S4C is a Welsh-language free-to-air television channel. The first television channel to be aimed at a Welsh-speaking audience, S4C is the fourth-oldest television channel in the United Kingdom after BBC One, ITV and BBC Two; as of 2017–2018, S4C had an average of 131 employees. S4C's headquarters is based in Carmarthen, at the University of Wales Trinity Saint David’s creative and digital centre, Yr Egin, it has regional offices in Caernarfon and Cardiff. When first established, the channel—initially broadcast on analogue television—was bilingual outside peak hours, with English-language content consisting of the simultaneous or deferred transmission of programmes from Channel 4; when digital terrestrial television arrived several years S4C added a second, full-time Welsh-language channel called S4C Digidol on 1 November 1998. With the completion of the digital switchover in Wales on 31 March 2010 which made English-language Channel 4 available across Wales as S4C's bilingual analogue channel closed, what had been S4C Digidol became the default S4C channel, available on Freeview and pay television, broadcasting in Welsh.

S4C does not commission programming in English, but when English is used on the channel it is left untranslated. Moreover, the channel includes an English subtitle track available for some programmes, which can be accessed using their television set's remote control. Before the launch of S4C on Monday 1 November 1982, Welsh speakers had been served by occasional programmes in Welsh, broadcast as regional opt-outs on BBC Cymru Wales and HTV Cymru Wales at off-peak or inconvenient times; this was unsatisfactory for Welsh speakers, who saw the arrangement as a sop, at the same time an annoyance for non-Welsh speakers, who found the English language programmes seen in the rest of the UK rescheduled or not transmitted at all. On 14 September 1962, the ITV network had created a licence area for North and West Wales, awarded to Wales Limited; this provided significant levels of Welsh-language programming. However, problems with transmission infrastructure and poor market research led to financial difficulties within two years and the station was taken over by its neighbour Television Wales and the West.

During the 1970s, Welsh-language activists had campaigned for a TV service in the language, which had its own radio station, BBC Radio Cymru. Both the Conservative and Labour parties promised a Welsh-language fourth channel, if elected to government in the 1979 general election. Shortly after the Conservatives won a majority in the election, the new Home Secretary William Whitelaw decided against a Welsh fourth channel, suggested that, except for an occasional opt-out, the service should be the same as that offered in the rest of the UK; this led to acts of civil disobedience, including refusals to pay the television licence fee, thereby running the risk of prosecution or a prison sentence, sit-ins in BBC and HTV studios. Some took more extreme measures, including attacking television transmitters in Welsh-speaking areas. On 17 September 1980, the former president of Plaid Cymru, Gwynfor Evans, threatened to go on hunger strike if the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher did not honour its commitment to provide a Welsh-language TV service.

The channel started broadcasting on 1 the night before Channel 4's opening. S4C's remit is to provide a service. Like Channel 4, S4C does not produce programmes of its own. BBC Wales fulfils its public service requirement by producing programmes in Welsh, including Newyddion, S4C's news bulletin, a soap opera, Pobol y Cwm, providing them to S4C free of charge, it has provided Welsh-language versions of English-language programmes, such as Tweenies. On the analogue service, S4C showed programmes produced for Channel 4 in the rest of the United Kingdom – either or time-shifted – outside of peak hours; these programmes were provided to S4C by Channel 4, free of charge. To make content more accessible to English speakers, all Welsh-language programming carries English subtitles; these were on Teletext page 888, with Welsh subtitles on page 889, with both subtitle languages now available on digital television platforms. For speakers of English who are learning Welsh, certain programmes children's programmes Planed Plant Bach and Planed Plant, carry subtitles featuring Welsh subtitles with additional English translations in brackets next to more difficult Welsh-language words.

TV films produced. The S4C analogue signal spilled over on to the east coast of the Republic of Ireland. In the past it was rebroadcast in a number of areas there on UHF terrestrial signals by so-called'deflectors'. Up until the 1990s, S4C was carried by some Irish cable and MMDS providers before being replaced by Channel 4. The

Vesuvius Airfield

Vesuvius Airfield is an abandoned World War II military airfield in Italy, located 2 km east-northeast of San Giuseppe Vesuvianom about 21 km east of Naples. It was an all-weather temporary field built by the XII Engineer Command using a graded earth compacted surface, with a prefabricated hessian surfacing known as PHS. PHS was made of an asphalt-impregnated jute, rolled out over the compacted surface over a square mesh track grid of wire joined in 3-inch squares. Pierced Steel Planking was used for parking areas, as well as for dispersal sites, when it was available. In addition, tents were used for billeting and for support facilities. Once completed it was turned over for use by tactical light bombers of the United States Army Air Force Twelfth Air Force 47th Bombardment Group; the 47th first arrived at the airfield on 10 January 1944, however it had to abandon the field on 22 March 1944 due to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius which damaged the field and several A-20 Havoc aircraft. The group was evacuated to Capodichino Airport near Naples for several weeks until they returned to the repaired base on 25 April, remaining until 10 June 1944.

When the 47th pulled out, the airfield was abandoned. Today, the location of the field can not be determined, as the suburbs of Naples have expanded and the area where it was located is now developed; this article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website Maurer, Maurer. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History, 1983. ISBN 0-89201-092-4. Media related to Mount Vesuvius at Wikimedia Commons

Nosy Crow

Nosy Crow is a multi-award-winning independent children's publisher, based in London. The company was founded in 2010 by Kate Wilson MD of Macmillan Children’s Books and Group MD of Scholastic UK Ltd, Adrian Soar Book Publishing CEO of Macmillan Publishers, Camilla Reid Editorial Director of Campbell Books. In 2019, the company was named Children’s Publisher of the Year at the British Book Awards; as of 2019, Nosy Crow is the UK's 12th largest children's publisher, according to Nielsen BookScan data. Nosy Crow was founded in 2010 and published its first book in January 2011. In its first year of publishing, it released 23 books and 3 apps in total, invoiced one million pounds; the company has a strong background in rights-selling. Wilson began her career selling rights at Faber and Faber and in its first year, foreign rights to Nosy Crow titles were sold in 16 languages. By September 2014, Nosy Crow had grown to become the 16th largest children’s publisher in the UK, according to Nielsen Bookscan data, by 2019, the company had grown to become the 12th largest children’s publisher in the UK.

The company has been noted on multiple occasions for its rapid growth in an industry experiencing shrinking revenue elsewhere. Nosy Crow publishes commercial fiction and non-fiction books for children aged from 0 to 14, its most successful series to date include the Bizzy Bear books, illustrated by Benji Davies, the Pip and Posy books, illustrated by Axel Scheffler, each of which have sold several million copies worldwide. The Pip and Posy books were credited with producing healthier than expected sales in the industry overall for 2011. Wilson had collaborated with Scheffler at Macmillan, where she published The Gruffalo and initiated the long-running collaboration between the artist and former Children's Laureate Julia Donaldson. Other successful titles and series include Open Very Carefully, winner of the 2014 Waterstones Children's Book Prize, the My Brother is a Superhero series, written by David Solomons, which has sold in over 20 languages worldwide and been awarded the 2016 Waterstones Children's Book Prize and the 2016 British Book Industry Award Children's Book of the Year Prize, Pamela Butchart's Baby Aliens series, which has won a Blue Peter Book Award and a Children's Book Award, the Felt Flaps series by Ingela P. Arrhenius, winner of the Sainsbury's Children's Book of the Year Award, There's a Bear on My Chair by Ross Collins, winner of the inaugural Amnesty CILIP Greenaway Honour in 2016 and a UKLA Book Award in 2017, I Am The Seed That Grew The Tree: A Nature Poem For Every Day Of The Year, winner of the inaugural Waterstones Children’s Gift of the Year Award in 2018.

Nosy Crow was notable for its original apps for the iOS platform. Which it developed in-house. Between 2011 and 2018, Nosy Crow released over 25 apps, which won numerous awards and received critical acclaim, earning the company recognition as a leader in the field. In April 2018, the company announced that it would cease its in-house app development programme and close its app department, citing the challenging commercial environment for children's reading apps. Nosy Crow has become well known for its partnerships, with international publishers and other organisations. In North America, many of the company's illustrated book titles are published under an imprint of the same name by Candlewick Press, in Australia, Nosy Crow books are distributed by Allen & Unwin. In November 2012, the company made headlines by creating an instant picture book edition of the John Lewis Christmas television advert, in partnership with John Lewis; the company has since produced picture book editions of several further John Lewis Christmas television adverts, in 2013, 2014, 2016 and 2017.

In September 2014, the company announced a partnership with The National Trust, to publish a jointly-branded children's book list, in October 2015, Nosy Crow announced a second partnership with The British Museum for another jointly-branded children's book list. Since being established, Nosy Crow has won a number of awards, both for its books and apps, as a company; these include: British Book Awards: Children's Publisher of the Year 2019, Children's Publisher of the Year 2017 Queen's Award for Enterprise: International Trade IPG Independent Publishing Awards: Marketing Award.