Waregem is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. The municipality lies in the valley of the Leie River, between Kortrijk and Ghent and it is part of the arrondissement of Kortrijk and comprises the towns of Beveren, Desselgem, Sint-Eloois-Vijve and Waregem proper. On January 1,2006, Waregem had a population of 35,852. The total area is 44.34 km² which gives a density of 809 inhabitants per km². The first inhabitants of this region settled along the Leie River well before Roman times. Bronze coins and artifacts associated with the Gallo-Roman culture show extensive activity in area in the first centuries of our era. This is not surprising given the fact that Sint-Eloois-Vijve stood at the intersection of two important Roman roads, Cassel-Tongeren and Bavai-Oudenburg, the name of the current municipality refers to a certain “Waro” clan or tribe, possibly dating from the Frankish period. In the 10th century, most of Waregem’s territory was given as a grant to the St Peter Abbey in Ghent, the local administrative center used by the Benedictines along the Leie River can still be seen today and is still known as the Munkenhof. At the end of the century, Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders, during the following centuries, the medieval feudal system allowed the land to be progressively parceled out to landowners from places as far as Dendermonde and Tournai. At that time, like in the rest of Flanders, most of the population consisted of farmers, spinners and weavers, tax documents from the 13th century attest to the strong economic activity of the time. Waregem’s attempt in 1635 at obtaining rights to hold its own market was opposed by the neighbouring towns, a Saturday market was finally approved by Joseph II of Austria in 1784. Much of the land ownership structure remained unchanged until the end of the 18th century. The construction of the roadway between Kortrijk and Ghent made possible the building of an important coaching inn on the territory of Waregem. The French Revolution brought severe religious restrictions in its wake, it gave the region a modern administrative system. During the 19th century, the old textile economy went into decline, the proximity of the Leie River, however, was a boon for Waregem, as its flax industry drove the local economy until well into the 20th century. Waregem earned its official city title on January 1,2000, the Flanders Field American Cemetery and Memorial is the smallest World War I American cemetery in Europe and the only one in Belgium. It is located on the southeast edge of town and is the place for 368 American military who died during the liberation of Belgium in World War I. The chapel is inscribed with the names of 43 Missing in Action whose remains were never recovered or identified, the 8-hectare park surrounding the Baron Casier castle is located in the center of the city and includes old groves, ponds and fountains
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sports Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, footballers generally wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. Professional clubs also usually display players surnames or nicknames on their shirts, Football kit has evolved significantly since the early days of the sport when players typically wore thick cotton shirts, knickerbockers and heavy rigid leather boots. The Laws of the Game set out the equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4. Five separate items are specified, shirt, shorts, socks, footwear, goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify that these are required, shirts must have sleeves, and goalkeepers must wear shirts which are easily distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts may be worn, but must be the colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered entirely by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, and provide a reasonable degree of protection. The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player must not use equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player. In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour. The England national team plays in red shirts even when it is not required. Many professional clubs also have a kit, ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the basic colour scheme for several decades. Teams representing countries in international competition generally wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation, shirts are normally made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed, competitions such as the Premier League may also require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. The captain of team is usually required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify him as the captain to the referee. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be either of leather or a synthetic material. Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Newcastle United F.C.
Newcastle United Football Club is an English professional association football club based in Newcastle upon Tyne. Following the clubs most recent relegation from the top-flight during the 2015–16 season, Newcastle returned to the Football Leagues 2nd tier, the Championship, for the 2016–17 campaign. Newcastle United was founded in 1892 by the merger of Newcastle East End and Newcastle West End, the ground was developed into an all-seater stadium in the mid-1990s and now has a capacity of 52,354. They have won four League Championship titles, six FA Cups and a Charity Shield, as well as the 1969 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, Newcastle United has the ninth highest total of trophies won by an English club. The clubs most successful period was between 1904 and 1910, when they won an FA Cup and three of their First Division titles. The club were successful in the Premier League in the 1990s and early 2000s, but have been mostly struggling since the 2006–07 season. Newcastle has a local rivalry with Sunderland, and the two clubs have engaged in the Tyne–Wear derby since 1898. The clubs traditional kit colours are black and white striped shirts, black shorts and their traditional crest takes elements of the city coat of arms, which features two grey seahorses. The club has been owned by Mike Ashley since 2007, succeeding long term chairman, the club is the seventeenth highest revenue producing club in the world in terms of annual revenue, generating €169. 3m in 2015. Historically, Newcastles highest placing was in 1999 when they were the fifth highest revenue producing club in the world. The first record of football being played on Tyneside dates from 3 March 1877 at Elswick Rugby Club, later that year, Newcastles first football club, Tyne Association, was formed. The origins of Newcastle United Football Club itself can be traced back to the formation of a club by the Stanley Cricket Club of Byker in November 1881. This team was renamed Newcastle East End F. C. in October 1882, to avoid confusion with the club in Stanley. Rosewood F. C. of Byker merged with Newcastle East End a short time later, in 1886, Newcastle East End moved from Byker to Heaton. In August 1882, Newcastle West End F. C. formed from West End Cricket Club, and in May 1886, the two clubs became rivals in the Northern League. In 1889, Newcastle East End became a team, before becoming a limited company the following March. However, on the hand, Newcastle West End were in serious financial trouble. With only one club in the city for fans to support
The Philips Sport Vereniging, abbreviated as PSV and internationally known as PSV Eindhoven is a sports club from Eindhoven, Netherlands. It is best known for its football department, which plays in the Eredivisie. Along with Ajax and Feyenoord, PSV is one of the big three clubs that have dominated the Eredivisie. The club was founded in 1913 as a team for Philips employees, PSVs history contains two golden eras revolving around the UEFA Cup victory in 1978 and the 1987–88 European Cup victory as part of the seasonal treble in 1988. The team has won the Eredivisie 23 times, the KNVB Cup nine times, currently, PSV is 28th on the UEFA club coefficients ranking. Since its foundation, it has played in the Philips Stadion and has upheld its club colours and its elaborate connection with Philips can be witnessed in its sponsoring, shared technology and board member ties. Fans have named themselves boeren, taking pride in Eindhovens status of being a provincial city, to serve the need for activities with Philips employees, the company founded its own football team in 1910, the Philips Elftal. Its ground was the Philips Sportpark, located on the location as the present day stadium. Financial turmoil and worker strikes led to a demise of the team and in 1913, its successor emerged, Philips Sport Vereniging. It was the day that Philips organized celebrations and sports competitions in light of the defeat of the French in the Napoleonic Wars. It was not until 1916, however, that the department switched its name from Philips Elftal to PSV. Because of World War I, the first possibility to enter a league was in the 1915–16 season, the clubs first ever match was a 3–2 defeat against Willem II Reserves on 19 September 1915. The team did achieve promotion that season to a newly created Third Division of the Brabantian FA, under the guidance of coach Wout Buitenweg, PSV were promoted in 1918 and 1921 as well, eventually reaching the Eerste Klasse. The team was relegated in 1925, but its stint in the Second Division only lasted one year when PSV were promoted again, since 1926, PSV has always played in the highest possible domestic league. That year, defender Sjef van Run was brought in and a year later Jan van den Broek joined PSV, behind the scenes, Frans Otten became chairman of the entire PSV sports union. He was responsible for bringing the club to a new level with new accommodations, after winning the district league in 1929, PSV entered the championship play-offs. In that competition, it won six out of eight matches, a 5–1 win against Velocitas from the city of Groningen meant that PSV was crowned league champions for the first time. In the following three years, PSV won the league every year, but it could not win the play-offs until 1935
FC Rubin Kazan
FC Rubin Kazan is a Russian association football club based in the city of Kazan in the Republic of Tatarstan. Founded in 1958, Rubin played its first-ever top flight season in 2003 and it has remained there ever since, winning the Russian Premier League championship in 2008 and 2009. The club also won the 2011–12 Russian Cup and has been a regular in European competition in recent seasons, the team plays in the Kazan Arena. FC Rubin Kazan was previously called Iskra from 1958 to 1964, having never played in the Soviet Top League, the football club joined the Russian First Division in 1992 and fell to the Russian Second Division in 1994. The mayor of Kazan at the time, Kamil Iskhakov, purchased the team in 1996, Rubin won the Second Division in 1997 and was promoted back to the First Division the following season. The next four seasons, the team finished above 8th place. Finally winning the title in 2002, Rubin was promoted to the Russian Premier League for the first time in 2003, Rubin finished third in its debut season to qualify for the UEFA Cup. The team faced a setback in the 2004 campaign finishing in 10th place. The year of 1958 came, and the team formed a part of Class B of USSR Championship, because of successful game, again a team of masters appeared in the city. Nowadays 1958 is considered to be a year of foundation of an up-to-date «Rubin», program to the match Iskra – Torpedo. 3 June 1958 «Iskra», thus was the name of a debutant, found itself in the first zone of RSFSR Class B, in whicn mainly clubs of Povolzhye, the debut was on April,20 in Kherson. Practice makes perfect – kazanners lost to local «Spartak» 2–4, the author of the first goal of «Iskra» in USSR championships was Igor Ignatov. The squad in that game was the one, Galimov, Zinnourov, Surkov, Khorkov, Kashurin, Dardymov, Polyakov, Markov, Gelman. In 1958 «Iskra» took 14th place, left below only teams of Ulyanovsk, lack of experience and often changes in a coach staff adversely affected the game of «Iskra». In 1959 «Iskra» was headed by a 50-year-old specialist Nikolay Sentyabrev, withion the next 12 years the post of a Head Coach of the team was occupied. Neither before nor after no one could reach that period, earlier Sentyabrev played for the region of Ivanovo and coached «Tekstilschik». His work didn’t make waiting for results, «Iskra» at one stroke made 9 steps up in the tournament table and stopped at the 5th position. In comparison with previous season much more goals were scored and less balls were missed, two footballers – a defender Viktor Surkov and a goalkeeper Ilyas Galimov – were included into the list of RSFSR National Squad
Wigan Athletic F.C.
Wigan Athletic Football Club is a professional association football club based in Wigan, Greater Manchester, England. The team compete in the Championship, the tier of English football. Founded in 1932, the club have played at the DW Stadium since 1999 and their colours are blue and white, recently most often striped, although all-blue shirts have been common throughout history. The team were elected to The Football League in 1978, the club also made their European debut during the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League. Wigan Athletic was formed in 1932, following the winding up of Wigan Borough the previous year, Wigan Athletic was the fifth attempt to create a stable football club in the town following the demise of Wigan County, Wigan United, Wigan Town and Wigan Borough. Springfield Park, the home of Wigan Borough, was purchased by the club for £2,850. Despite their initial application being turned down, Wigan Athletic were elected into the Cheshire County League following the resignation of Manchester Central, the club had also made the first of many attempts to be admitted into the Football League, but failed to receive a single vote. On 27 August 1932, Wigan Athletic played their first ever game against Port Vale Reserves. The team played in red and white shirts with black shorts, Wigan Athletic won their first honours in the 1933–34 season, finishing as champions of the Cheshire League. In the 1935–36 season, the club won their third consecutive Cheshire League title, after the Second World War, Wigan Athletic adopted their more familiar blue and white strip. The club struggled to assemble a side, and finished bottom of the league in 1946–47 season. Despite their pre-war success, the failed to gain re-election and were replaced by Winsford United. The club joined the Lancashire Combination, winning the league in their first season, in 1950, Wigan Athletic came close to election to The Football League, narrowly losing out to Scunthorpe United and Shrewsbury Town. In the next round of the cup, Wigan Athletic were drawn against First Division side Newcastle United, Wigan Athletic held their top flight opponents to a 2–2 draw at St James Park, but went on to lose the replay 3–2. In 1961, the club moved back to the Cheshire League, in the 1964–65 season, Wigan Athletic won their first Cheshire League title since returning to the league, with top goalscorer Harry Lyon scoring 66 times. He remains the clubs greatest goalscorer of all time, Wigan Athletic won four cup titles in the 1966–67 season and were also Cheshire County League runners-up. In 1968, Wigan Athletic were founder members of the Northern Premier League, winning the league title in 1970–71, leading goalscorer with 42 goals, including 7 hat-tricks, was Geoff Davies who scored 28 goals in the following 1971–72 season. As a non-league club, the played at Wembley Stadium for the first time in the 1973 FA Trophy Final
Nogometni Klub Maribor, commonly referred to as NK Maribor or simply Maribor, is a professional football club based in Maribor, Slovenia. Founded on 12 December 1960, Maribor is one of three football clubs in the country who have never been relegated from the Slovenian top flight 1. SNL since its establishment in 1991 and they are regarded as a symbol of Slovenian football, particularly in their home region of Styria in the northeastern Slovenia. Maribor is the most successful club in the country, having won 13 Slovenian PrvaLiga titles, nine Slovenian Cups, the clubs most successful period was in the late 1990s and early 2000s, when they overwhelmingly dominated domestic football, winning seven successive league titles and three national cups. Following the 2008–09 season, Maribor became the dominant force in Slovenian football for the second time, having won six out of eight championships since then. They are one of only three Slovenian teams who participated in the countrys highest division, Yugoslav First League, between the end of World War II in 1945 and the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991. In addition, they are the only Slovenian club and one of four clubs from the former Yugoslavia who participated in group stage of the UEFA Champions League. They have maintained a rivalry with Olimpija from the capital Ljubljana. However, Olimpija folded and was dissolved following the 2004–05 season, in 2005, the successor club Bežigrad was established, who regarded themselves as the continuation of the former club. Maribor also have a loyal and passionate fan base and the club has the highest average attendance in Slovenia. The clubs home ground is the Ljudski vrt stadium, which has a capacity of 12,702 seats and it was originally built in 1952 and later underwent a series of major reconstructions in the 1990s and 2000s. The clubs Academy, which is hailed as the best in the country, is responsible for development at the club and has enjoyed a fair amount of success in producing promising young players. Maribors nicknames are The Purples and The Violets, both referring to their primary colour purple, the clubs motto is One club, one honour. Maribor football club was founded on 12 December 1960, the club played their first match on 5 February 1961, when they defeated city rivals Kovinar 2–1, with Stefan Tolič scoring both goals. The team won the Slovenian Republic League in their first season, andrija Pflander was the head coach of the team that won the Republic league. However, he had to step down from the right before the start of the promotion play-off due to illness. His successor was Vladimir Šimunić, the man who guided the team to their promotion to the Yugoslav First League six years later. In 1961 the club received a new stadium named Ljudski vrt, on 2 September of that year football fans across Slovenia witnessed the birth of a new rivalry between Maribor and Olimpija Ljubljana
The DW Stadium is a sports stadium in Wigan, Greater Manchester, England. Built and opened in 1999, it is named after its main sponsor, in UEFA matches, it is called Wigan Athletic Stadium due to UEFA regulations on sponsorship. The stadium architect was Alfred McAlpine, Wigan Athletic and Wigan Warriors moved into it from their long-term homes of Springfield Park and Central Park respectively. International rugby league matches have taken place at the venue. The stadium was designed by Alfred McAlpine and completed in August 1999, Wigan Athletic had spent the previous 67 years playing at Springfield Park, and their first match at the stadium was a friendly against Morecambe, just before the stadiums official opening. The first competitive match there took place on 7 August 1999. Simon Haworth scored twice, including the first competitive goal at the new stadium, as Athletic triumphed 3–0. Wigan Warriors moved to the stadium a month after it opened, once they had played their home game of the 1999 regular season at Central Park. After their former ground was sold, the possibility of sharing with Bolton Wanderers F. C. at the Reebok Stadium was presented. Their first game there was a match against Castleford Tigers. The Warriors did not lose a match at the stadium in 2001. The first away team to win a football match at the stadium was Wigan Athletic. A first round FA Cup tie against non-league Cambridge City was played due to Citys ground being deemed unsuitable to host the tie. Wigan played in their changed strip and used the away dressing room since it was technically a game for Cambridge City. A Stuart Barlow brace secured the win for Wigan, Wigan subsequently lost at home to Wolverhampton Wanderers in the third round of the FA Cup on 11 December 1999. Oldham Athletic became the first team to beat Wigan in a fixture at the JJB on 7 January 2000. The game was live on sky sports and finished 1–0 thanks to an 86th-minute header from Lee Duxbury. Whilst Wigan Warriors and Wigan Athletic flourished in the new stadium, Dave Whelan and Maurice Lindsay decided to invest heavily in the club, with the aim of having the club play in rugby unions Guinness Premiership at the stadium
Russia, also officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians