Rotary International is an international service organization whose stated purpose is to bring together business and professional leaders in order to provide humanitarian service and to advance goodwill and peace around the world. It is a non-political and non-sectarian organization open to all people regardless of race, creed, gender, or political preference. There are 34,282 member clubs worldwide, 1.2 million individuals, known as Rotarians, have joined. Rotarians gather weekly for breakfast, lunch, or dinner to fulfill their first guiding principle to develop friendships as an opportunity for service. "It is the duty of all Rotarians," states their Manual of Procedure, "outside their clubs, to be active as individuals in as many constituted groups and organizations as possible to promote, not only in words but through exemplary dedication, awareness of the dignity of all people and the respect of the consequent human rights of the individual." The Rotarian's primary motto is "Service Above Self".
The object of Rotary is to encourage and foster the ideal of service as a basis of worthy enterprise and, in particular, to encourage and foster: The development of acquaintance as an opportunity for service. High ethical standards in business and professions, the recognition of the worthiness of all useful occupations, the dignifying of each Rotarian's occupation as an opportunity to serve society; the application of the ideal of service in each Rotarian's personal and community life. The advancement of international understanding and peace through a world fellowship of business and professional persons united in the ideal of service; this objective is set against the "Rotary 4-Way Test", used to see if a planned action is compatible with the Rotarian spirit. The test was developed by Rotarian and entrepreneur Herbert J. Taylor during the Great Depression as a set of guidelines for restoring faltering businesses and was adopted as the standard of ethics by Rotary in 1942, it is still seen as a standard for ethics in business management.
The 4-Way Test considers the following questions in respect to thinking, saying or doing: Is it the truth? Is it fair to all concerned? Will it build goodwill and better friendships? Will it be beneficial to all concerned? The first Rotary Club was formed when attorney Paul P. Harris called together a meeting of three business acquaintances in downtown Chicago, United States, at Harris's friend Gustave Loehr's office in the Unity Building on Dearborn Street on February 23, 1905. In addition to Harris and Loehr, Silvester Schiele, Hiram E. Shorey were the other two who attended this first meeting; the members chose the name Rotary because they rotated subsequent weekly club meetings to each other's offices, although within a year, the Chicago club became so large it became necessary to adopt the now-common practice of a regular meeting place. The next four Rotary Clubs were organized in cities in the western United States, beginning with San Francisco Oakland and Los Angeles; the National Association of Rotary Clubs in America was formed in 1910.
On November 3, 1910, a Rotary club began meeting in Winnipeg, Canada, the beginning of the organisation's internationality. On 22 February 1911, the first meeting of the Rotary Club Dublin was held in Ireland; this was the first club established outside of North America. In April 1912, Rotary chartered the Winnipeg club marking the first establishment of an American-style service club outside the United States. To reflect the addition of a club outside of the United States, the name was changed to the International Association of Rotary Clubs in 1912. In August 1912, the Rotary Club of London received its charter from the Association, marking the first acknowledged Rotary club outside North America, it became known that the Dublin club in Ireland was organized before the London club, but the Dublin club did not receive its charter until after the London club was chartered. During World War I, Rotary in Britain increased from 9 to 22 clubs, other early clubs in other nations included those in Cuba in 1916, Philippines in 1919 and India in 1920.
In 1922, the name was changed to Rotary International. From 1923 to 1928, Rotary's office and headquarters were located on E 20th Street in the Atwell Building. During this same time, the monthly magazine The Rotarian was published mere floors below by Atwell Printing and Binding Company. By 1925, Rotary had grown to 200 clubs with more than 20,000 members. Rotary Clubs in Spain ceased to operate shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Clubs were disbanded across Europe as follows: Netherlands Finland Austria Italy Czechoslovakia Estonia, Lithuania, Poland and Luxembourg Hungary Rotary International's has worked with the UN since the UN started in 1945. At that time Rotary was involved in 65 countries; the two organizations shared ideals around promoting peace. Rotary received consultative status at the UN in 1946–47. Rotary clubs in Eastern Europe and other communist-regime nations were disbanded by 1945–46, but new Rotary clubs were organized in many other countries, by the time of the national independence movements in Africa and Asia, the new nations had Rotary clubs.
After the relaxation of government control of community groups in Russia and former Soviet satellite nations, Rotarians were welcomed as club organizers, clubs were formed in those countries, beginning with the Moscow club in 1990. In 1985, Rotary launched its PolioPlus program to immunize
Albion College is a private liberal arts college located in Albion, Michigan. Affiliated with the United Methodist Church, it was founded in 1835 and was the first private college in Michigan to have a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, its student population during the 2013-14 academic year was approx. 1,350. The College's athletic teams are nicknamed the Britons and their colors are purple and gold, they participate in the Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Albion College is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association and the Michigan Campus Compact, an organization dedicated to encouraging student volunteerism; as of 2013, Albion College was ranked No. 100 in the U. S. News & World Report list of national liberal arts colleges, 115th in the Forbes list of America's Top Colleges, which includes universities as well as colleges. U. S. News includes a high school counselor ranking, in which Albion placed 85th among national liberal arts colleges; the origin of Albion College lies not in the city of Albion, but about 10 miles southeast of the present location of the college.
On March 23, 1835, Methodist Episcopal settlers in Spring Arbor Township obtained a charter for the Spring Arbor Seminary from the Michigan Territorial Legislature. Foundations for a building were begun in 1837 at a location about 3 miles southwest of the current village of Spring Arbor but were soon abandoned due to the economic turmoil caused by the Panic of 1837. No classes were held at the Spring Arbor location; the trustees applied to move the seminary to Albion in 1838, the legislature approved the move in 1839. With 60 acres of land donated by Albion pioneer Jesse Crowell, the cornerstone was laid for the first building in 1841; the seminary, now named the Wesleyan Seminary, first held classes in 1843, in the local Methodist Church. In 1844, classes began in the newly constructed Central Building, rebuilt as the present Robinson Hall in 1907; the Albion Female Collegiate Institute was founded in 1850 by the Wesleyan Seminary Corporation. The two schools merged in 1857 under the name The Wesleyan Female College at Albion.
On February 25, 1861, both schools were merged under the name Albion College when the school was authorized by the State legislature to confer a full four-year college degree upon both men and women. The Albion College student body is composed of 1,500 students; the student–to–faculty ratio is 11:1. The average class size of under 19 is comparable to other small liberal arts colleges. Albion College employs more than 100 full-time faculty, of whom more than 95% have earned the highest degree offered in their field. Albion College appears on the U. S. News & World Report list of America's Top Liberal Arts Colleges. Albion is a member of The Princeton Review's 376 Best Colleges and Best Midwestern Colleges list. Albion College offers 30 academic majors leading to Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees. In addition to the academic majors, numerous concentrations, academic institutes, special programs are offered; these include the Prentiss M. Brown Honors program, The Center for Sustainability and the Environment, Fritz Shurmur Education Institute, the Gerald R. Ford Institute for Public Policy and Service at Albion College, the Carl A. Gerstacker Institute for Business and Management, pre-professional programs in engineering and law.
In addition to the expansive facilities on Albion's campus, Albion College offers many opportunities for students to travel and study at other institutions. Programs are offered in Philadelphia, London, Heidelberg, Tübingen, Seoul, Cape Town, Aix-en-Provence, Athens and Paris, to name a few. Albion offers more than 100 different off-campus programs in over 60 countries on six continents. Of the numerous academic buildings at Albion College, the largest is the Science Complex; the Albion College Science Complex comprises four academic buildings: Norris Hall, Kresge Hall, Putnam Hall, Palenske Hall, which house the Departments of Biology, Geology, Physics and Computer Science. The four buildings are connected by a 7,000-square foot Atrium. Kresge Hall features labs for introductory chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry on the third floor. Downdraft hoods in the intro and inorganic chemistry spaces help to maintain air quality; the organic labs are equipped with 12 six-foot ventilation hoods so students can learn chemical techniques and transformations in state-of-the-art facilities.
Research space for organic and inorganic chemistry faculty can be found on the third floor. Biochemistry research and teaching spaces are found on the second floor; these spaces were designed to share a central preparation space that houses equipment used in both research and teaching applications. Proximity to the biology department encourages collaboration between students and faculty in the different disciplines; the first floor contains various classrooms and zoology and research labs for the biology department, as well as a greenhouse. The ground floor contains a majority of the biology labs, including an aquatic lab and temperature-control suite. Putnam Hall features research labs for analytical and physical chemistry, an analytical chemistry teaching lab on the third floor; the second floor has three "Enhanced Classrooms" with fixed projectors for computers, DVDs, a port to plug in additional equipment, as well as the building's primary computer lab. All four levels of Putnam Hall feature faculty and staff offices, with the third floor home to chemistry faculty offices, second floor home to biology and computer science offices, the first floor home to the main building office.
Interlochen Center for the Arts
Interlochen Center for the Arts is a tax exempt, 501 non-profit corporation, operating an arts education institution in northwest Michigan. The center is situated on a 1,200-acre campus in Interlochen, Michigan 15 miles southwest of Traverse City. Interlochen draws young people from around the world to study music, dance, visual arts, creative writing, motion picture arts, comparative arts. Interlochen Center for the Arts is the umbrella organization for Interlochen Arts Camp, Interlochen Arts Academy boarding high school, Interlochen Public Radio, the "Interlochen Presents" performing arts series; the Interlochen College of Creative Arts is an separate non-profit corporation. Interlochen Center for the Arts comprises five major divisions. An annual summer camp attended by young artists from around the world. Programs are offered to students in grades three through twelve, providing an opportunity to learn and perform alongside leading artists and instructors. A fine arts boarding high school offering arts training combined with comprehensive, college-preparatory academics.
An adult artist learning program offering programs in a variety of arts disciplines. Two listener-supported stations that broadcast to northwest Michigan: Classical Music 88.7, 88.5, 94.7 and 100.9 FM. Broadcasts include arts and culture from around the world, as well as local and regional news and artists. IPR was a charter member of National Public Radio. An ongoing series of performances by students and dozens of world-renowned guest artists; the series presents more than 600 events each year, making Interlochen one of the nation's largest arts presenters. The Interlochen Arts Academy, the highest profile pre-professional arts boarding high school worldwide, was founded in 1928 by Joseph E. Maddy; as of 2016, it had 350 faculty and staff, 500 students, from Freshman to Postgraduates. Admission is by audition only. While more than half the students major in Music Performance, IAA offers majors in Comparative Arts, Creative Writing, Theatre, Motion Picture Arts, Visual Arts. Newer majors include Motion Picture Arts beginning in 2005, Comparative Arts in 2011.
The vast majority of students at Interlochen Arts Academy are boarding students, including many international students. Upon graduation, most IAA graduates continue to universities or conservatories for further study in the arts or academics. Conservatories that admit Interlochen students include Juilliard, Cleveland Institute of Music, School of the Art Institute of Chicago, New England Conservatory, Oberlin Conservatory, Manhattan School of Music, Boston Conservatory, Peabody Institute, CalArts. Interlochen Arts Academy graduates matriculate at colleges and universities that do not have a primary focus on the arts. Due to its reputation and secluded location, Interlochen Arts Academy has attracted many celebrity offspring, including children of Robin Williams, Hugh Hefner, Bruce Willis, Demi Moore, Alan Menken. From the State of Michigan historical marker on Interlochen's Osterlin Mall: Ottawa Indians once lived in the pine forest between lakes Wahbekaness and Wahbekanetta. In the late 1800s white men cut the pines, leaving only a small forest between the lakes.
This virgin pine became part of one of the first state parks. When the lumber era ended, the Wylie Cooperage mill occupied the Indian village site, making barrels until the hardwood ran out. Willis Pennington's summer hotel, opened in 1909, was popular with fishermen until automobiles and better roads drew them elsewhere. In 1918, Camp Interlochen, one of Michigan's first girls' recreation camps, was opened, followed in 1922 by Camp Penn Loch for boys. In 1928, by arrangement with Willis Pennington, Joseph E. Maddy and Thaddeus P. Giddings established the National High School Orchestra Camp, it grew in scope and reputation, becoming the National Music Camp in 1931, affiliating with the University of Michigan in 1942. Interlochen Arts Academy was chartered in 1960 to provide year-round training in the creative arts. From the book Interlochen, The First 25 Years: In 1926, Joe Maddy was asked to organize and conduct the First National High School Orchestra for the Music Supervisors' National Conference in Detroit.
Its resounding success led to an invitation to duplicate the experience at the Dallas, Texas convention of the National Education Association's Department of Superintendence in 1927. The exuberant young musicians pled for the chance to work and play together longer than the few days the convention appearance afforded. Joe Maddy promised them a music camp! In June, 1928, at Interlochen, Michigan, in the midst of a magnificent stand of virgin pine trees between two lovely lakes, The National High School Orchestra Camp opened its doors. On leased land, with the old Hotel Pennington, several cottages, 29 new camper cabins, a hospital and sewer system, the new Interlochen Bowl, $40,000 debt, this brave experiment was launched. Interlochen was the inspiration for the 1941 Paramount motion picture. Interlochen provided inspiration, along with Blue Lake Fine Arts Camp, for Alyson Hannigan's character in American Pie. In 2006, Katalyst Media filmed a reality TV pilot for MTV at Interlochen Arts Academy.
Afraid that an MTV show would ruin Interlochen's distinguished reputation, a large group of students resorted to pr
Detroit Boat Club
The Detroit Boat Club was established in 1839, as a sport rowing club. It was first created on the Detroit River during a time; the Detroit Boat Club is a member of the Detroit Regional Yacht-racing Association. E. A. Brush, Alpheus S. Williams, S. H. Sibley, Alfred Brush, J. H. Farnsworth, James A. Armstrong, John Chester were among the founding members, prominent men in Detroit's society; the first building that housed the club was at Hasting street, in an old clubhouse with one boat, the "Georgiana". In 1840, the Detroit Boat Club bought a second boat, the E. A. Brush, began to hold two mile races from Hog Island and the clubhouse, it was around this time that the famous University Boat Race between Cambridge vs. Oxford races began on the River Thames in England. In 1848, the clubhouse burned, destroying all boats except the "Wolverine"; the club was moved to a carpentry shop, it continued to grow. By 1873, the club was ensconced in plush quarters at the foot of Joseph Campau Street, the easternmost end of Detroit, had become the center of all water sports.
A half-dozen new clubs formed nearby, most displayed their sailing and rowing trophies at Bidigaire's saloon up Joseph Campau. The Biddle House on East Jefferson and the Russell House attracted a thirsty boating set; when its Joseph Campau lease expired in 1889, the City of Detroit invited the DBC to move to Belle Isle. The Detroit Yacht Club, on the landward side of the Belle Isle Bridge went over to the island at that time when informed that the city needed their old site for its new bridge approach. A new clubhouse was built on Belle Isle in 1891, but was burned in 1893. Another boathouse lasted until 1901 when it burned. In an attempt to save the structure, club member and fire commissioner Fred Moran ordered all available firefighting apparatus to the scene. Horses thundered over the old wooden bridge, dragging heavy trucks behind them; the fire tug James Battle became grounded in the shallow water and remained stuck fast until the following noon. Fire equipment failed to get close enough to the burning building due to mud and the distance of the old clubhouse from the shore.
Helpless, they watched it burn. The next morning, club members vowed once again to rebuild their clubhouse. On August 4, 1902, the current boathouse was dedicated. Detroit continued to grow. Horse-drawn trolleys were being replaced by electric streetcars, planked sidewalks were paved, gas lamps were replaced by electric lights. On the river, sleek racing sculls became standard equipment, canoeing became popular; the Detroit Boat Club became a greater force in the social and sporting fabric of Detroit. DBC legends are plentiful. During a 1923 regatta in Detroit, two middle-aged Grand Rapids Canoe Club oarsmen issued a challenge to any pair whose total ages equaled or exceeded their own—114 years—to a match race in double sculls at a mile straightaway. DBC members W. A. Warner, 74, Capt. Fred Standish, 70, --144 years between them—saw the challenge on the club's bulletin board and vowed to take them on, it was a tight race until the stretch, where Standish began to pull away. They beat their younger Grand Rapids rivals by a full three lengths.
In 1956, the Detroit Boat Club put seven members on the U. S. Olympic team coached by Walter Hoover, the DBC Seven brought home two silver medals. Rowers James Gardiner and Pat Costello placed second to the Russians in double sculls while identical twins Art McKinlay and John McKinlay, John Welchli and James McIntosh, placed second to Canada in the four without coxswain event; the seventh member from the DBC was alternate Walter Hoover Jr. Since 1873, the DBC blue and white colors have flown at every national rowing regatta, DBC oarsmen have won 54 events and eight national team championships. In 1960, under coach Ken Blue, DBC crews were invited for the first time to take part in the classic Henley Royal Regatta on the Thames River in England. A team made up of Doug Latimer, Jim Plath, Bob Walker, Bill Thorpe, Roger Taylor, Joe Callanan, Al Arbury, Mike Ernesman, coxswain Bob Kroll placed second to Harvard in the final. Any account of DBC rowing must include Divie Duffield, the greatest oarsmen in the club's history, who came to DBC from Harvard.
He won the national singles titles in 1904 and 1905 and rowed in doubles, pairs and eights that took major championships. His greatest triumph came in the 1904 Olympic singles in St. Louis, he coached for the next 10 years. While rowing remained the cornerstone of the club's activities, other forms of boating became popular. Sailing arrived in 1899 and the DBC regatta is the oldest sailing race in Michigan. Few know that member commodore Dr. Charles Godwin Jennings and his 65-foot schooner, won the first Mackinac Race held in 1904; the old Belle Isle Bridge, which burned in April 1915, had a swing section which opened at midnight, preventing anyone on the island from reaching the mainline until the next morning. To be trapped on the island was tantamount to disgrace and social ostracism. All club dances ended promptly at 11:30. Long after the present bridge opened in 1923, dances at the Boat Club and Detroit Yacht Club continued to end at 11:30. In 1992 rent on the Detroit Boat Club property jumped from $1 to $100,000.
Utility payments fell behind and membership continued to drop. The club filed for bankruptcy citing a $1million debt; the city announced plans to take over operation of the building. In 1996, the boat club members voted to move out of the city. "It was difficult for us to come to the decision that if we were going to be economica
East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
East Stroudsburg is a borough in Monroe County, United States. It is located in the Poconos region of the state. Known as "Dansbury," East Stroudsburg was renamed for geographic reasons when the Delaware and Western Railroad opened a station in town, it is more populous than that town. East Stroudsburg is the largest municipality in Monroe County and in the East Stroudsburg, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area as designated by the Office of Management and Budget based on data from the 2010 US Census; the population was 11,922 at the 2010 census. East Stroudsburg is located at 41°0′5″N 75°10′48″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 2.9 square miles, all of it land. When traveling west on Interstate 80, East Stroudsburg is the second town from the NJ-PA border on exit 309; as of the census of 2010, there were 11,922 people, 3,145 households, 1,855 families residing in the borough. The population density was 3,445.6 people per square mile. There were 3,331 housing units at an average density of 1,160.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the borough was 41.24% White, 52.88% African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.56% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.80% from other races, 2.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.56% of the population. There were 3,331 households, out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.0% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.04. In the borough the population was spread out, with 18.0% under the age of 18, 30.3% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 16.1% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females there were 86.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $36,601, the median income for a family was $44,044.
Males had a median income of $34,764 versus $21,742 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $14,909. About 9.1% of families and 15.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.7% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. The area of Stroudsburg was first permanently settled in 1738, when James Monroe received a warrant of 600 acres in Bucks County, now Monroe County along the east bank of the Analomink or Smithfield Creek. An additional warrant for 150 acres on the west bank was given to Brodhead in 1750. Brodhead, a judge, was friendly with the local Indians, as well as with the Moravian missionaries who came to the area from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; the East Stroudsburg Armory and East Stroudsburg Station are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. East Stroudsburg Area School District East Stroudsburg High School North East Stroudsburg High School South Notre Dame High School East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania Pocono Snow is an American soccer team based in East Stroudsburg, United States.
Founded in 2008, the team plays in National Premier Soccer League, a national amateur league at the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid, in the Eastern Keystone Division. The team plays its home games at Eiler-Martin Stadium on the campus of East Stroudsburg University, where they have played since 2009; the team's colors are orange and white. Lehigh Valley Hospital-Pocono is a member of the Lehigh Valley Health Network-Pocono that manages five healthcare subsidiaries to collectively provide services to residents and visitors of Monroe County and surrounding counties in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Pocono Medical Center began as General Hospital, was founded in East Stroudsburg on Courtland Street in 1915. Stroudsburg-Pocono Airport is located near East Stroudsburg, in Smithfield Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania. Stroudsburg-Pocono Airport is owned by Robert Strenz; the paved runway extends for 3087 feet. The facility is at an elevation of 480 feet; the airport offers activities such as a golf driving range.
The Monroe County Transit Authority, sometimes known as the Pocono Pony, serves Monroe County with five bus routes. Two of those routes, the Red and Yellow routes, serve East Stroudsburg; the Red route connects the central business district with adjacent Stroudsburg and Pocono Medical Center. The Yellow Route serves the Northern and Eastern portions of the borough, connecting them with the Stroud Mall, the Marshall's Creek, PA area. East Stroudsburg station served East Stroudsburg, but the last Erie Lackawanna Railway passenger train stopped there January, 1970. There are plans for the New Jersey Transit to reopen this station. Most of this project however, is not funded. Only the MOS of the project is being built so far, from where the Eastern end of the Lackawanna Cut-Off separates from the former Lackawanna RR main line at Port Morris Jct. to Andover, New Jersey. The track Eastward from East Stroudsburg to Slateford Junction is still in service and used by the Delaware-Lackawanna Railroad three times a week both to service a paper plant at Minisink Hills and interchange freight with Norfolk Southern at Slateford Jct.
Heading West from East Stroudsburg the former Delaware and Western double-track mainline still has a usable single track through to Scranton. The D
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
A department store is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as "departments". In modern major cities, the department store made a dramatic appearance in the middle of the 19th century, permanently reshaped shopping habits, the definition of service and luxury. Similar developments were under way in Paris and in New York. Today, departments include the following: clothing, home appliances, cosmetics, gardening, sporting goods, do it yourself and hardware. Additionally, other lines of products such as food, jewelry, stationery, photographic equipment, baby products, products for pets are sometimes included. Customers check out near the front of the store, although some stores include sales counters within each department; some stores are one of many within a larger retail chain retailers. In the 1970s, they came under heavy pressure from discounters, have come under heavier pressure from e-commerce sites since 2010. Big-box stores and discount stores are comparable to historical department stores.
The origins of the departmental store lay in the growth of the conspicuous consumer society at the turn of the 19th century. As the Industrial Revolution accelerated economy expansion, the affluent middle-class grew in size and wealth. Urbanized social groups, sharing a culture of consumption and changing fashions, were the catalyst for the retail revolution; as rising prosperity and social mobility increased the number of people women, with disposable income in the late Georgian period, window shopping was transformed into a leisure activity and entrepreneurs, like the potter Josiah Wedgwood, pioneered the use of marketing techniques to influence the prevailing tastes and preferences of society. Department stores often featured post services, childcare services and other services that appealed to female shoppers. One of the first department stores may have been Bennett's in Derby, first established as an ironmonger in 1734, it still stands to trading in the same building. However, the first reliably dated department store to be established, was Harding, Howell & Co, which opened in 1796 on Pall Mall, London.
An observer writing in Ackermann's Repository, a British periodical on contemporary taste and fashion, described the enterprise in 1809 as follows: The house is one hundred and fifty feet in length from front to back, of proportionate width. It is fitted up with great taste, is divided by glazed partitions into four departments, for the various branches of the extensive business, there carried on. At the entrance is the first department, appropriated to the sale of furs and fans; the second contains articles of haberdashery of every description, muslins, gloves, &etc. In the third shop, on the right, you meet with a rich assortment of jewelry, ornamental articles in ormolu, french clocks, &etc.. The fourth is set apart for millinery and dresses; this concern has been conducted for the last twelve years by the present proprietors who have spared neither trouble nor expense to ensure the establishment of a superiority over every other in Europe, to render it unique in its kind. This venture is described as having all of the basic characteristics of the department store.
This pioneering shop was closed down in 1820. All the major British cities had flourishing department stores by the mid-or late nineteenth century. Women became the main customers. Kendals in Manchester lays claim to being one of the first department stores and is still known to many of its customers as Kendal's, despite its 2005 name change to House of Fraser; the Manchester institution dates back to 1836 but had been trading as Watts Bazaar since 1796. At its zenith the store had buildings on both sides of Deansgate linked by a subterranean passage "Kendals Arcade" and an art nouveau tiled food hall; the store was known for its emphasis on quality and style over low prices giving it the nickname "the Harrods of the North", although this was due in part to Harrods acquiring the store in 1919. Other large Manchester stores included Lewis's. In London, department stores were established in Oxford Street and Regent Street in the mid 19th-century; these were distinctly modern stores with lavish displays of imported goods Oriental shawls and furniture and served a wealthy clientele.
Harrods of London can be traced back to 1834, while the current store on Brompton Road on a site they acquired in 1849, was constructed between 1894 and 1905. Liberty & Co. gained popularity in thre 1870s for selling Oriental goods. Gamages was founded in London's High Holborn by Arthur Walter Gamage in 1878. In Bayswater, the draper, William Whiteley established a department store with more of a mass market appeal. Bainbridge's dates back to 1838, when Emerson Muschamp Bainbridge went into partnership with William Alder Dunn and opened a drapers and fashion shop in Newcastle's Market Street. In 1849 there were 23 separate departm