Communist Party of India
The Communist Party of India is the oldest communist party in India. There are different views on when it was founded; the date maintained as the foundation day by the CPI is 26 December 1925. The Communist Party of India, which separated from the CPI in 1964 following an ideological rift between China and the Soviet Union, continues to claim having been founded in 1925; the Communist Party of India has stated that it was formed on 26 December 1925 at the first Party Conference in Kanpur Cawnpore. But as per the version of CPI, the Communist Party of India was founded in Tashkent, Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 17 October 1920, soon after the Second Congress of the Communist International; the founding members of the party were M. N. Roy, Evelyn Trent Roy, Abani Mukherji, Rosa Fitingof, Mohammad Ali, Mohammad Shafiq Siddiqui, Hasrat Mohani, Rafiq Ahmed of Bhopal and M. P. T. Aacharya, Sultan Ahmed Khan Tarin of North-West Frontier Province; the CPI says that there were many communist groups formed by Indians with the help of foreigners in different parts of the world and the Tashkent group was only one of.
Contacts with Anushilan and Jugantar groups in Bengal. Small communist groups were formed in Bengal, Madras, United Provinces and Punjab and Sindh. However, only Usmani became a CPI party member. During the 1920s and the early 1930s the party was badly organised, in practice there were several communist groups working with limited national coordination; the British colonial authorities had banned all communist activity, which made the task of building a united party difficult. Between 1921 and 1924 there were three conspiracy trials against the communist movement. In the first three cases, Russian-trained muhajir communists were put on trial. However, the Cawnpore trial had more political impact. On 17 March 1924, Shripad Amrit Dange, M. N. Roy, Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupta, Shaukat Usmani, Singaravelu Chettiar, Ghulam Hussain and R. C. Sharma were charged, in Cawnpore Bolshevik Conspiracy case; the specific pip charge was that they as communists were seeking "to deprive the King Emperor of his sovereignty of British India, by complete separation of India from imperialistic Britain by a violent revolution."
Pages of newspapers daily splashed sensational communist plans and people for the first time learned, on such a large scale, about communism and its doctrines and the aims of the Communist International in India. Singaravelu Chettiar was released on account of illness. M. N. Roy was in Germany and R. C. Sharma in French Pondichéry, therefore could not be arrested. Ghulam Hussain was pardoned. Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupta, Shaukat Usmani and Dange were sentenced for various terms of imprisonment; this case was responsible for introducing communism to a larger Indian audience. Dange was released from prison in 1927. Rahul Dev Pal was a prominent communist leader On 25 December 1925 a communist conference was organised in Kanpur. Colonial authorities estimated; the conference was convened by a man called Satyabhakta. At the conference Satyabhakta argued for a'National communism' and against subordination under Comintern. Being outvoted by the other delegates, Satyabhakta left the conference venue in protest.
The conference adopted the name'Communist Party of India'. Groups such as Labour Kisan Party of Hindustan dissolved into the unified CPI; the émigré CPI, which had little organic character anyway, was substituted by the organisation now operating inside India. Soon after the 1926 conference of the Workers and Peasants Party of Bengal, the underground CPI directed its members to join the provincial Workers and Peasants Parties. All open communist activities were carried out through Peasants Parties; the sixth congress of the Communist International met in 1928. In 1927 the Kuomintang had turned on the Chinese communists, which led to a review of the policy on forming alliances with the national bourgeoisie in the colonial countries; the Colonial theses of the 6th Comintern congress called upon the Indian communists to combat the'national-reformist leaders' and to'unmask the national reformism of the Indian National Congress and oppose all phrases of the Swarajists, etc. about passive resistance'.
The congress did however differentiate between the character of the Chinese Kuomintang and the Indian Swarajist Party, considering the latter as neither a reliable ally nor a direct enemy. The congress called on the Indian communists to utilize the contradictions between the national bourgeoisie and the British imperialists; the congress denounced the WPP. The Tenth Plenum of the Executive Committee of the Communist International, 3 July 1929 – 19 July 1929, directed the Indian communists to break with WPP; when the communists deserted it, the WPP fell apart. On 20 March 1929, arrests against WPP, CPI and other labour leaders were made in several parts of India, in what became known as the Meerut Conspiracy Case; the communist leadership was now put behind bars. The trial proceedings were to last for four years; as of 1934, the main centres of activity of CPI were Bombay and Punjab. The party had begun extending its activities to Madras. A group of Andhra and Tamil students, amongst them P. Sundarayya, were recruited to the CPI by Amir Hyder Khan.
The party was reorganised in 1933, after the communist leaders from the Meerut trials were release
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith
Matriculation is the formal process of entering a university, or of becoming eligible to enter by fulfilling certain academic requirements such as a matriculation examination. In Australia, the term "Matriculation" is used; the state of New South Wales offered the School Certificate up until it was replaced by the RoSA in 2011. In the late 60s and early 70s all states replaced matriculation with either a certificate such as the Higher School Certificate, in Victoria and NSW, or a University entrance exam such as the Tertiary Entrance Exam in Western Australia; these have all been renamed as a State-based certificate, such as the Victorian Certificate of Education or the Western Australian Certificate of Education. In Bangladesh, the "Matriculation" is the Secondary School Examination taken at year 10, the Intermediate Exams is the Higher Secondary Examination taken at year 12. Bangladesh, like the rest of, still uses terms such as Matriculation Exams and Intermediate Exams taken from the days of the British Raj although in England itself these terms were replaced by'O' or Ordinary Level Examinations and'A' or Advanced Level Examinations respectively.
In Brazilian Portuguese, the word "matrícula" refers to the act of enrolling in an educational course, whether it be elementary, high school, college or post-graduate education. In Canada, the term is used by some older universities to refer to orientation events, however some universities, including University of King's College, still hold formal Matriculation ceremonies. Trinity College at the University of Toronto holds formal matriculation ceremonies, during which time incoming students are required to sign a matriculation register, making the practice the closest in format to that conducted by Oxford and Cambridge colleges of any university in North America; the ceremony at King's is quite similar to the matriculation ceremonies held in universities such as Oxford or Cambridge. In Ontario during the era with grade 13, satisfactory completion of grade 12 was considered junior matriculation and satisfactory completion of grade 13 was senior matriculation. In Nova Scotia, at the present time, Junior matriculation is grade 11 and senior matriculation is completion of grade 12.
At Charles University in Prague, the oldest and most prestigious university in the Czech Republic, matriculation is held at the Great Hall. The ceremony is attended by students commencing their studies, it is intended as a demonstration of the adoption of student's duties and obtaining of student's rights. The ceremony itself involves students taking the Matriculation Oath of the University and symbolically touching the Faculty mace and shaking the Dean's hand. Other Czech universities hold ceremonies similar to the one just described. In Denmark, the University of Copenhagen holds a matriculation ceremony each year; the ceremony is held in the Hall of Ceremony in the main building of the University. The ceremony begins with a procession with the rector and the deans in academic dress and other regalia; the ceremony continues with the rector listing the different faculties, after which the different student, shouts when their respective faculty is mentioned. The rector delivers a speech, after which the rector and the deans leave the ceremony again in procession, after which a party is held on university grounds, to mark the admission of the new students.
In Finland, Matriculation is the examination taken at the end of Secondary education to qualify for entry into University. The test constitutes the high school's final exam, in other words it is a high school graduation exam. Since 1919, the test has been arranged by the Matriculation Examination Board. Before that, the administration of the test was the responsibility of the University of Helsinki; the German term Immatrikulation describes the administrative process of enrolling at university as a student. This can happen for winter semester and, depending on the degree program for summer semester, it does not involve a ceremony. A prerequisite for matriculation is the Abitur, the standard matriculation examination in Germany, for regular universities and Fachhochschulreife for Fachhochschulen. Both Abitur and Fachhochschulreife are school leaving certificates which students receive after passing their final examinations at some types of German secondary schools. In Hong Kong, the term is used interchangeably with the completion of sixth-form.
After sitting for the Certificate of Education examinations, eligible students receive two years of sixth-form education, upon completion, they sit for the A-level examinations. Most secondary schools offer the sixth-form programme, there are a few sixth-form colleges. Students obtaining good grades in the A-level examinations will be admitted to a university; the education reforms of Hong Kong in the 2000s have replaced the fourth- and fifth-form education, which prepared students for the HKCEE, the sixth-form education with a three-year senior secondary education, which leads to the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education Examination. The last sixth-form students graduated and took the A-level examinations in 2012. In India, it is a term used to refer to the final year of 10th class, which ends at tenth Board, the qualification received by passing the national board exams or the state board exams called "matriculation exams". India still uses terms such as Matriculation Exams and Intermediate
Kozhikode known as Calicut, is a city in Kerala and the headquarters of the Kozhikode district. The Kozhikode metropolitan area is the second largest urban agglomeration in Kerala with a population of 2 million as of 2011; the city lies about 360 km south west of Bangalore, 235 km south of Mangalore and 525 km south west of Chennai. During classical antiquity and the Middle Ages, Kozhikode was dubbed the City of Spices for its role as the major trading point of Indian spices, it was the capital of an independent kingdom ruled by the Samoothiris in the Middle Ages and of the erstwhile Malabar District under British rule. Arab merchants traded with the region as early as 7th century, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at Kozhikode on 20 May 1498, thus opening a trade route between Europe and Malabar. A Portuguese factory and the fort was intact in Kozhikode for short period; the English landed followed by the French and the Dutch. In 1765, Mysore captured Kozhikode as part of its occupation of the Malabar Coast.
Kozhikode, once a famous cotton-weaving centre, gave its name to the Calico cloth. According to data compiled by economics research firm Indicus Analytics on residences and investments, Kozhikode ranked as the second best city in India to reside in, it was ranked eleventh among Tier-II Indian cities in job creation by a study conducted by ASSOCHAM in 2007. The exact origin of the name Kozhikode is uncertain. According to many sources, the name Kozhikode is derived from Koyil-kota; the name got corrupted into Kolikod, or its anglicized version Calicut. Arab merchants called it Qāliqūṭ. Tamils called. In Kannada it was known as Kallikote. Although the city's official name is Kozhikode, in English it is sometimes known by its anglicised version, Calicut; the word calico, a fine variety of hand-woven cotton cloth, exported from the port of Kozhikode, is thought to have been derived from Calicut. It is the historical capital of Kerala as the history dates back to 1498 AD when Vasco da Gama landed in Kappad, near Calicut.
Kozhikode is a town with a long recorded history. From time immemorial, the city has attracted travellers with its prosperity, it has traded in spices like black pepper and cardamom with Arabs, Jews and Chinese for more than 500 years. As Kozhikode offered full freedom and security, the Arab and the Chinese merchants preferred it to all other ports; the globe-trotter Ibn Battuta said, "We came next to Kalikut, one of the great ports of the district of Malabar, in which merchants of all parts are found."Kozhikode was the capital of Malabar during the time of Sri Samoothiri Maharajas, who ruled the region before the British took over. The city's first recorded contact with Europe was when Vasco da Gama landed at Kappad in May 1498, among the leaders of a trade mission from Portugal, he was received by his highness Sri Samoothiri Maharaja. Feroke is a prominent commercial town located adjacent to the city of Kozhikode; the remnants of Tipu Sultan’s Fort area telltale of the Mysore Emperor’s dream to make Farookabad, now Ferok, his new capital, but that dream was never realized.
Known as Farookabad during the reign of Tipu Sultan, he wanted to make Farookabad his capital when he conquered Malabar in 1788. But it came under the jurisdiction of the British. Accounts of the city and the conditions prevailing can be gleaned from the chronicles of travellers who visited the port city. Ibn Battuta, who visited six times, gives the earliest glimpses of life in the city, he describes Kozhikode as "one of the great ports of the district of Malabar" where "merchants of all parts of the world are found". The king of this place, he says, "shaves his chin just as the Haidari Fakeers of Rome do... The greater part of the Muslim merchants of this place are so wealthy that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels put here and fit out others like them". Ma Huan, the Chinese sailor part of the Imperial Chinese fleet under Cheng Ho lauds the city as a great emporium of trade frequented by merchants from around the world, he makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes and the matrilineal system of succession.
Abdur Razzak the ambassador of Persian Emperor Sha-Rohk finds the city harbour secured and notices precious articles from several maritime countries from Abyssinia and Zanzibar. The Italian Niccolò de' Conti the first Christian traveller who noticed Kozhikode, describes the city as abounding in pepper, ginger, a larger kind of cinnamon and zedary, he calls it a noble emporium for all India, with a circumference of eight miles. The Russian traveller Athanasius Nikitin or Afanasy Nikitin calls'Calecut' a port for the whole Indian sea and describes it as having a "big bazaar." Other travellers who visited Kozhikode include Duarte Barbosa. Kozhikode and its suburbs formed; the Eradis of Nediyirippu in Eranad wanted an outlet to the sea, to initiate trade and commerce with the distant lands. And after fighting with the king Polatthiri for 48 years conquered the area around Panniankara. After this, Menokki came to terms with the troops and people. After this, the town
Govt. Ganapath High School for Boys
Govt. Ganapath High School for Boys, Chalappuram in Calicut is one of the oldest high schools in Kerala, it was built by the Late Mr. Ganapath Rao in 1886. V. K. Krishna Menon former Union minister for defence K. P. Kesava Menon, Chief Editor of Mathrubhoomi, Malayalam daily. S. K. Pottekkatt, Malayalam Writer Shajoon Karyal, Malayalam film director PP Ummer Koya, Education Minister, Government of Kerala Mannikoth Ramunni Nair aka M. R Nair or Sanjayan, Malayalam satirist P. M. Aboobacker, Minister for Public Works K. P. Ummer, Malayalam Cine Actor P. V. Gangadharan, Film Producer and Businessman P. V Chandran, Managing Director, Mathrubhumi T. Damodaran, Screenwriter
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
The Department of Posts, trading as India Post, is a government-operated postal system in India, part of the Ministry of Communications of the Government of India. Called "the post office" in India, it is the most distributed postal system in the world, it is involved in delivering mails, remitting money by money orders, accepting deposits under Small Savings Schemes, providing life insurance cover under Postal Life Insurance and Rural Postal Life Insurance and providing retail services like bill collection, sale of forms, etc. The DoP acts as an agent for Government of India in discharging other services for citizens such as old age pension payments and Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme wage disbursement. With 155,015 post offices, India Post has the most distributed postal network in the world; the country has been divided into 23 postal circles, each circle headed by a Chief Postmaster General. Each circle is divided into regions, headed by a Postmaster General and comprising field units known as Divisions.
These divisions are further divided into subdivisions. In addition to the 23 circles, there is a base circle to provide postal services to the Armed Forces of India headed by a Director General. One of the highest post offices in the world is in Hikkim, Himachal Pradesh operated by India Post at a height of 14,567 ft; the British Raj was instituted in 1858, when the rule of the East India Company was transferred to the Crown. By 1861, there were 889 post offices handling nearly 43 million letters and over 4.5 million newspapers annually. The first superintendent of the post office was appointed in 1870 and based in Allahabad and in 1876, British India became the first non-founding member of the General Postal Union. A number of acts were enacted during the British Raj to expand and regulate Posts and Telegraphs service: The Government Savings Bank Act 1873, passed by the legislature 28 January 1873, was enacted in 1881. On 1 April 1882, Post Office Savings Banks opened throughout India. In Madras Presidency, it was limited.
Postal life insurance began on 1 February 1884 as a welfare measure for the employees of the Posts & Telegraphs Department as Government of India dispatch No. 299 dated 18 October 1882 to the Secretary of State. Telegraph Act, 1885 The Indian Post Office Act 1898, passed by the legislature on 22 March 1898, became effective on 1 July 1898 regulating postal service, it was preceded by Act III of 1882 and Act XVI of 1896. The Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act 1933 The world's first official airmail flight took place in India on 18 February 1911, a journey of 18 kilometres lasting 27 minutes. Henri Pequet, a French pilot, carried about 15 kilograms of mail across the Ganges from Allahabad to Naini. India Post inaugurated a floating post office in August 2011 at Dal Lake in Kashmir. Telegraphy and telephony made their appearance as part of the postal service before becoming separate departments; the Posts and Telegraphs Departments merged in 1914, dividing again on 1 January 1985. Since India became independent in 1947, the postal service continues to function on a nationwide basis, providing a variety of services.
The structure of the organization has the directorate at its apex. In April 1959, the Indian Postal Department adopted the motto "Service before help"; the number of post offices was 23,344 when India became independent in 1947 and these were in urban areas. The number increased to 155,015 in 2016 and 90% of these were in rural areas; the first adhesive postage stamps in Asia were issued in the Indian district of Scinde in July 1852 by Bartle Frere, chief commissioner of the region. Frere was an admirer of the English postal reformer who had introduced the Penny Post; the Scinde stamps became known as "Scinde Dawks". These stamps, with a value of 1⁄2-anna, were in use until June 1866; the first all-India stamps were issued on 1 October 1854. The volume of mail moved by the postal system increased doubling between 1854 and 1866 and doubling again by 1871; the Post Office Act XIV introduced reforms by 1 May 1866 to correct some of the more obvious postal-system deficiencies and abuses. Postal-service efficiencies were introduced.
In 1863, lower rates were set for "steamer" mail to Europe at. Lower rates were introduced for inland mail. New regulations removed special postal privileges enjoyed by officials of the East India Company. Stamps for official use were prepared and accounted for, to combat abuses by officials. In 1854 Spain had printed special stamps for official communications, but in 1866 India was the first country to adopt the expedient of overprinting "Service" on postage stamps and "Service Postage" on revenue stamps; this innovation was widely adopted by other countries. Shortages developed, so stamps had to be improvised; some "Service Postage" overprinted. New designs for the four-anna and six-anna-eight-pie stamps were issued in 1866. There was a shortage of stamps to meet the new rates. Provisional six-anna stamps were improvised by cutting the top and bottom from a current foreign-bill revenue stamp and over