SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

SMS

SMS is a text messaging service component of most telephone and mobile device systems. It uses standardized communication protocols to enable mobile devices to exchange short text messages. An intermediary service can facilitate a text-to-voice conversion to be sent to landlines. SMS was the most used data application at the end of 2010, with an estimated 3.5 billion active users, or about 80% of all mobile subscribers. SMS, as used on modern devices, originated from radio telegraphy in radio memo pagers that used standardized phone protocols; these were defined in 1985 as part of the Global System for Mobile Communications series of standards. The first SMS message was sent in 1992; the protocols allowed users to send and receive messages of up to 160 characters to and from GSM mobiles. Although most SMS messages are mobile-to-mobile text messages, support for the service has expanded to include other mobile technologies, such as ANSI CDMA networks and Digital AMPS. SMS is employed in mobile marketing, a type of direct marketing.

According to one market research report, as of 2014, the global SMS messaging business was estimated to be worth over $100 billion, accounting for 50 percent of all the revenue generated by mobile messaging. Adding text messaging functionality to mobile devices began in the early 1980s; the first action plan of the CEPT Group GSM was approved in December 1982, requesting that "The services and facilities offered in the public switched telephone networks and public data networks... should be available in the mobile system." This plan included the exchange of text messages either directly between mobile stations, or transmitted via message handling systems in use at that time. The SMS concept was developed in the Franco-German GSM cooperation in 1984 by Friedhelm Hillebrand and Bernard Ghillebaert; the GSM is optimized for telephony. The key idea for SMS was to use this telephone-optimized system, to transport messages on the signalling paths needed to control the telephone traffic during periods when no signalling traffic existed.

In this way, unused resources in the system could be used to transport messages at minimal cost. However, it was necessary to limit the length of the messages to 128 bytes so that the messages could fit into the existing signalling formats. Based on his personal observations and on analysis of the typical lengths of postcard and Telex messages, Hillebrand argued that 160 characters was sufficient to express most messages succinctly. SMS could be implemented in every mobile station by updating its software. Hence, a large base of SMS-capable terminals and networks existed when people began to use SMS. A new network element required was a specialized short message service centre, enhancements were required to the radio capacity and network transport infrastructure to accommodate growing SMS traffic; the technical development of SMS was a multinational collaboration supporting the framework of standards bodies. Through these organizations the technology was made available to the whole world; the first proposal which initiated the development of SMS was made by a contribution of Germany and France into the GSM group meeting in February 1985 in Oslo.

This proposal was further elaborated in GSM subgroup WP1 Services based on a contribution from Germany. There were initial discussions in the subgroup WP3 network aspects chaired by Jan Audestad; the result was approved by the main GSM group in a June'85 document, distributed to industry. The input documents on SMS had been prepared by Friedhelm Hillebrand with contributions from Bernard Ghillebaert; the definition that Friedhelm Hillebrand and Bernard Ghillebaert brought into GSM called for the provision of a message transmission service of alphanumeric messages to mobile users "with acknowledgement capabilities". The last three words transformed SMS into something much more useful than the prevailing messaging paging that some in GSM might have had in mind. SMS was considered in the main GSM group as a possible service for the new digital cellular system. In GSM document "Services and Facilities to be provided in the GSM System," both mobile-originated and mobile-terminated short messages appear on the table of GSM teleservices.

The discussions on the GSM services were concluded in the recommendation GSM 02.03 "TeleServices supported by a GSM PLMN." Here a rudimentary description of the three services was given: Short message mobile-terminated / Point-to-Point: the ability of a network to transmit a Short Message to a mobile phone. The message can be sent by a software application. Short message mobile-originated / Point-to-Point: the ability of a network to transmit a Short Message sent by a mobile phone; the message can be sent to a software application. Short message cell broadcast; the material elaborated in GSM and its WP1 subgroup was handed over in Spring 1987 to a new GSM body called IDEG, which had its kickoff in May 1987 under the chairmanship of Friedhelm Hillebrand. The technical standard known today was created by IDEG as the two recommendations GSM 03.40 and GSM 03.41. WP4 created a Drafting Group Message Handling, responsible for the specification of SMS. Finn Trosby of Telenor chaired the draft group through its first 3 years, in which the design of SMS was established.

DGMH had five to eight participants, Finn Trosby mentions as major contributors Kevin Holley, E

Rock music in Albania

Albanian rock describes music in Albania, Kosovo and other Albanian-inhabited areas related to western rock. It has a wide variety of subgenres like alternative rock, hard rock and metal. American and British influence marked Albanian rock music in its first steps; the first known Albanian rock band was called Blue Star. They appeared in 1964 in Prishtinë and were renamed as Modestët. In the beginning of the 1970s, the rock scene present in Mitrovicë, Kosovo was made of Albanian and Serbian bands; some of these bands, like MAK had both Serbian musicians. Another bi-ethnic band was FAN based in Mitrovicë. In 1978 the famous guitarist & composer Nexhat Macula formed one of the best Albanian rock bands of all time, called "TNT" in Mitrovica. Between 1978 and 2006 the band had published 10 Albums in total. Prishtinë was the most important city for Albanian rock music during the 1980s. In the mainstream circles Gjurmët were among favorites, their combination of rock with "muzikë qytetare" laid the foundation of Albanian rock.

Other known bands that formed during this period were Ilirët, 403, Seleksioni 039, Minatori and Menkis. Underground rock leant more towards punk music; the most notable underground rock/punk band of Pristina in the 1980s was Lindja with its lead musician Luan Osmani. In Albania, the first rock concert was organized by Aleksandër Gjoka in 1989. In Macedonia the main Albanian rock/punk band is considered to be Blla Blla Blla who were founded in 1989, their influence can be seen not only in Albanian but in Macedonian rock music. Another Albanian band from Macedonia is Shekulli i Dreqit. In Albania the most prominent rock bands and individuals only appeared after 1990. Before that period rock music was prohibited. Although youth groups found ways to listen it through clandestine channels; the first rock band in Albania was Megaherz, founded by guitarist Bledar Sejko. After the fall of communism he went on to form Thunderway with Elton Deda, they were a Power/Speed Metal band who recorded their first rock album in Albania called "The Executioner's Orders", on cassette.

Meanwhile, Bojken Lako was experimenting rock with his first band, The Fishhook, who released one album on cassette. Some notable rock bands include Akullthyesit from Elbasan, Meteor from Durrës, Djemtë e Detit, Grupi X, singers like Gjergj Jorgaqi, Redon Makashi and many others. Guttersnipe was a short-lived punk band from Tirana in the early 1990s; the guitarist, Eduard Dashi, went on to play as a session musician, while the vocalist, Klodi Agostini emigrated to Denmark. A popular and important band which remains solid until the present day, is CROSSBONES. Formed in the mid 1990s, the band reached a word-of-mouth reputation that culminated in August 1997 when they released their first and only official album to date; this was called Days of Rage. It was influenced by the turbulent times in Albania at the time and was the first album to be released and distributed in CD format in Albania. CROSSBONES have participated in countless live performances, both in Albania and abroad, such as in Skopje 1999 and Thessaloniki 2015 and are the only band from the 1990s that carried on producing music, despite numerous changes in their lineup.

The original members that recorded the Days of Rage album and many other successful songs that have been included in a 10-song compilation album called Toxic Waste, are: Olsi Ballta, Klod Shehu, Alban Male and Arbi Xhelo with Red Hasa and Fatjon Gjashta. Other collaborators include Andi Haxhihyseni, Gjergj Lena, Pol Flloko. Olsi Ballta and Klod Shehu remain the only long-lasting original members, they were joined by drummer Theo Napoloni in 2010 and guitarist Ben Turku in 2014, yielding a three-song single called "Alive". The band's distinctive style with powerful guitar riffs and vocals has influenced many following musicians and created many fans during their near 20 years of activity; the beginning of the 1990s introduced other rock bands and individuals that played in Kosovo like Troja, Dardan Shkreli, Blla Blla Blla and Elita 5. During parallel governance and after the 1999 war in Kosovo several new bands emerged. Among the most famous are Diadema, KEK, 7me7, The Hithat, Cute Babulja, Por-no, Gre3n, Retrovizorja.

Qelbanix were the first progressive band in Albania and in 2008 they released their first and last album "Infinit Relativ" as a double CD. In this album there is a piece of artwork for every song made by Qelbanix; the alternative band Linda në Botën e Çudirave was created in 2009 with lead singer and guitarist Linda Rukaj. Linda went on to release her single acoustic album "Jam" in 2011, written and composed by her, she was the first female artist in Albania to be a guitarist. After 2004 many alternative rock band appeared forming a new wave. Many bands formed and reformed; this included Bands like Votra, The Bloody Foreigners, Gre3n. It includes the Glasses, the Dizzies and the Freelancers with most of them debuting in 2009. During this decade in Albania they were lots of alternative and rock bands like Permit of Stay, Ora 3, The Room, The S Forest. Asgjë Sikur Dielli Elita 5 Elton Deda Gjur

Chile at the 2014 Winter Olympics

Chile competed at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, from 7 to 23 February 2014. Chile's team consisted of six athletes in three sports, doubling the number of athletes from four years ago. According to the final quota allocation released on 20 January 2014, Chile had three athletes in qualification position; the team consisted of: According to the final quota allocation released on 20 January 2014, Chile had one athlete in qualification position. This marked the first time. Sprint According to the final quota allocation released on 20 January 2014, Chile had one athlete in qualification position. Chile has received a reallocation quota in women's ski cross. Dominique Ohaco finished the women's slopestyle competition in 13th, one position out of qualifying for the final; this marked the first time. Ski crossSlopestyle Chile at the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics Chile at the 2014 Winter Paralympics Chile at the 2014 Winter Olympics at the Wayback Machine Chile at the 2014 Winter Olympics at SR/Olympics