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Small Computer System Interface is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. The SCSI standards define commands, electrical and logical interfaces. SCSI is most used for hard disk drives and tape drives, but it can connect a wide range of other devices, including scanners and CD drives, although not all controllers can handle all devices; the SCSI standard defines command sets for specific peripheral device types. The ancestral SCSI standard, X3.131-1986 referred to as SCSI-1, was published by the X3T9 technical committee of the American National Standards Institute in 1986. SCSI-2 was published in August 1990 as X3. T9.2 / 86-109, with subsequent adoption of a multitude of interfaces. Further refinements have resulted in improvements in performance and support for ever-increasing storage data capacity. SCSI is derived from "SASI", the "Shugart Associates System Interface", developed circa 1978 and publicly disclosed in 1981. Larry Boucher is considered to be the "father" of SASI and SCSI due to his pioneering work first at Shugart Associates and at Adaptec.

A SASI controller provided a bridge between a hard disk drive's low-level interface and a host computer, which needed to read blocks of data. SASI controller boards were the size of a hard disk drive and were physically mounted to the drive's chassis. SASI, used in mini- and early microcomputers, defined the interface as using a 50-pin flat ribbon connector, adopted as the SCSI-1 connector. SASI is a compliant subset of SCSI-1 so that many, if not all, of the then-existing SASI controllers were SCSI-1 compatible; until at least February 1982, ANSI developed the specification as "SASI" and "Shugart Associates System Interface" however, the committee documenting the standard would not allow it to be named after a company. A full day was devoted to agreeing to name the standard "Small Computer System Interface", which Boucher intended to be pronounced "sexy", but ENDL's Dal Allan pronounced the new acronym as "scuzzy" and that stuck. A number of companies such as NCR Corporation and Optimem were early supporters of SCSI.

The NCR facility in Wichita, Kansas is thought to have developed the industry's first SCSI controller chip. The "small" reference in "small computer system interface" is historical. Since its standardization in 1986, SCSI has been used in the Amiga, Apple Macintosh and Sun Microsystems computer lines and PC server systems. Apple started using the less-expensive parallel ATA for its low-end machines with the Macintosh Quadra 630 in 1994, added it to its high-end desktops starting with the Power Macintosh G3 in 1997. Apple dropped on-board SCSI in favor of IDE and FireWire with the Power Mac G3 in 1999, while still offering a PCI SCSI host adapter as an option on up to the Power Macintosh G4 models. Sun switched its lower-end range to Serial ATA. Commodore included SCSI on the Amiga 3000/3000T systems and it was an add-on to previous Amiga 500/2000 models. Starting with the Amiga 600/1200/4000 systems Commodore switched to the IDE interface. Atari included SCSI as standard in its Atari MEGA Atari TT and Atari Falcon computer models.

SCSI has never been popular in the low-priced IBM PC world, owing to the lower cost and adequate performance of ATA hard disk standard. However, SCSI drives and SCSI RAIDs became common in PC workstations for video or audio production. Recent physical versions of SCSI‍—‌Serial Attached SCSI, SCSI-over-Fibre Channel Protocol, USB Attached SCSI ‍—‌break from the traditional parallel SCSI bus and perform data transfer via serial communications using point-to-point links. Although much of the SCSI documentation talks about the parallel interface, all modern development efforts use serial interfaces. Serial interfaces have a number of advantages over parallel SCSI, including higher data rates, simplified cabling, longer reach, improved fault isolation and full-duplex capability; the primary reason for the shift to serial interfaces is the clock skew issue of high speed parallel interfaces, which makes the faster variants of parallel SCSI susceptible to problems caused by cabling and termination.

The non-physical iSCSI preserves the basic SCSI paradigm the command set unchanged, through embedding of SCSI-3 over TCP/IP. Therefore, iSCSI uses logical connections instead of physical links and can run on top of any network supporting IP; the actual physical links are realized on lower network layers, independently from iSCSI. Predominantly, Ethernet is used, of serial nature. SCSI is popular on high-performance workstations and storage appliances. All RAID subsystems on servers have used some kind of SCSI hard disk drives for decades, though a number of manufacturers offer SATA-based RAID subsystems as a cheaper option. Moreover, SAS offers compatibility with SATA devices, creating a much broader range of options for RAID subsystems together with the existence of nearline SAS drives. Instead of SCSI, modern desktop computers and notebooks use SATA interfaces for internal hard disk drives, with NVME over PCIe gaining popularity as SATA can bottleneck modern solid-state drives. SCSI is available in a variety of in

Nakafukawa Station

Nakafukawa Station is a JR West Geibi Line station located in 5-chōme, Asakita-ku, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Nakafukawa Station features one side platform capable of handling one line. Trains bound for Shiwaguchi and Miyoshi are handled on the upper end of the platform, tains bound for Hiroshima are handled on the lower end; the station building, as with the building at Kamifukawa Station, is used as convenient meeting place for the residents of the surrounding area. The station features an automated ticket vending machine. Hiroshima Nakafukawa Post Office Hiroshima Municipal Kōyō Branch Office Hiroshima Prefectural Kōyō Higashi High School Hiroshima Prefectural Hiroshima Yōgo High School Hiroshima Municipal Kamezaki Junior High School Hiroshima Municipal Kōyō Junior High School Hiroshima Municipal Fukawa Elementary School Hiroshima Municipal Kamezaki Elementary School Misasa River Hiroshima Prefectural Route 37 Hiroshima Prefectural Route 70 All lines are JR West lines. Geibi Line Miyoshi Express No stop Commuter Liner No stop Miyoshi Liner/Local Kamifukawa Station — Nakafukawa Station — Shimofukawa Station JR West


The community of Jonsdorf is located in the south of the Kreis Görlitz in the southeast of the German federal state of Saxony. It is embedded into part of the Lusatian Mountains. In 1539 Jonsdorf was first mentioned in a document which showed the selling of land to ten new settlers by the monastery of Oybin. In 1547 the whole land of Oybin had been sold to the city of Zittau by Maximilian the Second. In 1580 Hieronymus Richter established the first sandstone quarry inside the rock formations surrounding Jonsdorf to produce millstones; some decades in 1667, the city-council of Zittau decided to found some additional quarries in the district between Jonsdorf and Waltersdorf. The production of millstone ended in 1917. In the next years the two villages grew. After cutting down a forest between the villages of old and new Jonsdorf in 1731, both parts of the villages were unified; the construction of a church in Jonsdorf started in the same year. Like many other villages and towns in Upper Lusatia, Jonsdorf established a special kind of industry in the 18th and 19th century - the weaving of linen.

The first touristic development in the village started in 1841 when Karl Linke opened the first cold water cure house applying hydrotherapy. The spa-tourism became more important in the years later. In 1890 a narrow-gauge railway link was opened between Zittau and Jonsdorf and helped the village to flourish. After the end of World War II and the arrival of expelled Sudeten Germans from Bohemia, a small development programme was set up that included the construction of an icedome and a forest theatre in the 1950s. In 1984 a new school was opened. New projects after the reunification of Germany improved the economical structure further. A leisure centre with an ice rink went into operation in 1996, in 2004 a butterfly house was opened; the most important sights of the village are the mountains and rock formations that surround it, which have bizarre shapes. The village itself offers some special institution out of the cure-tradition for example a park. There are some of the old timber-frame houses that offer some wonderful views with their jolly colors and the flowers that surround them.

The Butterfly House Jonsdorf Association for the millstone quarry and observatory Official website of Jonsdorf with offers for tourists

Waltz with Bashir

Waltz with Bashir is a 2008 Israeli animated war documentary drama film written and directed by Ari Folman. It depicts Folman in search of his lost memories of his experience as a soldier in the 1982 Lebanon War; this film and $9.99 released in 2008, are the first Israeli animated feature-length films released theatrically since Alina and Yoram Gross's Joseph and the Dreamer. Waltz with Bashir premiered at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival where it entered the competition for the Palme d'Or, since has won and been nominated for many additional important awards while receiving wide acclaim from critics and audience alike, which has praised its themes, direction and editing, it has grossed over $11 million against a production budget of only $2 million and it has won a Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film, an NSFC Award for Best Film, a César Award for Best Foreign Film and an IDA Award for Feature Documentary, was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, a BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language and an Annie Award for Best Animated Feature.

In 1982, Ari Folman was a 19-year-old IDF infantry soldier. In 2006, he meets with a friend from that period, who tells him of the nightmares he's having connected to his experiences from the Lebanon War. Folman is surprised to find; that night he has a vision from the night of the Sabra and Shatila massacre, the reality of which he is unable to recall. In his memory, he and his soldier comrades are bathing at night by the seaside in Beirut under the light of flares descending over the city. Folman rushes off to meet a childhood friend, who advises him to seek out others who were in Beirut at the same time, to understand what happened there and to revive his own memories. Folman converses with friends and other soldiers who served in the war, among others a psychologist, Israeli TV reporter Ron Ben-Yishai, who covered Beirut at the time. Folman realizes that he "was in the second or third ring" of soldiers surrounding the Palestinian refugee camp where the carnage was perpetrated, that he was among those soldiers firing flares into the sky to illuminate the refugee camp for the Lebanese Christian Phalange militia perpetrating the massacre inside.

He concludes that his amnesia stemmed from his feeling as a teenage soldier that he was as guilty of the massacre as those who carried it out. The film ends with animation dissolving into actual footage of the aftermath of the massacre; the film contains both fictional composites of actual living people. Ari Folman, an Israeli film-maker who finished his military reserve service; some twenty years before, he served in the IDF during the Lebanon War. Miki Leon as Boaz Rein-Buskila, an accountant and Israeli Lebanon War veteran suffering from nightmares. Ori Sivan, an Israeli filmmaker who co-directed two films with Folman and is his long-time friend. Yehezkel Lazarov as Carmi Can'an, an Israeli Lebanon War veteran who once was Folman's friend and now lives in the Netherlands. Ronny Dayag, an Israeli Lebanon War veteran and high food engineer. During the war, he was a Merkava tank crewman. Shmuel Frenkel, an Israeli Lebanon War veteran. During this war he was the commander of an infantry unit. Zahava Solomon, an Israeli psychologist and researcher in the field of psychological trauma.

Ron Ben-Yishai, an Israeli journalist, the first to cover the massacre. Dror Harazi, an Israeli Lebanon War veteran. During the war, he commanded a tank stationed outside the Shatila refugee camp; the film takes its title from a scene in which Shmuel Frenkel, one of the interviewees and the commander of Folman's infantry unit at the time of the film's events, grabs a general purpose machine gun and "dances an insane waltz" amid heavy enemy fire on a Beirut street festooned with huge posters of Bashir Gemayel. The title refers to Israel's short-lived political waltz with Bashir Gemayel as president of Lebanon; the film took four years to complete. It is unusual in it being a feature-length documentary made entirely by the means of animation, it combines classical music, 1980s music, realistic graphics, surrealistic scenes together with illustrations similar to comics. The entire film is animated, excluding one short segment of news archive footage; the animation, with its dark hues representing the overall feel of the film, uses a unique style invented by Yoni Goodman at the Bridgit Folman Film Gang studio in Israel.

The technique is confused with rotoscoping, an animation style that uses drawings over live footage, but is a combination of Adobe Flash cutouts and classic animation. Each drawing was sliced into hundreds of pieces which were moved in relation to one another, thus creating the illusion of movement; the film was first shot in a sound studio as a 90-minute video and transferred to a storyboard. From there 2,300 original illustrations were drawn based on the storyboard, which together formed the actual film scenes using Flash animation, classic animation, 3D technologies; the original soundtrack was composed by minimalist electronic musician Max Richter while the featured songs are by OMD, PiL, Navadey Haukaf and Zeev Tene. Some reviewers have viewed the music as playing an active role as commentator on events instead of simple accompaniment; the comics medium, in particular Joe Sacco, the novels Catch-22, The Adventures of Wesley Jackson, Slaughterhouse-Five, pai


Imam Abū Ja'far Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Ṭaḥāwī or al-Ṭaḥāwī was a Sunni Islamic Scholar, from the Hanafi madhhab. Taḥawi was born in the village of Taha in upper Egypt in 843 CE/229 AH to an affluent family, he began his studies with his maternal uncle Isma`il ibn Yahya al-Muzani, a leading disciple of Shafi`i. In 863 CE/249 AH, when Tahawi was about 20 years old he abandoned the Shafi'i school and transferred to the Hanafi school due to personal reason. Different versions are given by his biographers of his conversion to the Hanafi school, but the most probable reason seems to be that the system of Abu Hanifa appealed to his critical insight more than that of Shafi'i. Tahawi studied under the head of the Hanafis in Egypt, Ahmed ibn Abi'Imran Moosā, who had himself studied under the two primary students of Abu Hanifa, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani. Tahawi next went to Syria in 882 CE/268 AH for further studies in Hanafi Law and became the pupil of Qazi Abu Haazim Abdul Hamid bin Ja’afar, the chief judge of Damascus.

Tahawi gained an extraordinary knowledge of hadith in addition to Hanafi jurisprudence and his study circles attracted many scholars who related hadith from him and transmitted his works. Among them were al-Da'udi, the head of the Zahiris in Khurasan and al-Tabarani well known for his biographical dictionaries of hadith transmitters. Tahawi's extraordinary knowledge of hadith in addition to Hanafi jurisprudence is evident from his significant book Kitab ma'ani al-athar and his concise creed has achieved a prominent place among most Sunni scholars to this day; the scholars of his time praised him and mentioned him as being a scholar of Hadith, one whose report was reliable and an established narrator. He was viewed as a distinguished and proficient writer and became known as the most knowledgeable of fiqh amongst the Hanafis in Egypt; this was though he had a share in the fiqh of all of the madhabs of fiqh and hadith, he knew of the various sciences of Islam. Ibn Yoonus said of him, "At-Tahaawee was reliable, trustworthy, a Faqeeh, the likes of whom did not come afterward."

In his introduction to Sharh Aqida al-Tahaweyah the editor Zuhayr Shawish describes Tahawi: He was the Imam, the Muhaddith, the Faqeeh, the Haafidh, the noble Scholar, Abu Ja'far Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Salaamah Ibn Salama'Abdil-Malik Ibn Salama Al-Azdee At-Tahawi. He was benefited from, he had more than three hundred teachers. He would spend lots of time with those scholars that came to visit Egypt from different parts of the world, such that he would add to his knowledge what knowledge they had; this shows you the extent of the concern he had for benefiting from the scholars, as well as the intense eagerness he had for acquiring knowledge. Many scholars praised him and described him as being reliable, trustworthy, a Faqeeh, intelligent, a good memorizer and a pious worshipper, he had a high proficiency in Hadeeth. He left behind many other works, close to forty different books, some of which are still available today, his works include: Ma'ani al-Athar Aqida al-Tahaweyah Ahkaam-ul-Qur'an Al-Mukhtaar Sharh Mushkil Al-Athar Sharh Al-Ma'ani Al-Athar Sharh Al-Jaam'i-ul-Kabeer Sharh Al-Jaam'i-us-Sagheer Ash-Shuroot Nawaadir al-Fiqhiyyah Ikhtilaf al-‘Ulama Manāqib Abi Hanīfah Tārīkh al‑Kabīr al‑Radd ala Kitāb al‑Mudallisīn Hukm `Aradi Makkah He died on 5 November 933 CE/14 Dhul Qa’ada 321 AH & buried in Qarafah, Cairo.

Islamic scholars

Empress Hotel (Toronto)

The Empress Hotel was a three-storey red-brick building at the corner of Yonge and Gould streets in downtown Toronto. It was destroyed by fire on January 3, 2011; the hotel was opened in 1888. The hotel changed hands several times; the property ceased operating as a hotel in the mid-1970s. 335 Yonge Street housed hotels under different owners, to sometime in the 1970s. In the 1960s, it was known as the Edison Hotel and was a major live music venue in Yonge Street's booming Rock n' Roll culture. Part of the building's facade collapsed in April, 2010. After the building stopped functioning as a hotel portions were leased by a number of businesses. In 2010, after the property was bought by the Lalani Group, the owners started to demolish the building, only to be stopped when the Toronto city council designated it a protected heritage property on July 16, 2010; the building was damaged by fire on January 4, 2011. At the time, the owners were planning a meeting with the City of Toronto to discuss their strategy for promptly restoring the property.

After the building's destruction Heritage Toronto quoted from the intent to designate application describing the building as a "local landmark", a "well-crafted example of a late 19th century commercial building that blends elements of the popular Second Empire and Romanesque Revival styles of the era."A security camera captured an individual whose face was obscured by a hood in the vicinity of the building around the time the fire was set. After an investigation, Stewart Poirier was convicted. Poirier died of natural causes on February 10, 2013, while incarcerated at the Joyceville Institution; the site was cleared and taken over by developer Rumpf Corporation, building a commercial property in late 2017, to be owned and managed by Prime Corporation