Charles, Prince of Wales
Charles, Prince of Wales is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Known alternatively in South West England as Duke of Cornwall and in Scotland as Duke of Rothesay, he is the heir apparent in British history. He is the oldest person to be next in line to the throne since Sophia of Hanover, Charles was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. After earning a bachelor of degree from Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons, Prince William to become Duke of Cambridge, and Prince Harry, in 1996, the couple divorced, following well-publicised extramarital affairs. Diana died in a car crash in Paris the following year, in 2005, Charles married Camilla Parker Bowles. Charles has sought to raise awareness of the dangers facing the natural environment. As an environmentalist, he has received awards and recognition from environmental groups around the world. His support for alternative medicine, including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community and he has been outspoken on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings.
Subsequently, Charles created Poundbury, a new town based on his theories. He has authored a number of books, including A Vision of Britain, A Personal View of Architecture in 1989 and he was baptised in the palaces Music Room by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, on 15 December 1948. When Prince Charles was aged three his mothers accession as Queen Elizabeth II made him her heir apparent. As the monarchs eldest son, he took the titles Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince. Charles attended his mothers coronation at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953, seated alongside his grandmother, as was customary for upper-class children at the time, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed and undertook his education between the ages of five and eight. Buckingham Palace announced in 1955 that Charles would attend school rather than have a private tutor, Charles attended two of his fathers former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Berkshire, followed by Gordonstoun in the north-east of Scotland.
He reportedly despised the school, which he described as Colditz in kilts. Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming Head Boy and he left in 1967, with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C, respectively. Tradition was broken again when Charles proceeded straight from school into university
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Vauxhall is a mixed commercial and residential district of southwest London in the London Borough of Lambeth. Vauxhall formed part of Surrey until 1889 when the County of London was created, Vauxhall is 2.1 km south of Charing Cross and 1.5 km southwest of the actual centre of London at Frazier st near Lambeth North tube station. The area only became known by this name when the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens opened as a public attraction. Initially most visitors would have approached by river, but crowds of Londoners of all came to know the area after the construction of Westminster Bridge in the 1740s. There are competing theories as to why the Russian word for a railway station is вокзал. This was further embellished into a story that the Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, visiting London in 1844, was taken to see the trains at Vauxhall and made the same mistake. The locality of the L&SWRs original railway terminus, Nine Elms Station, was shown boldly and simply as Vauxhall in the 1841 Bradshaw timetable, in 1838 a music and entertainment pavilion was constructed at the railway terminus.
This pavilion was called the Vokzal in homage to the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens in London, the name soon came to be applied to the station itself, which was the gateway that most visitors used to enter the gardens. It came to any substantial railway station building. Archdeacon William Coxe describes the place as a sort of Vauxhall in that year, there is no mention of Vauxhall in the 1086 Domesday Book. The area originally formed part of the extensive Manor of South Lambeth, falkes de Breauté acquired it in 1216 when he married Margaret, widow of Baldwin de Redvers, de Breautés lands reverted to the de Redvers family after his death in 1226. In 1293 South Lambeth Manor and the Manor of la Sale Faukes passed, probably by trickery, in 1317 King Edward II granted the manor of Vauxhall, Surrey, to Sir Roger dAmory for his good services at the Battle of Bannockburn. From various accounts, three local roads – the South Lambeth Road, Clapham Road and Wandsworth Road – were ancient and well-known routes to and from London.
The land was flat and parts were marshy and poorly drained by ditches, and only started to be developed with the draining of Lambeth Marsh in the mid-18th century, prior to this it provided market garden produce for the nearby City of London. Vauxhall Bridge and Vauxhall Bridge Road were opened in 1816, by 1860 the village had been subsumed by the town of Lambeth. Many of Vauxhalls streets were destroyed during the construction of the railway to Waterloo station, many Vauxhall residents live in social housing. Vauxhall is an ethnically diverse area, with approximately 40% of residents originating from a non-white ethnic group. There is a significant Portuguese community, some with a connection to Madeira, many Portuguese restaurants and bars are located in South Lambeth Road, there is a significant Muslim community, with almost 6% of residents declaring themselves as Muslim in the 2001 census
Palace of the Parliament
The Palace of the Parliament is the seat of the Parliament of Romania. Located on Dealul Arsenalului in central Bucharest, it is the second-largest administrative building in the world, in terms of weight, the Palace of the Parliament is the heaviest building in the world, weighing in at around 4,098,500,000 kg. A colossal parliament building known for its ornate interior composed of 23 sections, it houses the Senate, the National Museum of Contemporary Art, the Museum of Communist Totalitarianism and the Museum of the Palace are hosted inside the Palace. Though named the House of the Republic, after the Romanian Revolution in 1989 it became known as the Peoples House. Due to its impressive endowments, conferences and other events are organised by institutions and international bodies. In 1990, Australian business magnate Rupert Murdoch wanted to buy the building for US$1 billion, as of 2008, the Palace of the Parliament is valued at €3 billion, making it the most expensive administrative building in the world.
The cost of heating and electric lighting alone exceeds $6 million per year, after the earthquake of 4 March 1977, Nicolae Ceaușescu started a reconstruction plan of Bucharest, and the Peoples House was the center of this project. Named Project Bucharest, it was a project of Ceausescu spouses began in 1978, as a replica of Pyongyang. A systematization project existed since the 1930s for the Unirii–Dealul Arsenalului area, for its construction was organized a contest, won by Anca Petrescu, appointed chief architect of the project. At that time, Anca Petrescu was just 28, the team that coordinated the work was made of 10 architects, that have subordinated other 700. The actual construction began on 25 June 1984, the inauguration of the work was attended by Ceaușescu. The building was erected on the site of some monasteries that were demolished, in this area were located the National Archives, Văcărești Monastery, Brâncovenesc Hospital, as well as about 37 old factories and workshops. Demolition in Uranus area began in 1982,7 km2 in the old city center were demolished, and 40,000 people were relocated from this area.
The works were carried out forced labor of soldiers and so the cost was minimized. Between 20,000 and 100,000 people worked on the site, thousands of people died at the Peoples House, some mention a figure of 3,000 people. In 1989 building costs were estimated at $1.75 billion, since 1994 the building hosts the Chamber of Deputies, after the initial headquarters of the institution, the Palace of the Chamber of Deputies, was donated by state to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Since 2004 the Romanian Senate is headquartered in the building, originally housed in the building of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party. Between 2003 and 2004 a glass annex was built alongside external elevators and this was done to facilitate access to the National Museum of Contemporary Art opened in 2004 inside the west wing of the Palace
Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea. It is the main thoroughfare running south from Trafalgar Square towards Parliament Square, the name Whitehall is used as a metonym for British civil service, and as the geographic name for the surrounding area. The name was taken from the Palace of Whitehall that was the residence of Kings Henry VIII through to William III, before its destruction by fire in 1698, only the Banqueting House survived. Whitehall was originally a road that led to the front of the palace. As well as government buildings, the street is known for its statues and monuments, including Britains primary war memorial. The Whitehall Theatre, now the Trafalgar Studios, has been a place for farce comedies since the mid-20th century. The name Whitehall was used for buildings in the Tudor period. It either referred to a made of light stone, or as a general term for any festival building.
This included the Royal Palace of Whitehall, which in turn gave its name to the street, the street is about 0.4 miles long and runs through the City of Westminster. It is part of the A3212, a road in Central London that leads towards Chelsea via the Houses of Parliament. It runs south from Trafalgar Square, past numerous government buildings, including the old War Office building, Horse Guards, the Ministry of Defence, the Cabinet Office and it ends at the Cenotaph, the road ahead being Parliament Street. Great Scotland Yard and Horse Guards Avenue branch off to the east, the nearest tube stations are Charing Cross at the north end, and Westminster at the south. Numerous London bus routes run along Whitehall, including 12,24,53,88,159 and 453. It had become a street by the 16th century, and had become a popular place to live by the 17th, with residents including Lord Howard of Effingham. The Palace of Whitehall, to the east of the road, was originally named York Palace, the palace was redesigned in 1531–32 and became the Kings main residence in the decade.
He married Ann Boleyn here in 1533, followed by Jane Seymour in 1536, Charles I owned an extensive art collection at the palace and several of William Shakespeares plays had their first performances here. It ceased to be a residence after 1689, when William III moved to Kensington Palace. The palace was damaged by fire in 1691, following which the front entrance was redesigned by Sir Christopher Wren, in 1698, most of the palace burned to the ground owing to an accident started by a careless washerwoman
Terry Farrell (architect)
Sir Terry Farrell, CBE, RIBA, FRSA, FCSD, MRTPI is a British architect and urban designer. In 1980, after working 15 years in partnership with Sir Nicholas Grimshaw, Farrell founded his own firm and he garnered a strong reputation for contextual urban design schemes, as well as exuberant works of postmodernism such as the MI6 Building. In 1991 his practice expanded internationally, opening an office in Hong Kong, in Asia his firm designed KK100 in Shenzhen, the tallest building ever designed by a British architect, as well as Guangzhou South Railway Station, once the largest railway station in Asia. Farrell is a prominent voice in British architecture and planning, Farrell was born in Sale, Cheshire. As a youth he moved to Newcastle upon Tyne, where he attended St. Cuthberts High School and he graduated with a degree from Newcastle University, followed by a Masters in urban planning at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. In 1965, Farrell moved to London to form a partnership with Sir Nicholas Grimshaw, in 1980 he founded his own company, Terry Farrell & Partners.
In addition, Farrell lectures at a number of different universities including Cambridge University, the University of London, the University of Pennsylvania, in the early part of his career with Grimshaw, Farrell gave emphasis to housing projects. In the 80s and 90s his projects included Charing Cross Station, more recent work includes the new headquarters for the Home Office, the conversion of the Grade 1 listed Royal Institution of Great Britain and the Great North Museum in Newcastle. He has designed his own iconic buildings within these projects, including the Edinburgh International Conference Centre, in May 2010 he was appointed to regenerate the 72-acre area around Earls Court exhibition centre. In 2012 his practice was appointed as masterplanners for Wood Wharf – the next phase of Canary Wharfs development, in East Asia, projects include Incheon International Airport in Seoul and Beijing South Railway Station – the largest in Asia. When completed in December 2010 Guangzhou South Railway Station was for a time the largest railway station in the world, since setting up his practice in Hong Kong in 1990 he has designed the Peak Tower, Kowloon Station development and the British Consulate-General, Hong Kong.
His KK100 tower in Shenzhen is the tallest building ever by a British architect, Farrell has contributed to key strategic issues. He advises the Mayor of London on his Design Advisory Committee, in 2008 he was appointed Design and Planning Leader for the Thames Gateway – Europes largest regeneration project. Farrell named CBE in 1996 and made a Knight Bachelor in 2001, Farrell has been married three times and has five children – one of them, Jo Farrell, is an award-winning photographer.05
Albert Embankment is part of the river bank on the south side of the River Thames in Central London. It stretches approximately one mile northward from Vauxhall Bridge to Westminster Bridge, unlike Bazalgettes Thames Embankment, the Albert Embankment does not incorporate major interceptor sewers. This allowed the southern section of the embankment to include a pair of tunnels onto a slipway, named White Hart Draw Dock. This is contrary to the myth that the dock was built and used by the nearby Royal Doultons pottery works to transport clay and finished goods to. From spring 2009, refurbishment of White Hart Dock commenced as part of a public art project being delivered by Lambeth council. Some of the land was sold to the trustees of St Thomas Hospital. To the north of Lambeth Bridge, the embankment is a pedestrian promenade in front of the hospital. In common with other Bazalgatte works, the embankment is adorned with sturgeon lamp standards to the designs of George Vulliamy. The southern limit of Bazalgattes embankment was opposite Tinworth Street, where the road away from the riverside.
The stretch south of Tinworth Street was occupied by industrial and wharf premises until World War II and these areas have subsequently been redeveloped as offices, with extensions to the embankment being constructed to a more utilitarian design than the Bazalgatte/Vulliamy stretch. Public pedestrian access to this newer embankment between Lambeth Bridge and the road stretch of Albert Embankment was only secured in the 1990s. Parts of this section of the embankment have a provisional appearance, encroachment of the tidal river bed habitat is contrary to the current planning policies of Lambeth. Albert Embankment is the given to the part of the A3036 road between Vauxhall Bridge and Lambeth Bridge, where it adjoins Lambeth Palace Road and Lambeth Road. In the Thames opposite is Londons only river fire station, home to two fireboats, list of eponymous roads in London Winchester, Clarence, ed. Londons Riverside Highways. Wonders of World Engineering, Epics of Conquest in Story and Picture, describes the construction of the Victoria and Albert Embankments.
White Hart Dock—Public Art & Community Engagement Project Survey of London entry
London Borough of Lambeth
Lambeth is a London borough in south London, which forms part of Inner London. Its name was recorded in 1062 as Lambehitha and in 1255 as Lambeth, Lambeth was part of the large, ancient parish of Lambeth St Mary, the site of the archepiscopal Lambeth Palace, in the hundred of Brixton in the county of Surrey. It was an elongated north-south parish with 2 miles of River Thames frontage opposite the cities of London, Lambeth became part of the Metropolitan Police District in 1829. It remained a parish for Poor Law purposes after the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, until 1889, Surrey included the present-day London borough of Lambeth. Young was commissioned to make recommendations to the government on the shape of the future London boroughs. However, Wandsworths suggestion to merge Lambeth with the Metropolitan Borough of Battersea was rejected by both councils involved, in 1979, the administration of Edward Knight organised the boroughs first public demonstration against the Thatcher government. In 1985 Knights Labour administration was subjected to rate-capping, with its budget restricted by the government and most of the Labour councillors protested by refusing to propose budgets.
As a result of the protest,32 councillors were ordered to repay interest lost by the due to budgeting delays and were disqualified from office. In 1991, Joan Twelves administration failed to collect the poll tax, the following year, Twelves and 12 other councillors were suspended from the local Labour Party by regional officials for advocating non-payment of the poll tax and other radical ideas. Twelves equally-militant deputy leader at this time was John Harrison, from 1978 to 2002 the council comprised 64 members, elected from 20 three-member and two two-member wards. Before this, the council had 60 members elected from 20 three-member wards, just before the 2010 election, its political balance was 37 Labour members,18 Liberal Democrats, seven Conservatives and one Green, giving Labour an eleven-member majority. In the 2010 Lambeth Council election, Labour gained seats and the Liberal Democrats, Conservatives, in 2014 the Liberal Democrats lost their seats, Conservatives were reduced to three and the Greens to one.
Labour, gaining seats from the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats, had 59 seats, in the 2016 European Union referendum, Lambeth at 78. 62% had the highest share of Remain vote in the United Kingdom, second to Gibraltars 95. 9%. Lambeth is a long, thin borough, about 3 miles wide and 7 miles long, Brixton is its civic centre, and there are other town centres. The largest shopping areas are Streatham, Vauxhall, Clapham, in the northern part of the borough are the central London districts of the South Bank and Lambeth, in the south are the suburbs of Gipsy Hill, West Dulwich and West Norwood. Vauxhall and South Lambeth are central districts in the process of redevelopment with high-density business, Streatham is between suburban London and inner-city Brixton, with the suburban and developed areas of Streatham, Streatham Hill and Streatham Vale. Despite the boroughs population density, Lambeth has open spaces and around the South Bank, a tourist area has developed around the former Greater London Council headquarters of County Hall and the Southbank Centre and National Theatre.
Also on the river is the London Eye and Shell Centre, nearby is St Thomas Hospital, Lambeth Palace and the Florence Nightingale Museum
She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century, and the first woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her The Iron Lady, a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics, as Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism. A research chemist before becoming a barrister, Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959, Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his 1970 government. In 1975, Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition and she became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election. Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation, flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies and she narrowly escaped an assassination attempt in 1984. Thatcher was re-elected for a term in 1987. During this period her support for a Community Charge was widely unpopular and she resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership.
After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a peerage as Baroness Thatcher which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. After a series of strokes in 2002, she was advised to withdraw from public speaking. Despite this, she managed to pre-record a eulogy to Ronald Reagan prior to his death, in 2013, she died of another stroke in London, at the age of 87. Always a controversial figure, she has described as one of the greatest and most influential politicians in British history. Thatcher was born Margaret Hilda Roberts on 13 October 1925, in Grantham and her father was Alfred Roberts, originally from Northamptonshire, and her mother was Beatrice Ethel from Lincolnshire. She spent her childhood in Grantham, where her father owned two grocery shops, Prior to the Second World War, in 1938 the Roberts family gave sanctuary to a teenage Jewish girl escaping Nazi Germany. Thatcher was to describe this in her memoirs as among the significant events of her formative years, Alfred Roberts was an alderman and a Methodist local preacher, and brought up his daughter as a strict Wesleyan Methodist attending the Finkin Street Methodist Church.
He came from a Liberal family but stood as an Independent and he was Mayor of Grantham in 1945–46 and lost his position as alderman in 1952 after the Labour Party won its first majority on Grantham Council in 1950. Margaret Roberts attended Huntingtower Road Primary School and won a scholarship to Kesteven and her school reports showed hard work and continual improvement, her extracurricular activities included the piano, field hockey, poetry recitals and walking. She was head girl in 1942–43, in her upper sixth year she applied for a scholarship to study chemistry at Somerville College, but she was initially rejected and was offered a place only after another candidate withdrew. Her dissertation was on the structure of the antibiotic gramicidin, even while working on chemistry, she was already thinking towards law and politics
Vauxhall Gardens /ˈvɒksɔːl/ was a pleasure garden in Kennington on the south bank of the River Thames and accessed by boat from London until the erection of Vauxhall Bridge in the 1810s. The wider area was absorbed into the metropolis as the city expanded in the early to mid-19th century and it was one of the leading venues for public entertainment in London, from the mid-17th century to the mid-19th century. Originally known as New Spring Gardens, the site is believed to have opened before the Restoration of 1660, the Gardens consisted of several acres of trees and shrubs with attractive walks. Initially entrance was free, with food and drink being sold to support the venture, the site became Vauxhall Gardens in 1785 and admission was charged for its many attractions. The Gardens drew all manner of people and supported enormous crowds, tightrope walkers, hot-air balloon ascents and fireworks provided entertainment. A statue depicting George Frederic Handel, erected in the Gardens, in 1817 the Battle of Waterloo was re-enacted, with 1,000 soldiers participating.
It closed in 1840 after its owners suffered bankruptcy, but re-opened in 1841 and it changed hands in 1842, and was permanently closed in 1859. The land was redeveloped in the decades, but slum clearance in the late 20th century saw part of the original site opened up as a public park. This was initially called Spring Gardens and renamed in 2012 as Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens and it is managed as a public park by the London Borough of Lambeth. Vauxhall Gardens is depicted in a tile motif at Vauxhall tube station, eminent 18th-century scholar John Barrell, writing in the Times Literary Supplement, brings out Vauxhalls significance. Vauxhall pleasure gardens, on the bank of the Thames. References to Vauxhall are, for 150 years, as ubiquitous as references to Broadway would be, the Gardens are believed to have opened just before the Restoration of 1660, on property formerly owned by Jane Fauxe, or Vaux, widow, in 1615. Jane is stated to be the widow of John, a vintner, perhaps the earliest record is Samuel Pepys description of a visit he made to the New Spring Gardens on 29 May 1662.
The Gardens consisted of several acres laid out with walks, initially admission was free, the proprietors making money by selling food and drink. John Evelyn described the New Spring Garden at Lambeth as a very pretty contrived plantation in 1661, a plan of 1681 shows the circular central feature planted with trees and shrubs, and the formal allées that were to remain a feature as long as the Gardens lasted. Sir John Hawkins, in his General History of Music, about the year 1730, Mr. Mr. Tyers opened it with an advertisement of a Ridotto al Fresco, a term which the people of this country had till that time been strangers to. These entertainments were repeated in the course of the summer, and this encouraged the proprietor to make his garden a place of musical entertainment, for every evening during the summer season. The supposed last night of the gardens was on 5 September 1839 when it attracted 1089 people, the Spring Gardens were the most prominent vehicle in England for the public display of the new Rococo style