Telia Company AB is a Swedish dominant telephone company and mobile network operator present in Sweden, Norway, Lithuania and Estonia. The company has operations in other countries in Northern and Eastern Europe, in Central Asia and South Asia, with a total of 182.1 million mobile customers. It is headquartered in Stockholm and its stock is traded on the Stockholm Stock Exchange and on the Helsinki Stock Exchange. Telia Company in its current form was first established as TeliaSonera, as the result of a 2002 merger between the Swedish and Finnish telecommunications companies and Sonera; this merger followed shortly after Telia's failed merger attempt with Norwegian telecommunications company Telenor, now its chief competitor in the Nordic countries. Before privatisation, Telia was a state telephone monopoly. Sonera on the other hand had a monopoly only on trunk network calls, while most of local telecommunication was provided by telephone cooperatives; the separate brand names Telia and Sonera have continued to be used in the Swedish and Finnish markets respectively.
Of the stock, 37.3% is owned by the Swedish government, the rest by institutions and private investors worldwide. The Finnish government had 3.2% of shares, but disposed them in February 2018. The Swedish Kungl. Telegrafverket was founded in 1853, when the first electric telegraph line was established between Stockholm and Uppsala. Allmänna Telefon found an equipment supplier in Lars Magnus Ericsson. In this early competition, Telegrafverket with its brand Rikstelefon was a latecomer. However, by securing a national monopoly on long distance telephone lines, it was able with time to control and take over the local networks of growing private telephone companies. A de facto telephone monopoly position was reached around 1920, never needed legal sanction. In 1953 the name was modernised to Televerket. On 1 July 1992 this huge government agency's regulating functions was split off into the Swedish Post and Telecom Authority, with similar functions as the Federal Communications Commission of the United States.
The operation of the state radio and TV broadcast network was spun off into a company named Teracom. On 1 July 1993 the remaining telephone and mobile network operator was transformed into a government-owned shareholding company, named Telia AB. At the height of the dot-com bubble, on 13 June 2000, close to one-third of Telia's shares were introduced on the Stockholm Stock Exchange. In the 1980s, Televerket was a pioneering mobile network operator with the NMT system, followed in the 1990s by GSM. Private competition in analogue mobile phone systems had broken the telephone monopoly, the growing internet allowed more opportunities for competitors; the most important of Telia's Swedish competitors in these areas has been Tele2. When PTS awarded four licenses for the 3rd generation mobile networks in December 2000, Telia was not among the winners, but established an agreement to build a 3G network jointly with Tele2 using Tele2's licence. SUNAB was founded as the jointly owned company that would in turn build and operate the joint 3G network.
In December 2018, Telia in cooperation with Ericsson has launched the first 5G network at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. The history of Sonera dates back to 1917. In 1927, the telegraph agency was merged with the Finnish Post to form a new agency and Telegraph Agency; this agency governed all long distance and international calls until 1994, when competitors were allowed to enter the Finnish market. In the same year, the Post and Telegraph Agency was divided to form two companies, Suomen Posti Oy, Telecom Finland Oy. Telecom Finland changed its name to Sonera in 1998. During the run up to the 2006 general election the Swedish liberal-conservative Alliance stated as one of its policy aims to reduce government ownership in commercial entities, to sell its stake in TeliaSonera; the Alliance formed a coalition government. The sale of TeliaSonera was however presented to the parliament only after the next election in 2010, when the Alliance lost its majority but stayed on as a minority administration.
On 16 March 2011 the Alliance administration lost a parliamentary vote on sale of publicly owned commercial entities, including TeliaSonera, when a coalition of all opposition parties - the Left Party, Social Democratic Party, Green Party and Sweden Democrats - united against the Alliance. In the beginning of 2008, TeliaSonera announced measures to save nearly 500 million Euros which would include 2900 redundancies: 2000 from Sweden and 900 from Finland. France Télécom proposed a 33 billion Euro acquisition offer for TeliaSonera on 5 June 2008, promptly rejected by the company's board. On 20 July 2018, Telia Company announced the acquisition proposal of Bonnier Broadcasting Group from Bonnier Group for 9.2 billion SEK, thus owning TV4 AB, MTV Oy and C More Entertainment. The acquisition is expected to end in the second half of 2019, following regulatory approval. TeliaSonera International Carrier is a tier 1 carrier. Telia Company is now the largest Nordic and Baltic fixed-voice and mobile operator by revenue and customer base.
It operates Europe's largest and fastest-growing wholesale IP backbone and is the 10th-largest global mobile group by consolidated customers (including ownership stakes in Turkce
Green Cargo AB is a Swedish logistics company transporting various types of goods by train. It was created on 1 January 2001 out of the logistics division of Statens Järnvägar and became a government-owned limited company. Green Cargo operates. Green Cargo have purchased 16 Bombardier TRAXX locomotives, named Re by Green Cargo. SJ AB - public transport SeaRail - part-owned by Green Cargo.
X 2000 called X2, is a tilting train operated by SJ in Sweden. It was constructed by Kalmar Verkstad in Kalmar and launched in 1990 as a first-class only train with a meal included in the ticket price, free use of the train's fax machine. There is a bistro on board. From 1995 second class was introduced. "X 2000" was a brand name for a number of train connections with a certain service level. The X2 train is used, but because of lack of vehicles, sometimes other train types have been used, like X40 or Rc loco-hauled stock. Since December 2011, all high speed services of SJ using X2 or X55 trains are called "SJ Snabbtåg" or "SJ High-speed train"; the train's designated top speed is 210 km/h. It reached 276 km/h during a trial run with double locomotive units in 1993; the maximum speed allowed in regular traffic is 204 km/h for safety reasons – the signal system are not built for more, it shares the track with regular trains. The 19th century railways Stockholm-Gothenburg/Malmö are straight, since they were planned the shortest way without taking intermediate cities into account, the landscape is flat.
Other 19th century railways are curvier. In comparison to other high-speed trains, the X 2000 is not fast, it averages about 150 km/h. The fastest part is Katrineholm–Skövde, a distance of 180 km, covered in 1h 2min, resulting in an average speed of 174.2 km/h. In 2000-2004, seven trains were operated by Linx on the lines Oslo-Gothenburg-Malmö-Copenhagen and Oslo-Stockholm. Linx was a joint venture between SJ and its Norwegian counterpart NSB, it was wound up. Low-fares airlines played a part in siphoning off passengers from the comparatively slow Linx services, the main ones taking well in excess of three hours. All trains are equipped with Wi-Fi for passenger access to the Internet and were repainted grey as of 2005; the trains have electric power supply sockets at all seats in both first and second class. The trains have been fitted with repeaters to improve mobile phone reception; the train has had the country's railway. More passengers, together with the lower operating costs associated with operating trains faster and more efficiently, helped SJ become profitable.
It proved to Swedes that rail is a viable solution not just in exotic densely populated foreign countries, but at home in Sweden. In 1991, the government started a massive investment program, spending 5-10 billion kronor annually on improvements to the rail network; the program continues today. A milestone was reached in the late nineties when the number of trips taken by train in Sweden exceeded the 1940s level for the first time. New links built since 1990 include the Øresund Bridge, the Arlanda Airport link, Södertälje–Huddinge, Söderhamn–Enånger, Varberg–Kungsbacka and Helsingborg–Lund; the X 2000 train contributed to building public support for these large projects. The fast-growing popularity of the trains has created problems with capacity; the time taken for the X 2000 trains were longer in 2008 than in 2000. For Stockholm–Malmö the fastest train took 21 minutes more time than in 2000, it is the congestion on the railways that impedes the fast trains the prioritized fastest connections.
The railways are used by fast X 2000 trains, slower passenger trains, much slower freight trains. The X 2000 network consists of the following lines: Stockholm–Gothenburg, calling at Södertälje Syd, Katrineholm or Hallsberg, Skövde, Alingsås and Gothenburg Stockholm–Oslo, calling at Södertälje Syd, Hallsberg, Kristinehamn and Arvika before crossing the border to Norway, calling at Kongsvinger and Oslo S Stockholm–Malmö, with many trains continuing to Copenhagen, calling at Flemingsberg or Södertälje Syd, Norrköping, Linköping, Mjölby and/or Tranås, Nässjö, Alvesta, Älmhult, Hässleholm and Malmö. Services to Copenhagen call at Copenhagen Airport, Copenhagen Central Station and Østerport. For a short period during 2010-2011, there was one daily train to/from Odense. Stockholm-Sundsvall, with one daily departure, calling at Arlanda, Uppsala, Gävle, Söderhamn and Sundsvall. With X2000 being in high demand SJ ordered 20 X55 Bombardier Regina trains in 2008 to replace the X 2000 on lines where its performance cannot be utilized.
When these trains are delivered the X 2000 will be concentrated to the main lines of Stockholm-Malmö/Copenhagen and Stockholm-Gothenburg, using double-length X 2000 between Stockholm and Gothenburg during rush hours and weekends. The manufacturer of X 2000 has tried to sell the train to other countries than Sweden, but with mixed success. In connection with the sales attempts the train was demonstrated in some countries. An X 2000 trainset toured the United States in 1992/1993 on lease to Amtrak; the train was tested by Amtrak from October 1992 until January 1993. It was used in revenue service on the Northeast Corridor between New York City and Washington, D. C. for about 5 months, from February until May and from August until September. From May until July it was taken on a national tour around the 48 continental states for demonstration stops at significant stations, it toured
Veolia Transport was the international transport services division of the French-based multinational company Veolia Environnement until the 2011 merger that gave rise to Veolia Transdev. Veolia Transport traded under the brand names of Veolia Transportation in North America and Israel, Veolia Transport, Veolia Verkehr in Germany and with the former name Connex preserved in Lebanon and Jersey; until 2011, Veolia had diverse road and rail operations across the globe, employing 72,000 workers worldwide and serving or about 40 metropolitan areas with more than 1,000,000 inhabitants. The company was established on 1 January 1997 as CGEA Transport, created from the public transport business of Compagnie Générale d'Entreprises Automobiles, a subsidiary of Compagnie Générale des Eaux. CGEA was acquired by CGE in 1980, its waste management and environmental services division was rebranded Onyx Environnement in 1989, leaving CGEA with only the transport business. Compagnie générale française des transports et entreprises was acquired by CGE in the 1980s, was absorbed into CGEA in 1988.
CGE, the ultimate parent company, was renamed to Vivendi in 1998, created Vivendi Environnement in 1999 to consolidate its environmental divisions including the transport division. Viviendi Environnement was renamed Veolia Environnement in 2003; as a result, the name of CGEA Transport was rebranded Connex in 1999, adopting the brand that its South Central and South Eastern rail franchises in South East England had traded under since 1996. In 2005, as a result of global rebranding of all Veolia Environnement subsidiaries, Connex was renamed Veolia Transport; some operations such as Connex Melbourne retained logo. In 2007, the group posted revenues of €5.6 billion in 2007, sold Veolia Cargo, the rail freight branch of Veolia Transport in 2009 to SNCF and Eurotunnel. A merger between Veolia Transport and the old Transdev was announced on 23 July 2009. Transdev was a subsidiary of Caisse des Dépôts; the merger was completed in March 2011. Veolia Transdev became the world's private-sector leader in sustainable mobility with more than 110,000 employees in 28 countries.
Veolia Transdev was renamed and simplified to Transdev in 2013. In July 2011, amid disappointing financial results, Veolia Environnement announced the launch of new restructuring plans and redeployment of assets and businesses. In December 2011, Veolia announced a €5bn divestment program over 2012-2013; as part of this programme, Veolia would divest its participation in Transdev and exit the transport business altogether. In January 2019, Veolia sold the last of its Transdev shares to the Rethmann Group, the owner of Rhenus; the company is the third largest private sector operator of public transport and operates: 7 tramway networks across the country: 5 in service. Autocars De Polder has been part of the Veolia Group since 1995. Veolia operates some de Lijn routes under contract. Veolia Transport Belgium was passed on to Veolia Transdev until it was sold to a consortium consisting of Cube Infrastructure and Gimv in March 2014. Veolia ran half of the transport operations of the privatised Combus around Copenhagen.
Copenhagen: Suburban buses. These operations were sold to Arriva in October 2007. Helsinki: Veolia owns Helsinki Metropolitan Area's bus company Veolia Finland, Linjebuss and operates in Vantaa, a northern suburb of Helsinki. Tampere: Veolia owns the regional bus company known as Alhonen & Lastunen Seinäjoki: Veolia owns yet another local bus company, now known as Veolia Transport West Oy, operating both local and long-distance routes. Veolia Transport Finland Oy has since been passed on to Veolia Transdev and is now known as Transdev Finland Oy from 5 February 2015. Veolia Verkehr, former Connex Verkehr, offers train services, several of a regional character such as the Bayerische Oberlandbahn from Munich, two long-distance services. Veolia owns a number of bus companies in suburban areas, it operates tram systems: Aachen: Suburban buses, Berlin: Suburban tram line linking to the S Bahn, Frankfurt: Urban linepacks A&E, Suburban services, Bad Homburg: Urban & Suburban buses, Hagen: Urban network, Pforzheim: Urban network won by Veolia in August 2006.
Network included in "Karlsruher Verkehrsverbund GmbH" and linked to it by Tram-Train line, Schwäbisch Hall: Urban network, Stuttgart: Suburban buses...and into rural areas. Veolia Verkehr has since been passed on to Veolia Transdev and is now known as Transdev GmbH since March 2015. Dublin: Veolia operates the Luas tramway which started operations in June 2004. Operation of the Luas tramway has since been passed on to Veolia Transdev and renamed Transdev Ireland. Galway: Veolia owned the Nestor Airlink bus company which operates between Galway and Dublin Airport; however Jim Burke & Sons own and run it as of March 2009. Connex Transport Jersey operated bus services in Jersey between 29 September 2002 and 31 December 2012 under the Mybus brand. Veolia Transport
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Oresund Line is a 24/7 railway between Copenhagen in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden via the Oresund Bridge, with a 35-40 minutes trip. On the Swedish side it is managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, on the Danish side by Banedanmark; the railway line approaches Copenhagen from the Continental Line south of Malmö and heads west, passing over the Oresund Bridge on the lower section of the Peberholm artificial island, under Copenhagen Airport to Copenhagen Central Station. In Malmö, the City Tunnel connects the railway directly to Malmö C. IC3 Oresundtrains are operated by DSB on Transdev on the Swedish side, it connects Copenhagen and Malmö, with connections to Gothenburg and Karlskrona. On the Danish side, many trains continue northwards on the Coast Line to Helsingør. SJ operates SJ 2000 high-speed trains between Stockholm, Malmö, Copenhagen. Freight trains are operated by Railion using EG locomotives. Plans for connecting Scania and Zealand with a bridge had been raised throughout the entire 20th century, in 1991 a company was created to start the work.
Construction of the Oresund Bridge and Oresund Railway started in 1995 and was completed in 2000. According to UIC this rail line had in 2012 the most expensive second class rail tickets in Europe with a price of 0.21 Euro per km. The investigation encompassed 103 rail lines; this price is calculated on the distance Malmö-Copenhagen of 52.7 kilometres which doesn't include the shortening by Citytunneln and which made the per-km price higher than that of the Eurostar. Since December 2010, Oresundtrains use the City Tunnel in Malmö, with its stations at Hyllie and Triangeln, thereby saving one minute for passengers to Malmö C and about 15 to 20 minutes for passengers to Triangeln. One of the challenges with the line was the incompatibility between the railway electrification systems in Denmark and Sweden. Denmark uses 25 kV 50 Hz AC while Sweden uses 15 kV 16.7 Hz AC. The signalling systems in the two countries are different; the problems were overcome by requiring all trains operating on the line to be dual voltage and have dual signalling systems, including a minority of the X2 trains operated throughout Sweden by SJ.
The signalling system switches on Peberholm in Denmark, so the entire bridge uses the Swedish signalling, but Danish electrical system. The Danish signalling system is only approved for 180 kilometres per hour speed, while the Swedish system is approved for 200 kilometres per hour; the entire bridge has 200 km/h maximum speed the Danish part, as the only railway in Denmark. On double-track lines in Denmark trains run on the right. On the Oresund Line trains runs on the right hand track, changing sides at a flyover north of the Malmö C, resulting in trains in the Malmö area using the Danish standard. On autumn 2015 border controls started at Hyllie station, they cause a delay in the traffic there. Furthermore, during 2016 a carrier's responsibility law was in effect, so all passengers had to go through identity check at Copenhagen Airport station, all passengers from other Danish stations had to disembark, change track and go through the identity check. Sweden Lund Central Station, Lund. Around Arlöv's former sugar factory – change for the dual tracks' left side traffic to right side traffic.
Malmö Central Station Triangeln station, Malmö. Hyllie station, Malmö. Lernacken – Enter the Øresund Bridge, change of electric voltage. Denmark Peberholm – Change of signalling system and traffic control. Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup Station, Tårnby. -- Metro has a T-junction with the Øresund Railway here Tårnby. Ørestad Station, Copenhagen. -- Metro crosses Copenhagen. Østerport Station, Copenhagen. Most trains continue to Helsingør, through several tunnels in Copenhagen and the Coast Line The Øresundstågs stop at the stations above. A few daily trains to Stockholm stop only at Malmö Central Station, Copenhagen Airport and Copenhagen Central Station. From Lund C to Østerport Station there is an hourly late night service and the trip lasts 60 minutes; the fixed connection across the Øresund, was inaugurated on 1 July 2000. Between the inauguration and December 2010, the tunnel through Malmö was not in operation and a far longer path was used. Trains had to drive in to Malmö Central Station and (after some 20 minutes, could the train departure for Copenhagen, but had "to reverse" for several minutes, followed by a long detour which orbited most of Malmö, before reaching the new fixed connection.
Malmö South Station was the last station in Sweden. (But is still in use for local trains and for a few Danish DSB Inter City trains to Ystad, from which car-ferries departure to the Danish Baltic Sea island, Bornholm. Banverket page on Öresundbanan Järnväg.net page on Öresundbanan