Mustafa Wahbi Tal, was a Jordanian poet and judge. Born in Irbid, Tal was imprisoned and exiled several times by the Ottoman Empire for his political activism, he found employment as a teacher in Al-Karak, until he was appointed governor of the Shoubak/Wadi Musa region in 1929. He earned a law degree in 1930, was appointed district attorney of Al-Salt in 1939. Tal died in 1949. Tal, known by his pseudonym Arrar, was the most renowned Jordanian poet among Arab readers. Jordan's most illustrious literary award is named after him. Arar was born Mustafa Saleh Mustafa Yousef Tal in the city of Irbid in Jordan during the Ottoman Empire era. A second name, "Wahbi," was added to his birth name per the Western tradition imported via the Ottoman Turks. Jordan was, he finished his elementary school education in Irbid in 1911. In 1912, Arar registered in a school in Damascus called the Anbur School, named after a Damascan Jew who founded it. Arar's father was an alumnus school. Before the end of the school year, however, he was exiled with some other Jordanian students to Beirut, Lebanon, by the Ottoman authorities.
He returned to Anbur School from exile in 1913 or 1914, visited Irbid during 1915. In 1917, while in tenth grade, he visited Istanbul for six months, during World War I. During this time he married Setteh Jaber Marashdeh. In 1917 or 1918, he was exiled again for political activism. From 1919 to 1920, he participated in a demonstration and gets expelled once again from Anbur School to Aleppo, Syria, he earned his high school diploma from the Madrasat Tajheez Halab in Aleppo. Following completion of his high-school education, he found employment as a teacher of Arabic literature in Al Karak in 1922, he was, fired from his job in 1923 and was first exiled to Ma'an Aqaba, Jeddah. On his return from exile in 1924 he began his long-lasting relationship with the Romani community in Mandatory Palestine. Arar was appointed a local governor to the Shoubak/Wadi Mousa district in 1929. In 1930, he earned a law license to practice as a lawyer. In spring of 1931 he was exiled to Aqaba for his political dissent and calling for political changes.
In 1939 he became the District attorney of Jordan. In 1941, Arar spent ninety days in prison for his political views. By this time he had become a heavy drinker and his alcoholism became apparent. In 1943, he represented the Fellaheen in court during a bloody feud with the Zou'bi tribe in Ramtha. Arar died in 1949, his hometown of Irbid holds an annual poetry festival and Jordan's most prestigious literary award is named after him. Arar is the father of Wasfi Tal, a prime minister of Jordan for three separate terms. Wasfi Tal Abdullah Tal Al-Badawi al-Mulaththam: Arar, poet of Jordan, Publisher: Dar al Qalam, Lebanon, 1st Publication 1958. Obeidat, Mahmoud: Biography of Poet and Activist, Mustafa Wahbi At-Tull 1897–1949, Published by Ministry of Culture, Jordan 1996. Jordanian Postal Service's stamp in honor of Arar: Poet of Jordan
Rear-Admiral John Leveson-Gower was a Royal Navy officer and politician from the Leveson-Gower family. As a junior officer he saw action at the Battle of Lagos in August 1759 during the Seven Years' War; as captain of HMS Valiant he was present at the Battle of Ushant on 17 July 1778 during the American War of Independence. He went on to be a junior Lord of the Admiralty and First Naval Lord, he sat as Member of Parliament for several constituencies. John was born on 11 July 1740, the second son of John, first earl Gower, by his third wife Lady Mary Tufton, daughter of Thomas Tufton, 6th Earl of Thanet and widow of Anthony Grey, earl Harold, his half-brother, Granville Leveson-Gower, inherited his father's earldom and would use his political influence to help John's career. John was educated and entered the navy, receiving his lieutenant's commission in 1758, his first command was the fireship HMS Salamander, in which he saw action at the Battle of Lagos on 18 August 1759, serving under Admiral Edward Boscawen.
Leveson-Gower was advanced to the rank of post captain on 30 June 1760 and took the 32-gun HMS Quebec to the Mediterranean to serve under Sir Charles Saunders. While commanding Quebec he captured the 18-gun French privateer Phoenix in December 1760 off Cape Palos. Leveson-Gower commanded the 64-gun HMS Africa, sailing her to Guinea and the West Indies in 1765, he commanded the frigates HMS Aeolus and HMS Pearl, the guardship HMS Albion at Plymouth in 1774. He was appointed to command the 74-gun HMS Valiant in the English Channel in 1775, where he captured several American ships, he was present at the Battle of Ushant on 17 July 1778, where he supported Admiral Augustus Keppel, Valiant sustaining casualties of six killed and twenty-six wounded. He gave evidence at Keppel's subsequent court martial, defending his admiral's actions, resigned his command afterwards. Leveson-Gower returned to service after the fall of the North Ministry in March 1782 and was appointed first captain of HMS Victory under Lord Howe, served in that capacity both in the Channel, on at the relief of Gibraltar and the skirmish off Cape Spartel.
From January to April 1783 Gower was one of the junior lords of the admiralty on the Board of Admiralty with Lord Howe. He resigned after the formation of the Fox–North coalition in April, but rejoined when the Pitt Ministry was formed. From December 1783 to August 1789 he was First Naval Lord, he continued at the Admiralty with the Earl of Chatham until August 1789. During this time he hoisted a broad pennant in HMS Hebe in 1785, for a summer cruise around Great Britain with Prince William Henry, he was returned as the member for Appleby in 1784, sitting until 1790. He was elected to Newcastle under Lyme that year and spoke four times on Admiralty matters in Parliament. On 24 September 1787 he was advanced to be rear-admiral, in the following summer hoisted his flag again in Edgar in the Channel. In 1788 he took an enlarged squadron to the West Indies. During the Spanish armament in 1790 he was again first captain to Lord Howe, in 1791 was selected as one of the rear-admirals to serve under Admiral Lord Hood in the fleet assembling to counter Russian aggression.
The threat passed however and the fleet was disbanded. He died of a stroke while shaving on 15 August 1792 at his house at Bill Hill and was buried on 23 August at Barkham parish church, Berkshire, he had married Frances Boscawen, eldest daughter of Admiral the Hon. Edward Boscawen on 5 July 1773, they had several sons, including John, who became a general and MP, who became a rear-admiral, Augustus, a captain and drowned aged 21. The small town of North Gower, Canada is named after him. Rodger, N. A. M.. The Admiralty. Offices of State. Lavenham: T. Dalton Ltd. ISBN 0900963948
Plava Unija are the organised supporters of the Serbian football club OFK Belgrade. When Beogradski Sportski Klub was founded in 1911, the club which dominated the fields of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes developed a significant fan base. Throughout the several wars that took place since the founding of BSK, the club's turbulent history has produced adverse effects onto the average attendance of today's matches in which OFK Beograd plays. An organized group appeared for the first time in 1984 under the name of "Blue Thunders"; the group lived under that name until 1990. When they were influenced by the rise of nationalism in Yugoslavia, they changed their name to "Sokolovi"; the group collapsed in 1993 about a year after UN sanctions were put on Yugoslavia. The fans' love towards the club was not forgotten and in 1994 a new group is founded – Plava Unija Beograd; the name remains the title of OFK Beograd's main group of ultras. OFK Beograd's fans have been known to be resistant of past regimes.
In the 1990s, Milicionar Belgrade, a pro-regime police-backed team, entered the first division. When OFK Beograd first played against them, the OFK fans reacted with creation of banner which bore the message “Goal Against the Regime”. Plava Unija fostered a friendship with Voždovac's fans, "Invalidi" while the club still played in Yugoslavia's second tier from 1996 to 1998; that friendship still remains to this day. OFK Beograd is known to be supported by fans of Dynamo Moscow, they Plava Unija express their love for their city and country with lots of creative activities. In March 2011, the Plava Unija started a project called ″Plava unija za zeleni Beograd″, dedicated for the promotion of healthy living and ecology, as well as raising environmental awareness among all the people who watch games in stadiums, it includes the planting of 100 trees in Belgrade for the 100 anniversary of the club OFK Belgrade