Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in north-central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich; the municipality has 409,000 inhabitants, the urban agglomeration 1.315 million and the Zürich metropolitan area 1.83 million. Zürich is a hub for railways and air traffic. Both Zürich Airport and railway station are the busiest in the country. Permanently settled for over 2,000 years, Zürich was founded by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum. However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6,400 years ago. During the Middle Ages, Zürich gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, became a primary centre of the Protestant Reformation in Europe under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli; the official language of Zürich is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Zürich German. Many museums and art galleries can be found in the city, including the Swiss National Museum and the Kunsthaus.
Schauspielhaus Zürich is one of the most important theatres in the German-speaking world. Zürich is a leading global city and among the world's largest financial centres despite having a small population; the city is home to a large number of financial institutions and banking companies. Most of Switzerland's research and development centres are concentrated in Zürich and the low tax rates attract overseas companies to set up their headquarters there. Monocle's 2012 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Zürich first on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within". According to several surveys from 2006 to 2008, Zürich was named the city with the best quality of life in the world as well as the wealthiest city in Europe in terms of GDP per capita; the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking sees Zürich rank among the top ten most liveable cities in the world. In German, the city name is written Zürich, pronounced in Swiss Standard German. In Zürich German, the local dialect of Swiss German, the name is pronounced without the final consonant, as Züri, although the adjective remains Zürcher.
The city is called Zurich in French, Zurigo in Italian, Turitg in Romansh. In English, the name used to be written without the umlaut. So, standard English practice for German calques is to either preserve the umlaut or replace it with the base letter followed by e, it is pronounced ZEWR-ik, more sometimes with /ts/, as in German. The earliest known form of the city's name is Turicum, attested on a tombstone of the late 2nd century AD in the form STA TURICEN; the name is interpreted as a derivation from a given name Gaulish personal name Tūros, for a reconstructed native form of the toponym of *Turīcon. The Latin stress on the long vowel of the Gaulish name, was lost in German but is preserved in Italian and in Romansh; the first development towards its Germanic form is attested as early as the 6th century with the form Ziurichi. From the 9th century onward, the name is established in an Old High German form Zurih. In the early modern period, the name became associated with the name of the Tigurini, the name Tigurum rather than the historical Turicum is sometimes encountered in Modern Latin contexts.
Settlements of the Neolithic and Bronze Age were found around Lake Zürich. Traces of pre-Roman Celtic, La Tène settlements were discovered near the Lindenhof, a morainic hill dominating the SE - NW waterway constituted by Lake Zurich and the river Limmat. In Roman times, during the conquest of the alpine region in 15 BC, the Romans built a castellum on the Lindenhof. Here was erected Turicum, a tax-collecting point for goods trafficked on the Limmat, which constituted part of the border between Gallia Belgica and Raetia: this customs point developed into a vicus. After Emperor Constantine's reforms in AD 318, the border between Gaul and Italy was located east of Turicum, crossing the river Linth between Lake Walen and Lake Zürich, where a castle and garrison looked over Turicum's safety; the earliest written record of the town dates from the 2nd century, with a tombstone referring to it as to the Statio Turicensis Quadragesima Galliarum, discovered at the Lindenhof. In the 5th century, the Germanic Alemanni tribe settled in the Swiss Plateau.
The Roman castle remained standing until the 7th century. A Carolingian castle, built on the site of the Roman castle by the grandson of Charlemagne, Louis the German, is mentioned in 835. Louis founded the Fraumünster abbey in 853 for his daughter Hildegard, he endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zürich and the Albis forest, granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority. In 1045, King Henry III granted the convent the right to hold markets, collect tolls, mint coins, thus made the abbess the ruler of the city. Zürich gained Imperial immediacy in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family and attained a status comparable to statehood. During the 1230s, a city wall was built, enclosing 38 hectares, when the earliest stone houses on the Rennweg were built as well; the Carolingian castle was used as a quarry, as it had st
The Aare or Aar is a tributary of the High Rhine and the longest river that both rises and ends within Switzerland. Its total length from its source to its junction with the Rhine comprises about 295 kilometres, during which distance it descends 1,565 m, draining an area of 17,779 km2 entirely within Switzerland, accounting for close to half the area of the country, including all of Central Switzerland. There are more than 40 hydroelectric plants along the course of the Aare River; the river's name dates to at least the La Tène period, it is attested as Nantaror "Aare valley" in the Berne zinc tablet. The name was Latinized as Arula/Arola/Araris; the Aare rises in the great Aargletschers of the Bernese Alps, in the canton of Bern and west of the Grimsel Pass. The Finsteraargletscher and Lauteraargletscher come together to form the Unteraargletscher, the main source of water for the Grimselsee; the Oberaargletscher feeds the Oberaarsee, which flows into the Grimselsee. The Aare leaves the Grimselsee just to the east to the Grimsel Hospiz, below the Grimsel Pass, flows northwest through the Haslital, forming on the way the magnificent Handegg Waterfall, 46 m, past Guttannen.
Right after Innertkirchen it is joined by the Gamderwasser. Less than 1 kilometre the river carves through a limestone ridge in the Aare Gorge, it is here that the Aare proves itself to be more than just a river, as it attracts thousands of tourists annually to the causeways through the gorge. A little past Meiringen, near Brienz, the river expands into Lake Brienz. Near the west end of the lake it indirectly receives its first important tributary, the Lütschine, by the Lake of Brienz, it runs across the swampy plain of the Bödeli between Interlaken and Unterseen before flowing into Lake Thun. Near the west end of Lake Thun, the river indirectly receives the waters of the Kander, which has just been joined by the Simme, by the Lake of Thun. Lake Thun marks the head of navigation. On flowing out of the lake it passes through Thun, flows through the city of Bern, passing beneath eighteen bridges and around the steeply-flanked peninsula on which the Old City of Berne is located; the river soon changes its northwesterly flow for a due westerly direction, but after receiving the Saane or La Sarine it turns north until it nears Aarberg.
There, in one of the major Swiss engineering feats of the 19th century, the Jura water correction, the river, which had rendered the countryside north of Bern a swampland through frequent flooding, was diverted by the Aare-Hagneck Canal into the Lac de Bienne. From the upper end of the lake, at Nidau, the river issues through the Nidau-Büren Canal called the Aare Canal, runs east to Büren; the lake absorbs huge amounts of eroded gravel and snowmelt that the river brings from the Alps, the former swamps have become fruitful plains: they are known as the "vegetable garden of Switzerland". From here the Aare flows northeast for a long distance, past the ambassador town Solothurn, Olten, near, the junction with the Suhre, Wildegg, where the Seetal Aabach falls in on the right. A short distance further, below Brugg it receives first the Reuss, its major tributary, shortly afterwards the Limmat, its second strongest tributary, it now turns to north, soon becomes itself a tributary of the Rhine, which it surpasses in volume when the two rivers unite downstream from Koblenz, opposite Waldshut in Germany.
The Rhine, in turn, empties into the North Sea after crossing into the Netherlands. Limmat Reppisch Sihl Alp Minster Lake Zurich Linthkanal Lake Walen Linth Löntsch Sernf Flätschbach Seez Reuss Lorze Kleine Emme Lake Lucerne Sarner Aa Engelberger Aa Muota Schächen Chärstelenbach Göschener Reuss Aabach Bünz Suhre Wyna Aabach Stegbach Dünnern Wigger Murg Rot Langete Ursenbach Rotbach Emme Lake of Bienne La Suze Zihlkanal Lake of Neuchatel La Broye Zihl/La Thielle L'Orbe Le Talent Saane/La Sarine Sense Gürbe Zulg Lake Thun Kander Simme Entschlige Lake Brienz Lütschine Gadmerwasser Lake Grimsel, 1,908 metres Lake Brienz, 564 metres Lake Thun, 558 metres Lake Wohlen, 481 metres Niederriedsee, 461 metres Lake Biel, 429 metres Klingnauer Stausee, 318 metres Anon. Atlas Routier et Touristique. Paris, France: Bordas-Tirade. Bridgwater, W.. "Aare". The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0670230709. Cohen, Saul B. ed.. "Aare". The Columbia Gazetteer of the World.
New York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11040-5. Forbiger, Albert. Handbuch Der Alten Geographie. 3. Leipzig, Germany: Veriag von Gustav Mayer. Gresswell, R. Kay. Standard Encyclopedia of the World's Rivers and Lakes. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Hoib
Lake Geneva is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France. It is one of the largest on the course of the Rhône. 59.53% of it comes under the jurisdiction of Switzerland, 40.47% under France. Lake Geneva has been explored by four submarines: the Auguste Piccard and the F.-A. Forel, both built by Jacques Piccard, the two Mir submersibles; the first recorded name of the lake is Lacus Lemannus, dating from Roman times. Following the rise of Geneva it became Lac de Genève. In the 18th century, Lac Léman is the customary name in that language. In contemporary English, the name Lake Geneva is predominant. A note on pronunciation: English: Lake Geneva French: le lac Léman, le Léman or le lac de Genève German: Genfersee or Genfer See Italian: Lago Lemano, Lago di Ginevra. Lake Geneva is divided into three parts because of its different forms of formation: Haut Lac, the eastern part from the Rhône estuary to the line of Meillerie–Rivaz Grand Lac, the largest and deepest basin with the lake's largest width Petit Lac, the most south-west and less deep part from Yvoire–Promenthoux next Prangins to the exit in GenevaAccording to the Swiss Federal Office of Topography, Lac de Genève designates that part of the Petit Lac, which lies within the cantonal borders of Geneva, so about from Versoix–Hermance to the Rhône outflow in Geneva.
The Chablais Alps border is its southern shore, the western Bernese Alps lie over its eastern side. The high summits of Grand Combin and Mont Blanc are visible from some places. Compagnie Générale de Navigation sur le lac Léman operates boats on the lake; the lake lies on the course of the Rhône. The river has its source at the Rhône Glacier near the Grimsel Pass to the east of the lake and flows down through the canton of Valais, entering the lake between Villeneuve and Le Bouveret, before flowing towards its egress at Geneva. Other tributaries are La Dranse, L'Aubonne, La Morges, La Venoge, La Vuachère, La Veveyse. Lake Geneva is the largest body of water in Switzerland, exceeds in size all others that are connected with the main valleys of the Alps, it is in the shape of a crescent, with the horns pointing south, the northern shore being 95 km, the southern shore 72 km in length. The crescent form was more regular in a recent geological period, when the lake extended to Bex, about 18 km south of Villeneuve.
The detritus of the Rhône has filled up this portion of the bed of the lake, it appears that within the historical period the waters extended about 2 km beyond the present eastern margin of the lake. The greatest depth of the lake, in the broad portion between Évian-les-Bains and Lausanne, where it is just 13 km in width, has been measured as 310 m, putting the bottom of the lake at 62 m above sea level; the lake's surface is the lowest point of the cantons of Vaud. The culminating point of the lake's drainage basin is Monte Rosa at 4,634 metres above sea level; the beauty of the shores of the lake and of the sites of many of the places near its banks has long been celebrated. However, it is only from the eastern end of the lake, between Vevey and Villeneuve, that the scenery assumes an Alpine character. On the south side the mountains of Savoy and Valais are for the most part rugged and sombre, while those of the northern shore fall in gentle vine-covered slopes, thickly set with villages and castles.
The snowy peaks of the Mont Blanc are shut out from the western end of the lake by the Voirons mountain, from its eastern end by the bolder summits of the Grammont, Cornettes de Bise and Dent d'Oche, but are seen from Geneva, between Nyon and Morges. From Vevey to Bex, where the lake extended, the shores are enclosed by comparatively high and bold mountains, the vista terminates in the grand portal of the defile of St. Maurice, cleft to a depth of nearly 2,700 m between the opposite peaks of the Dents du Midi and the Dent de Morcles; the shore between Nyon and Lausanne is called La Côte. Between Lausanne and Vevey it is famous for its hilly vineyards; the average surface elevation of 372 m above sea level is controlled by the Seujet Dam in Geneva. Due to climate change, the average temperature of deep water increased from 4.4 °C in 1963 to 5.5 °C in 2016, while the average temperature of surface water increased from 10.9 °C in 1970 to 12.9 °C in 2016. Lake Geneva can be affected by the cold Bise, a north easterly wind.
This can lead to severe icing in winter. The strength of the Bise wind can be determined by the difference in air pressure in hectopascal between Geneva and Güttingen in canton of Thurgau. Bise arises as soon as the a
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
A pantograph is an apparatus mounted on the roof of an electric train, tram or electric bus to collect power through contact with an overhead line. It is a common type of current collector. A single or double wire is used, with the return current running through the track; the term stems from the resemblance of some styles to the mechanical pantographs used for copying handwriting and drawings. The pantograph, with a low-friction, replaceable graphite contact strip or'shoe' to minimise lateral stress on the contact wire, was invented in 1879 by Walter Reichel, chief engineer at Siemens & Halske in Germany. A flat slide-pantograph was invented in 1895 at the Baltimore and Ohio RailroadThe familiar diamond-shaped roller pantograph was invented by John Q. Brown of the Key System shops for their commuter trains which ran between San Francisco and the East Bay section of the San Francisco Bay Area in California, they appear in photographs of the first day of service, 26 October 1903. For many decades thereafter, the same diamond shape was used by electric-rail systems around the world and remains in use by some today.
The pantograph was an improvement on the simple trolley pole, which prevailed up to that time because the pantograph allows an electric-rail vehicle to travel at much higher speeds without losing contact with the overhead lines, e.g. due to dewirement of the trolley pole. Notwithstanding this, trolley pole current collection was used at up to 90 mph on the Electroliner vehicles of the Chicago North Shore and Milwaukee Railroad known as the North Shore Line; the most common type of pantograph today is the so-called half-pantograph, which evolved to provide a more compact and responsive single-arm design at high speeds as trains got faster. Louis Faiveley invented this type of pantograph in 1955; the half-pantograph can be seen in use on everything from fast trains to low-speed urban tram systems. The design operates with equal efficiency in either direction of motion, as demonstrated by the Swiss and Austrian railways whose newest high performance locomotives, the Re 460 and Taurus, operate with them set in the opposite direction.
The geometry and shape of the pantographs are specified by the EN 50367/IEC 60486 - Railway applications - Current collection systems - Technical criteria for the interaction between pantograph and overhead line. The electric transmission system for modern electric rail systems consists of an upper, weight-carrying wire from, suspended a contact wire; the pantograph is spring-loaded and pushes a contact shoe up against the underside of the contact wire to draw the current needed to run the train. The steel rails of the tracks act as the electrical return; as the train moves, the contact shoe slides along the wire and can set up standing waves in the wires which break the contact and degrade current collection. This means. Pantographs are the successor technology to trolley poles, which were used on early streetcar systems. Trolley poles are still used by trolleybuses, whose freedom of movement and need for a two-wire circuit makes pantographs impractical, some streetcar networks, such as the Toronto streetcar system, which have frequent turns sharp enough to require additional freedom of movement in their current collection to ensure unbroken contact.
However, many of these networks, including Toronto's, are undergoing upgrades to accommodate pantograph operation. Pantographs with overhead wires are now the dominant form of current collection for modern electric trains because, although more fragile than a third rail system, they allow the use of higher voltages. Pantographs are operated by compressed air from the vehicle's braking system, either to raise the unit and hold it against the conductor or, when springs are used to effect the extension, to lower it; as a precaution against loss of pressure in the second case, the arm is held in the down position by a catch. For high-voltage systems, the same air supply is used to "blow out" the electric arc when roof-mounted circuit breakers are used. Pantographs may have a double arm. Double-arm pantographs are heavier, requiring more power to raise and lower, but may be more fault-tolerant. On railways of the former USSR, the most used pantographs are those with a double arm, but since the late 1990s there have been some single-arm pantographs on Russian railways.
Some streetcars use double-arm pantographs, among them the Russian KTM-5, KTM-8, LVS-86 and many other Russian-made trams, as well as some Euro-PCC trams in Belgium. American streetcars use either trolley poles or single-arm pantographs. Most rapid transit systems are powered by a third rail, but some use pantographs ones that involve extensive above-ground running. Most hybrid metro-tram or'pre-metro' lines whose routes include tracks on city streets or in other publicly accessible areas, such as line 51 of the Amsterdam Metro, the MBTA Green Line, RTA Rapid Transit in Cleveland, Frankfurt am Main U-Bahn, San Francisco's Muni Metro, use overhead wire, as a standard third rail would obstruct street traffic and present too great a risk of electrocution. Among the various exceptions are several tram systems, such as the ones in Bordeaux, Angers and Dubai that use a proprietary underground system developed by Alstom, called APS, which only applies power to segments of track that are covered by the tram.
This system was designed to be used in the historic centre of Bordeaux because an overhead wire system would cause a visual intrusion. Similar systems that avoid overhead lines have been developed by Bombardier, AnsaldoBreda, CAF, and
A railway brake is a type of brake used on the cars of railway trains to enable deceleration, control acceleration or to keep them immobile when parked. While the basic principle is familiar from road vehicle usage, operational features are more complex because of the need to control multiple linked carriages and to be effective on vehicles left without a prime mover. Clasp brakes are one type of brakes used on trains. In the earliest days of railways, braking technology was primitive; the first trains had brakes operative on the locomotive tender and on vehicles in the train, where "porters" or, in the United States brakemen, travelling for the purpose on those vehicles operated the brakes. Some railways fitted a special deep-noted brake whistle to locomotives to indicate to the porters the necessity to apply the brakes. All the brakes at this stage of development were applied by operation of a screw and linkage to brake blocks applied to wheel treads, these brakes could be used when vehicles were parked.
In the earliest times, the porters travelled in crude shelters outside the vehicles, but "assistant guards" who travelled inside passenger vehicles, who had access to a brake wheel at their posts, supplanted them. The braking effort achievable was limited and it was unreliable, as the application of brakes by guards depended upon their hearing and responding to a whistle for brakes. An early development was the application of a steam brake to locomotives, where boiler pressure could be applied to brake blocks on the locomotive wheels; as train speeds increased, it became essential to provide some more powerful braking system capable of instant application and release by the train operator, described as a continuous brake because it would be effective continuously along the length of the train. In the UK, the Abbots Ripton rail accident in January 1876 was aggravated by the long stopping distances of express trains without continuous brakes, which -it became clear- in adverse conditions could exceed those assumed when positioning signals.
This had become apparent from the trials on railway brakes carried out at Newark in the previous year, to assist a Royal Commission considering railway accidents. In the words of a contemporary railway official, these showed that under normal conditions it required a distance of 800 to 1200 yards to bring a train to rest when travelling at 45½ to 48½ mph, this being much below the ordinary travelling speed of the fastest express trains. Railway officials were not prepared for this result and the necessity for a great deal more brake power was at once admitted Trials conducted after Abbots Ripton reported the following However, there was no clear technical solution to the problem, because of the necessity of achieving a reasonably uniform rate of braking effort throughout a train, because of the necessity to add and remove vehicles from the train at frequent points on the journey.. The chief types of solution were: A spring system: James Newall, carriage builder to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, in 1853 obtained a patent for a system whereby a rotating rod passing the length of the train was used to wind up the brake levers on each carriage against the force of conical springs carried in cylinders.
The rod, mounted on the carriage roofs in rubber journals, was fitted with universal joints and short sliding sections to allow for compression of the buffers. The brakes were controlled from one end of the train; the guard wound up the rod, to release the brakes. When the ratchet was released the springs applied the brakes. If the train divided, the brakes were not held off by the ratchet in the guard's compartment and the springs in each carriage forced the brakes onto the wheel. Excess play in the couplings limited the effectiveness of the device to about five carriages; this apparatus was sold to a few companies and the system received recommendation from the Board of Trade. The L&Y conducted a simultaneous trial with a similar system designed by another employee, Charles Fay, but little difference was found in their effectiveness. In Fay's version, patented in 1856, the rods passed beneath the carriages and the spring application, which offered the important "automatic" feature of Newall but could act too fiercely, was replaced by a worm and rack for each brake.
The chain brake, such as the Heberlein brake, in which a chain was connected continuously along the train. When pulled tight it activated a friction clutch that used the rotation of the wheels to tighten a brake system at that point. Hydraulic brakes; as with car brakes. These found some favor in the UK, but water was used as the hydraulic fluid and in the UK "Freezing possibilities told against the hydraulic brakes, though the Great Eastern Railway, which used them for a while, overcame this by the use of salt water" The simple vacuum system. An ejector on the locomotive created a vacuum in a continuous pipe along the train, allowing the external air pressure to operate brake cylinders on every vehicle; this system was cheap and effective, but it had the major weakness that it became inoperative if the train became divided or if the tra
The Albis is a chain of hills in the Canton of Zürich, stretching for some 19 km from Sihlbrugg in the south to Waldegg near Zürich in the north. The chain forms, among others, the border between the Horgen districts; the best known point is Uetliberg at 870 m. Other points of interest include the Albishorn the Bürglen, the Schnabelburg, an observation tower, the Albis Pass, the small town of Buechenegg, the extensive woods on both sides of the river Sihl; the Sihl Valley borders the Albis chain on its entire east side. On the west side, the Albis is bordered by one lake, the Türlersee; the chain is wooded, but has extensive fields reaching to the summit, some cultivated, some used as pastures for cows or sheep. Being near Zürich, the area is visited near its northern end, includes a large number of restaurants along the summit, well-maintained trails and dirt roads, a railroad from Zürich, a cable car from Adliswil to Felsenegg; the Albis chain was formed as the left moraine of the glacier the bed of, now Lake Zürich.
The soil is a conglomerate of gravel, some of it large, glacial loess. The steep sides of the chain are subject to small landslides; as a generalization, the eastern side of the chain tends to be steeper than the western side. The hilltops of the Albis provided several good defensive sites, were the locations of the castles of Uetliberg and Schnabelburg, all of which are now ruined or lost