Miyazaki Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Miyazaki. After the Meiji Restoration, Hyūga Province was renamed Miyazaki Prefecture. Miyazaki Prefecture is on the eastern coast of the island of Kyushu, surrounded by the Pacific Ocean to the south and east, Ōita Prefecture to the north, Kumamoto and Kagoshima prefectures to the west, it is one of only two locations on Earth. Miyazaki is the home of the hyuganatsu fruit; as of April 1, 2012, 12% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Kirishima-Yaku National Park. Nine cities are in Miyazaki Prefecture: These are the towns and villages of each district: The sports teams listed below are based in Miyazaki. Honda Lock S. C. Tegevajaro Miyazaki Miyazaki Shining Suns JR Kyushu Nippō Main Line, Miyazaki Kūkō Line, Nichinan Line, Kitto Line, Hisatsu Line Miyazaki Kōtsu Miyazaki Airport History of Miyazaki Prefecture Miyazaki Ocean Dome Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth..
Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
A linear motor is an electric motor that has had its stator and rotor "unrolled" so that instead of producing a torque it produces a linear force along its length. However, linear motors are not straight. Characteristically, a linear motor's active section has ends, whereas more conventional motors are arranged as a continuous loop; the most common mode of operation is as a Lorentz-type actuator, in which the applied force is linearly proportional to the current and the magnetic field. Many designs have been put forward for linear motors, falling into two major categories, low-acceleration and high-acceleration linear motors. Low-acceleration linear motors are suitable for maglev trains and other ground-based transportation applications. High-acceleration linear motors are rather short, are designed to accelerate an object to a high speed, for example see the coilgun. High-acceleration linear motors are used in studies of hypervelocity collisions, as weapons, or as mass drivers for spacecraft propulsion.
They are of the AC linear induction motor design with an active three-phase winding on one side of the air-gap and a passive conductor plate on the other side. However, the direct current homopolar linear motor railgun is another high acceleration linear motor design; the low-acceleration, high speed and high power motors are of the linear synchronous motor design, with an active winding on one side of the air-gap and an array of alternate-pole magnets on the other side. These magnets can be permanent electromagnets; the Shanghai Transrapid motor is an LSM. In this design the rate of movement of the magnetic field is controlled electronically, to track the motion of the rotor. For cost reasons synchronous linear motors use commutators, so the rotor contains permanent magnets, or soft iron. Examples include coilguns and the motors used on some maglev systems, as well as many other linear motors. In this design, the force is produced by a moving linear magnetic field acting on conductors in the field.
Any conductor, be it a loop, a coil or a piece of plate metal, placed in this field will have eddy currents induced in it thus creating an opposing magnetic field, in accordance with Lenz's law. The two opposing fields will repel each other, thus creating motion as the magnetic field sweeps through the metal. In this design a large current is passed through a metal sabot across sliding contacts that are fed from two rails; the magnetic field this generates causes the metal to be projected along the rails. Piezoelectric drive is used to drive small linear motors; the history of linear electric motors can be traced back at least as far as the 1840s, to the work of Charles Wheatstone at King's College in London, but Wheatstone's model was too inefficient to be practical. A feasible linear induction motor is described in the U. S. Patent 782,312, for driving lifts; the German engineer Hermann Kemper built a working model in 1935. In the late 1940s, Dr. Eric Laithwaite of Manchester University Professor of Heavy Electrical Engineering at Imperial College in London developed the first full-size working model.
In a single sided version the magnetic repulsion forces the conductor away from the stator, levitating it, carrying it along in the direction of the moving magnetic field. He called the versions of it magnetic river; because of these properties, linear motors are used in maglev propulsion, as in the Japanese Linimo magnetic levitation train line near Nagoya. However, linear motors have been used independently of magnetic levitation, as in Bombardier's Advanced Rapid Transit systems worldwide and a number of modern Japanese subways, including Tokyo's Toei Oedo Line. Similar technology is used in some roller coasters with modifications but, at present, is still impractical on street running trams, although this, in theory, could be done by burying it in a slotted conduit. Outside of public transportation, vertical linear motors have been proposed as lifting mechanisms in deep mines, the use of linear motors is growing in motion control applications, they are often used on sliding doors, such as those of low floor trams such as the Citadis and the Eurotram.
Dual axis linear motors exist. These specialized devices have been used to provide direct X-Y motion for precision laser cutting of cloth and sheet metal, automated drafting, cable forming. Most linear motors in use are LIM, or LSM. Linear DC motors are not used due to linear SRM suffers from poor thrust. So for long run in traction LIM is preferred and for short run LSM is preferred. High-acceleration linear motors have been suggested for a number of uses, they have been considered for use as weapons, since current armour-piercing ammunition tends to consist of small rounds with high kinetic energy, for which just such motors are suitable. Many amusement park launched roller coasters now use linear induction motors to propel the train at a high speed, as an alternative to using a lift hill; the United States Navy is using linear induction motors in the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System that will replace traditional steam catapults on future aircraft carriers. They have been suggested for use in spacecraft propulsion.
In this context they are called mass drivers. The simplest way to use mass drivers for spacecraft propulsion would be to build a large mass driver that can accelerate cargo up
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Osaka will host Expo 2025; the current mayor of Osaka is Ichiro Matsui. Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC, it is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan; the large numbers of larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state. The Kojiki records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.
In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa and Namba. Although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river and land transportation between Heian-kyō and other destinations. In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port, its popular culture was related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. One-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century.
Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term "Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka region in terms of calculation, lack of civic spirit, the vulgarity of Osaka dialect. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, saw themselves as poor but generous and public spirited. Edo writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. To some degree, Osaka residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo observers in the same way today in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka devour their food until they collapse"; the modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 square kilometres, overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. The city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres. Osaka was the industrial center most defined in the development of capitalism in Japan, it became known as the "Manchester of the Orient."The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves.
The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization. Literacy was high and the educational system expanded producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts. In 1927, General Motors operated a factory called Osaka Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac and Buick vehicles and staffed by Japanese workers and managers. In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture is the headquarters office of Daihatsu, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers. Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka displayed slums and poverty. In Japan it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty; this minimized
Nagoya is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is the third-most-populous urban area, it is located on the Pacific coast on central Honshu. It is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama and Kitakyushu, it is the center of Japan's third-largest metropolitan region, known as the Chūkyō metropolitan area. As of 2015, 2.28 million people lived in the city, part of Chūkyō Metropolitan Area's 10.11 million people. It is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world; the city's name was written as 那古野 or 名護屋. One possible origin is the adjective nagoyaka, meaning'peaceful'; the name Chūkyō, consisting of chū + kyō is used to refer to Nagoya. Notable examples of the use of the name Chūkyō include the Chūkyō Industrial Area, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area, Chūkyō Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse. Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who succeeded in unifying Japan.
In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya. During this period Nagoya Castle was constructed, built from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved from Kiyosu to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle. Around the same time, the nearby ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a waystation, called Miya, on the important Tōkaidō road, which linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo. A town developed around the temple to support travelers; the castle and shrine towns formed the city. During the Meiji Restoration Japan's provinces were restructured into prefectures and the government changed from family to bureaucratic rule. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889, designated a city on September 1, 1956, by government ordinance. Nagoya became an industrial hub for the region, its economic sphere included the famous pottery towns of Tokoname and Seto, as well as Okazaki, one of the only places where gunpowder was produced under the shogunate.
Other industries included cotton and complex mechanical dolls called karakuri ningyō. Mitsubishi Aircraft Company was established in 1920 in Nagoya and became one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in Japan; the availability of space and the central location of the region and the well-established connectivity were some of the major factors that lead to the establishment of the aviation industry there. Nagoya was the target of US air raids during World War II; the population of Nagoya at this time was estimated to be 1.5 million, fourth among Japanese cities and one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated. Important Japanese aircraft targets were within the city itself, while others were to the north of Kagamigahara, it was estimated that they produced between 40% and 50% of Japanese combat aircraft and engines, such as the vital Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter. The Nagoya area produced machine tools, railway equipment, metal alloys, motor vehicles and processed foods during World War II.
Air raids began on April 18, 1942, with an attack on a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks and the Nagoya war industries plant. The bombing continued through the spring of 1945, included large-scale firebombing. Nagoya was the target of two of Bomber Command’s attacks; these incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, devastated 15.3 square kilometres. The XXI Bomber Command established a new U. S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage released on a single target in one mission—3,162 tons of incendiaries, it destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the area burned to one-fourth of the entire city. Nagoya Castle, being used as a military command post, was hit and destroyed on May 14, 1945. Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959. In 1959, the city was flooded and damaged by the Ise-wan Typhoon. Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the Nōbi Plain; the city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off floodwaters.
The plain is one of the nation's most fertile areas. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, the Shōnai River comes from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward; the man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in 1610. It flows as part of the Shōnai River system; the rivers allowed for trade with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows south at Nonami and west at Ōdaka into the bay; the city's location and its position in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically. Nagoya has 16 wards: Nagoya has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and cool winters; the summer is noticeably wetter than the winter. One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, counted 157,496 residents; the population reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and as of December 2010 had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 persons per km2. As of December 2010 an estimated 1,019,859 households resided there—a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II in 1945.
The area i
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U. S. Army base, its name stems from its location within the Town of Brookhaven 60 miles east of New York City. Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology and bioscience, nanoscience and national security; the 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and National Synchrotron Light Source II. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab. BNL is staffed by 2,750 scientists, engineers and support personnel, hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year; the laboratory has its own police station, fire department, ZIP code. In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre area, coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New Atlantic Railway.
Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service. Although conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab's mission has expanded, its foci are now: Nuclear and high-energy physics Physics and chemistry of materials Environmental and climate research Nanomaterials Energy research Nonproliferation Structural biology Accelerator physics Brookhaven National Lab was owned by the Atomic Energy Commission and is now owned by that agency's successor, the United States Department of Energy. DOE subcontracts the operation to universities and research organizations, it is operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, an equal partnership of Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc. but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility's high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.
Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr. who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to have a facility near Boston. Involvement was solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, MIT, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, Yale University.
Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility. On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was transferred from the U. S. War Department to the new U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, predecessor to the U. S. Department of Energy. In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor; this reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000. In 1952 Brookhaven began using the Cosmotron.
At the time the Cosmotron was the world's highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle. The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron; the AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, CP violation. In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings; the groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, the project was cancelled in 1983; the National Synchrotron Light Source operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II. After ISABELLE'S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator.
In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world's only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest
Prime Minister of Japan
The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the National Diet and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office, he dismisses the other Ministers of State. The literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet. Before the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. A Chinese-inspired legal system known as ritsuryō was enacted in the late Asuka period and early Nara period, it described a government based on an elaborate and rational meritocratic bureaucracy, serving, in theory, under the ultimate authority of the Emperor. Theoretically, the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration. Under this system, the Daijō-daijin was the head of the Daijō-kan, the highest organ of Japan's pre-modern Imperial government during the Heian period and until under the Meiji Constitution with the appointment of Sanjō Sanetomi in 1871.
The office was replaced in 1885 with the appointment of Itō Hirobumi to the new position of Prime Minister, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution, which mentions neither the Cabinet nor the position of Prime Minister explicitly. It took its current form with the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947. To date, 62 people have served this position; the current Prime Minister is Shinzō Abe, who re-took office on December 26, 2012. He is the first former Prime Minister to return to office since 1948, the 4th longest serving Prime Minister to date; the Prime Minister is designated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals a joint committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common candidate. However, if the two houses do not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the Diet. Therefore, the House of Representatives can theoretically ensure the appointment of any Prime Minister it wants.
The candidate is presented with his or her commission, formally appointed to office by the Emperor. In practice, the Prime Minister is always the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives, or the leader of the senior partner in the governing coalition. Must be a member of either house of the Diet. Must be a "civilian"; this excludes serving members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Former military persons may be appointed prime minister despite the "civilian" requirement, Yasuhiro Nakasone being one prominent example. Exercises "control and supervision" over the entire executive branch. Presents bills to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet. Signs laws and Cabinet orders. Appoints all Cabinet ministers, can dismiss them at any time. May permit legal action to be taken against Cabinet ministers. Must make reports on foreign relations to the Diet. Must report to the Diet upon demand to provide explanations. May advise the Emperor to dissolve the Diet's House of Representatives. Presides over meetings of the Cabinet.
Commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. May override a court injunction against an administrative act upon showing of cause. In most other constitutional monarchies, the monarch is nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In contrast, the Constitution of Japan explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader, his signature is required for Cabinet orders. While most ministers in parliamentary democracies have some freedom of action within the bounds of cabinet collective responsibility, the Japanese Cabinet is an extension of the Prime Minister's authority. Located near the Diet building, the Office of the Prime Minister of Japan is called the Kantei; the original Kantei served from 1929 until 2002, when a new building was inaugurated to serve as the current Kantei. The old Kantei was converted into the Official Residence, or Kōtei; the Kōtei lies to the southwest of the Kantei, is linked by a walkway.
The Prime Minister of Japan travels in a Lexus LS 600h L, the official transport for the head of government, or an unmodified Toyota Century escorted by a police motorcade of numerous Toyota Celsiors. For long distance air travel, Japan maintains two Boeing 747-400 aircraft for the Prime Minister of Japan, the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family, operated by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, they have the radio callsigns Japanese Air Force One and Japanese Air Force Two when operating on official business, Cygnus One and Cygnus Two when operating outside of official business. The aircraft always fly together on government missions, with one serving as the primary transport and the other serving as a backup with maintenance personnel on board; the aircraft are referred to as Japanese government exclusive aircraft. The aircraft were constructed at the Boeing factory at the same time as the U. S. Air Force One VC-25s, though the U. S. aircraft wer