A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes. There are two main types of torpedo tube: underwater tubes fitted to submarines and some surface ships, deck-mounted units installed aboard surface vessels. Deck-mounted torpedo launchers are designed for a specific type of torpedo, while submarine torpedo tubes are general-purpose launchers, are also capable of deploying mines and cruise missiles. Most modern launchers are standardised on a 12.75-inch diameter for light torpedoes or a 21-inch diameter for heavy torpedoes, although other sizes of torpedo tube have been used: see Torpedo classes and diameters. A submarine torpedo tube is a more complex mechanism than a torpedo tube on a surface ship, because the tube has to accomplish the function of moving the torpedo from the normal atmospheric pressure within the submarine into the sea at the ambient pressure of the water around the submarine, thus a submarine torpedo tube operates on the principle of an airlock. The diagram on the right illustrates the operation of a submarine torpedo tube.
The diagram does show the working of a submarine torpedo launch. A torpedo tube has a considerable number of interlocks for safety reasons. For example, an interlock prevents the breech muzzle door from opening at the same time; the submarine torpedo launch sequence is, in simplified form: Open the breech door in the torpedo room. Load the torpedo into the tube. Hook up the wire-guide connection and the torpedo power cable. Shut and lock the breech door. Turn on power to the torpedo. A minimum amount of time is required for torpedo warmup. Fire control programs are uploaded to the torpedo. Flood the torpedo tube; this may be done manually or automatically, from sea or from tanks, depending on the class of submarine. The tube must be vented during this process to allow for complete filling and eliminate air pockets which could escape to the surface or cause damage when firing. Open the equalizing valve to equalize pressure in the tube with ambient sea pressure. Open the muzzle door. If the tube is set up for Impulse Mode the slide valve will open with the muzzle door.
If Swim Out Mode is selected, the slide valve remains closed. The slide valve allows water from the ejection pump to enter the tube; when the launch command is given and all interlocks are satisfied, the water ram operates, thrusting a large volume of water into the tube at high pressure, which ejects the torpedo from the tube with considerable force. Modern torpedoes have a safety mechanism that prevents activation of the torpedo unless the torpedo senses the required amount of G-force; the power cable is severed at launch. However, if a guidance wire is used, it remains connected through a drum of wire in the tube. Torpedo propulsion systems vary but electric torpedoes swim out of the tube on their own and are of a smaller diameter. 21" weapons with fuel-burning engines start outside the tube. Once outside the tube the torpedo begins its run toward the target as programmed by the fire control system. Attack functions are programmed but with wire guided weapons, certain functions can be controlled from the ship.
For wire-guided torpedoes, the muzzle door must remain open because the guidance wire is still connected to the inside of the breech door to receive commands from the submarine's fire-control system. A wire cutter on the inside of the breech door is activated to release the wire and its protective cable; these are drawn clear of the ship prior to shutting the muzzle door. The drain cycle is a reverse of the flood cycle. Water can be moved as necessary; the tube must be vented to drain the tube since it is by gravity. Open the breech door and remove the remnants of the torpedo power cable and the guidance wire basket; the tube must be wiped dry to prevent a buildup of slime. This process is called "diving the tube" and tradition dictates that "ye who shoots, dives". Shut and lock the breech door. Spare torpedoes are stored behind the tube in racks. Speed is a desirable feature of a torpedo loading system. There are various manual and hydraulic handling systems for loading torpedoes into the tubes. Prior to the Ohio class, US SSBNs utilized manual block and tackle which took about 15 minutes to load a tube.
SSNs prior to the Seawolf class used a hydraulic system, much faster and safer in conditions where the ship needed to maneuver. The German Type 212 submarine uses a new development of the water ram expulsion system, which ejects the torpedo with water pressure to avoid acoustic detection. List of torpedoes by diameter The Fleet Type Submarine Online 21-Inch Submerged Torpedo Tubes United States Navy Restricted Ordnance Pamphlet 1085, June 1944 Torpedo tubes of German U-Boats
Varna is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. Situated strategically in the Gulf of Varna, the city has been a major economic and cultural centre for three millennia. Varna known as Odessos, grew from a Thracian seaside settlement to a major seaport on the Black Sea. Varna is an important centre for business, education, tourism and healthcare; the city is referred to as the maritime capital of Bulgaria and headquarters the Bulgarian Navy and merchant marine. In 2008, Varna was designated seat of the Black Sea Euroregion by the Council of Europe. In 2014, Varna was awarded the title of European Youth Capital 2017; the oldest gold treasure in the world, belonging to the Varna culture, was discovered in the Varna Necropolis and dates to 4200–4600 BC. Theophanes the Confessor first mentioned the name Varna, as the city came to be known, with the Slavic conquest of the Balkans in the 6th to 7th centuries; the name could be of Varangian origin, as Varangians had been crossing the Black Sea for many years, reaching Constantinople in the early Middle Ages.
In Swedish, the meaning of värn is "shield, defense" – hence Varna could mean "defended, fortified place". The name may be older than that. According to Theophanes, in 680 Asparukh, the founder of the First Bulgarian Empire, routed an army of Constantine IV near the Danube delta and, pursuing it, reached "the so-called Varna near Odyssos and the midlands thereof"; the new name applied to an adjacent river or lake, a Roman military camp, or an inland area, only to the city itself. By the late 10th century, the name Varna was established so that when Byzantines wrestled back control of the area from the Bulgarians around 975, they kept it rather than restoring the ancient name Odessos; the latter is said to be of Carian origin, though no modern scholarship supports this. Varna Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Varna. Varna, Illinois, a small town of 400 people, was named in this city's honour; the War of Varna was going on at the time. Varnensky District and its administrative centre in the Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia are named in commemoration of the taking of Varna by the Russian army during the 1828–1829 Russo-Turkish War.
Varna Drive, in Toronto, Canada, is named after Varna. There is a hamlet in southern Ontario named Varna. Prehistoric settlements best known for the Chalcolithic necropolis, a key archaeological site in world prehistory, eponymous Varna culture and internationally considered the world's oldest large find of gold artifacts, existed within modern city limits. In the wider region of the Varna lakes and the adjacent karst springs and caves, over 30 prehistoric settlements have been unearthed with the earliest artefacts dating back to the Middle Paleolithic or 100,000 years ago. Since late Bronze Age the area around Odessos had been populated with Thracians. During 8th–9th c. BC local Thracians had active commercial and cultural contacts with people from Anatolia, Thessaly and the Mediterranean Sea; these links were reflected in some local productions, for example, forms of bronze fibula of the age, either imported or locally made. There is no doubt that interactions occurred by sea and the bay of Odessos is one of the places where the exchanges took place.
Some scholars consider that during the 1st millennium BC, the region was settled by the half-mythical Cimmerians. An example of their accidental, presence, is the tumulus dated 8th–7th c. BC found near Belogradets, Varna Province; the region around Odessos was densely populated with Thracians long before the coming of the Greeks on the west seashore of the Black Sea. Pseudo-Scymnus writes: "... Around the city lives the Thracian tribe named Crobises." This is evidenced by various ceramic pottery, made by hand or by a Potter's wheel, bronze ornaments for horse-fittings and iron weapons, all found in Thracian necropolises dated 6th–4th c. BC near the villages of Dobrina, Kipra and other, all in Varna Province; the Thracians in the region were ruled by kings, who entered into unions with the Odrysian kingdom, Getae or Sapaeans—large Thracian states existing between 5th–1st c. BC. Between 336–280 BC these Thracian states along with Odessos were conquered by Alexander the Great. Archaeological findings have indicated that the population of northeast Thrace was diverse, including the region around Odessos.
During 6th–4th c. BC the region was populated with Scythians who inhabited the central Eurasian Steppe and the area south of river Istros. Characteristic for their culture weapons and bronze objects are found all over the region. Scythian horse ornaments are produced in “animal style”, close to the Thracian style, a possible explanation for the frequent mixture of both folks in northeastern Thrace. Many bronze artefacts give testimony for such process, for example and front plates for horse heads, as well as moulds for such products in nearby and more distanced settlements. Since the 4th c. BC the region had been populated by more Getae, a Thracian tribe populating both shores around the Danube Delta. Celts started populating the re
Imperial German Navy
The Imperial German Navy was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire. It existed between 1871 and 1919, growing out of the small Prussian Navy, which had the mission of coastal defence. Kaiser Wilhelm II expanded the navy, enlarged its mission; the key leader was Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, who expanded the size and quality of the navy, while adopting the sea power theories of American strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan. The result was a naval arms race with Britain as the German navy grew to become one of the greatest maritime forces in the world, second only to the Royal Navy; the German surface navy proved ineffective during World War I. However, the submarine fleet was expanded and posed a major threat to the British supply system; the Imperial Navy's main ships were turned over to the Allies, but were sunk at Scapa Flow in 1919 by German crews. All ships of the Imperial Navy were designated SMS, for Seiner Majestät Schiff; the Imperial Navy achieved some important operational feats.
At the Battle of Coronel, it inflicted the first major defeat on the Royal Navy in over one hundred years, although the German squadron of ships was subsequently defeated at the Battle of the Falkland Islands, only one ship escaping destruction. The Navy emerged from the fleet action of the Battle of Jutland having destroyed more ships than it lost, although the strategic value of both of these encounters was minimal; the Imperial Navy was the first to operate submarines on a large scale in wartime, with 375 submarines commissioned by the end of the First World War, it operated zeppelins. Although it was never able to match the number of ships of the Royal Navy, it had technological advantages, such as better shells and propellant for much of the Great War, meaning that it never lost a ship to a catastrophic magazine explosion from an above-water attack, although the elderly pre-dreadnought SMS Pommern sank at Jutland after a magazine explosion caused by an underwater attack; the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership was the defining point for the creation of the Imperial Navy in 1871.
The newly created emperor, Wilhelm I, as King of Prussia, had been head of state of the strongest state forming part of the new empire. The navy remained the same as that operated by the empire's predecessor organisation in the unification of Germany, the North German Federation, which itself in 1867 had inherited the navy of the Kingdom of Prussia. Article 53 of the new Empire's constitution recognised the existence of the Navy as an independent organisation, but until 1888 it was commanded by army officers and adopted the same regulations as the Prussian army. Supreme command was vested in the emperor, but its first appointed chief was General der Infanterie Albrecht von Stosch. Kiel on the Baltic Sea and Wilhelmshaven on the North Sea served as the Navy's principal naval bases; the former Navy Ministry became the Imperial Admiralty on 1 February 1872, while Stosch became formally an admiral in 1875. The main task of the new Imperial Navy was coastal protection, with France and Russia seen as Germany's most future enemies.
The Imperial Navy's tasks were to prevent any invasion force from landing and to protect coastal towns from possible bombardment. In March 1872 a German Imperial Naval Academy was created at Kiel for training officers, followed in May by the creation of a'Machine Engineer Corps', in February 1873 a'Medical Corps'. In July 1879 a separate'Torpedo Engineer Corps' was created dealing with mines. In May 1872 a ten-year building programme was instituted to modernise the fleet; this called for eight armoured frigates, six armoured corvettes, twenty light corvettes, seven monitors, two floating batteries, six avisos, eighteen gunboats and twenty-eight torpedo boats, at an estimated cost of 220 million gold marks. The building plan had to be approved by the Reichstag, which controlled the allocation of funds, although one-quarter of the money came from French war reparations. In 1883 Stosch was replaced by Count Leo von Caprivi. At this point the navy had seven armoured frigates and four armoured corvettes, 400 officers and 5,000 ratings.
The objectives of coastal defence remained unchanged, but there was a new emphasis on development of the torpedo, which offered the possibility of small ships attacking much larger ones. In October 1887 the first torpedo division was created at Wilhelmshaven and the second torpedo division based at Kiel. In 1887 Caprivi requested the construction of ten armoured frigates. Greater importance was placed at this time on development of the army, expected to be more important in any war. However, the Kiel Canal was commenced in June 1887, which connected the North Sea with the Baltic through the Jutland peninsula, allowing German ships to travel between the two seas avoiding waters controlled by other countries; this shortened the journey for commercial ships, but united the two areas principally of concern to the German navy, at a cost of 150 million marks. The protection of German maritime trade routes became important; this soon involved the setting up of some overseas supply stations, so called Auslandsstationen and in the 1880s the Imperial Navy played a part in helping to secure the establishment of German colonies and protectorates in Africa and Oceania.
In June 1888 Wilhelm II became Emperor after the death of his father Frederick III, who ruled for only 99 days. He started his reign with the intention of d
The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull, with the thickness of the hull included. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a boat can safely navigate; the draft can be used to determine the weight of the cargo on board by calculating the total displacement of water and using Archimedes' principle. A table made by the shipyard shows the water displacement for each draft; the density of the water and the content of the ship's bunkers has to be taken into account. The related term "trim" is defined as the difference between the forward and aft drafts; the draft aft is measured in the perpendicular of the stern. The draft forward is measured in the perpendicular of the bow; the mean draft is obtained by calculating from the averaging of the stern and bow drafts, with correction for water level variation and value of the position of F with respect to the average perpendicular. The trim of a ship is the difference between the aft draft.
When the aft draft is greater the vessel is deemed to have a negative trim, it has a positive trim when the forward draft is the greater. In such a case it is referred to as being down-by-the-head. In commercial ship operations, the ship will quote the mean draft as the vessel's draft; however in navigational situations, the maximum draft the aft draft, will be known on the bridge and will be shared with the pilot. The draft of a ship can be affected by multiple factors, not considering the rise and fall of the ship by displacement: Variation by trim Variation by list Variation by water level change Allowance of fresh water draft variation by passage from fresh to sea water or vice versa Heat variation in navigating shallow waters Variation as a result of a ship moving in shallow waters, or squat The drafts are measured with a "banded" scale, from bow and to stern, for some ships, the average perpendicular measurement is used; the scale may use metric units. If the English system is used, the bottom of each marking is the draft in feet and markings are 6 inches high.
In metric marking schemes, the bottom of each draft mark is the draft in decimeters and each mark is one decimeter high. Larger ships try to maintain an average water draft when they are light, in order to make a better sea crossing and reduce the effects of the wind. In order to achieve this they use sailing ballasts to stabilize the ship, following the unloading of cargo; the water draft of a large ship has little direct link with its stability because stability depends on the respective positions of the metacenter of the hull and the center of gravity. It is true, that a "light" ship has quite high stability which can lead to implying too much rolling of the ship. A laden ship can have either a strong or weak stability, depending upon the manner by which the ship is loaded; the draft of ships can be increased when the ship is in motion in shallow water, a phenomenon known as squat. Draft is a significant factor limiting navigable waterways for large vessels; this includes many shallow coastal waters and reefs, but some major shipping lanes.
Panamax class ships—the largest ships able to transit the Panama Canal—do have a draft limit but are limited by beam, or sometimes length overall, for fitting into locks. However, ships can be longer and higher in the Suez Canal, the limiting factor for Suezmax ships is draft; some supertankers are able to transit the Suez Canal when unladen or laden, but not when laden. Canals are not the only draft-limited shipping lanes. A Malaccamax ship, is the deepest draft able to transit the busy but shallow Strait of Malacca; the Strait only allows ships to have.4 m more draft than the Suez Canal. Capesize, Ultra Large Crude Carriers and a few Chinamax carriers, are some of the ships that have too deep a draft when laden, for either the Strait of Malacca or the Suez Canal. A small draft allows pleasure boats to navigate through shallower water; this makes it possible for these boats to access smaller ports, to travel along rivers and to'beach' the boat. A large draft ensures a good level of stability in strong wind.
For example: Ballasts placed low in the keel of a boat such as a dragon boat with a draft of 1.20 m for a length of 8.90 m. A boat like a catamaran can mitigate the problem by retrieving good stability in a small draft, but the width of the boat increases. For submarines, which can submerge to different depths at sea, a term called keel depth is used, specifying the current distance from the water surface to the bottom of the submarine's keel, it is used in navigation to avoid underwater obstacles and hitting the ocean floor, as a standard point on the submarine for depth measurements. Submarines also have a specified draft used while operating on the surface, for navigating in harbors and at docks. Air draft Hull Naval architecture Waterline Hayler, William B.. American Merchant Seaman's Manual. Cornell Maritime Prress. ISBN 0-87033-549-9. Turpin, Edward A.. Merchant Marine Officers' Handbook. Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-056-X
Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service, may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most applied to the placing of a warship in active duty with its country's military forces; the ceremonies involved are rooted in centuries old naval tradition. Ship naming and launching endow a ship hull with her identity, but many milestones remain before she is completed and considered ready to be designated a commissioned ship; the engineering plant and electronic systems and multitudinous other equipment required to transform the new hull into an operating and habitable warship are installed and tested. The prospective commanding officer, ship's officers, the petty officers, seamen who will form the crew report for training and intensive familiarization with their new ship. Prior to commissioning, the new ship undergoes sea trials to identify any deficiencies needing correction; the preparation and readiness time between christening-launching and commissioning may be as much as three years for a nuclear powered aircraft carrier to as brief as twenty days for a World War II landing ship.
USS Monitor, of American Civil War fame, was commissioned less than three weeks after launch. Regardless of the type of ship in question, a vessel's journey towards commissioning in its nation's navy begins with a process known as sea trials. Sea trials take place some years after a vessel was laid down, mark the interim step between the completion of a ship's construction and its official acceptance for service with its nation's navy. Sea trials begin when the ship in question is floated out of its dry dock, at which time the initial crew for a ship will assume command of the vessel in question; the ship is sailed in littoral waters for the purpose of testing the design and other ship specific systems to ensure that they work properly and can handle the equipment that they will be using in the coming years. Tests done during this phase can include launching missiles from missile magazines, firing the ship's gun, conducting basic flight tests with rotary and fixed-wing aircraft that will be assigned to the ship in the future, various tests of the electronic and propulsion equipment.
During this phase of testing problems arise relating to the state of the equipment on the ship in question, which can result in the ship returning to the builder's shipyard to address the concerns in question. In addition to problems with a ship's arms and equipment, the sea trial phase a ship undergoes prior to commissioning can identify issues with the ship's design that may need to be addressed before it can be accepted into service with its nation's navy. During her sea trials in 1999 French Naval officials determined that the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle was too short to safely operate the E2C Hawkeye, resulting in her return to the builder's shipyard for enlargement. After a ship has cleared its sea trial period, it will be accepted into service with its nation's navy. At this point, the ship in question will undergo a process of degaussing and/or deperming, which will vastly reduce the ship in question's magnetic signature. Once a ship's sea trials are completed plans for the actual commissioning ceremony will take shape.
Depending on the naval traditions of the nation in question, the commissioning ceremony may be an elaborately planned event with guests, the ship's future crew, other persons of interest in attendance, or the nation in question may forgo a ceremony and instead administratively place the ship in commission. At a minimum, on the day on which the ship in question is to be commissioned the crew will report for duty aboard the ship and the commanding officer will read through the orders given for the ship and its personnel. If the ship's ceremony is a public affair the Captain may make a speech to the audience, along with other VIPs as the ceremony dictates. Religious ceremonies, such as blessing the ship or the singing of traditional hymns or songs, may occur. Once a ship has been commissioned its final step toward becoming an active unit of the navy it now serves is to report to its home port and load or accept any remaining equipment. To decommission a ship is to terminate its career in service in the armed forces of a nation.
Unlike wartime ship losses, in which a vessel lost to enemy action is said to be struck, decommissioning confers that the ship has reached the end of its usable life and is being retired from a given country's navy. Depending on the naval traditions of the country in question, a ceremony commemorating the decommissioning of the ship in question may take place, or the vessel may be removed administratively with little to no fanfare; the term "paid off" is alternatively used in British Commonwealth contexts, originating in the age-of-sail practice of ending an officer's commission and paying crew wages once the ship completed its voyage. Ship decommissioning occurs some years after the ship was commissioned and is intended to serve as a means by which a vessel that has become too old or too obsolete can be retired with honor from the operating country's armed force. Decommissioning of the vessel may occur due to treaty agreements or for safety reasons (such as a ship's nuclear reactor and assoc
German submarine U-45
U-45 may refer to one of the following German submarines: SM U-45, was a Type U 43 submarine launched in 1915 and that served in the First World War until sunk on 12 September 1917 During the First World War, Germany had these submarines with similar names: SM UB-45, a Type UB II submarine launched in 1916 and sunk on 6 November 1916 SM UC-45, a Type UC II submarine launched in 1916 and sunk on 17 September 1917.
SM UB-47 was a Type UB II submarine or U-boat for the German Imperial Navy during World War I. UB-47 was sold to the Austro-Hungarian Navy during the war. In Austro-Hungarian service the B was dropped from her name and she was known as SM U-47 or U-XLVII as a member of the Austro-Hungarian U-43 class. UB-47 was laid down at the AG Weser shipyard in Bremen in September. UB-47 was a little more than 121 feet in length and displaced between 270 and 305 tonnes, depending on whether surfaced or submerged, she was equipped to carry a complement of four torpedoes for her two bow torpedo tubes and had an 8.8-centimeter deck gun. As part of a group of six submarines selected for Mediterranean service, UB-47 was broken into railcar sized components and shipped to Pola where she was assembled and launched in June 1916, commissioned in July. Over the next year the U-boat sank twenty ships, which included the French battleship Gaulois and two Cunard Line steamers in use as troopships and Ivernia; the German Imperial Navy was having difficulties in finding trained submarine crews and offered to sell UB-47 and a sister boat UB-43 to the Austro-Hungarian Navy.
After the terms were agreed to in June 1917, both boats were handed over at Pola. When commissioned into the Austro-Hungarian Navy, the B in her designation was dropped so that she became U-47 or U-XLVII, she sank an additional three ships in Austro-Hungarian service through the end of the war. U-47 was broken at Bizerta that same year; the German UB II design improved upon the design of the UB I boats, ordered in September 1914. In service, the UB I boats were found to be too slow. A major problem was that, because they had a single propeller shaft/engine combo, if either component failed, the U-boat became totally disabled. To rectify this flaw, the UB II boats featured twin propeller shafts and twin engines, which increased the U-boat's top speed; the new design included more powerful batteries, larger torpedo tubes, a deck gun. As a UB II boat, U-47 could carry twice the torpedo load of her UB I counterparts, nearly ten times as much fuel. To contain all of these changes the hull was larger, the surface and submerged displacement was more than double that of the UB I boats.
The Imperial German Navy ordered UB-47 from AG Weser on 31 July 1915 as the final boat of a series of six UB II boats, the last UB II submarine numerically. UB-47 was 36.90 metres long and 4.37 metres abeam. She had a draught of 3.68 metres when surfaced. She displaced 305 tonnes while submerged but only 272 tonnes on the surface; the submarine was equipped with twin Daimler diesel engines and twin Siemens-Schuckart electric motors—for surfaced and submerged running, respectively. UB-47 could go as fast as 6.22 knots while underwater. The U-boat could carry up to 27 tonnes of diesel fuel, giving her a range of 6,940 nautical miles at 5 knots, her electric motors and batteries provided a range of 45 nautical miles at 4 knots. UB-47 could carry four torpedoes; the U-boat was armed with one 8.8 cm Uk L/30 deck gun. UB-47 was laid down by AG Weser at its Bremen shipyard on 4 September 1915; as one of six U-boats selected for service in the Mediterranean while under construction, UB-47 was broken into railcar-sized components and shipped overland to the Austro-Hungarian port of Pola.
Shipyard workers from Weser assembled the boat and her five sisters at Pola, where she was launched on 17 June. SM UB-47 was commissioned into the German Imperial Navy on 4 July 1916 under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Wolfgang Steinbauer. UB-47, Steinbauer's first U-boat command, was assigned to the Navy's Pola Flotilla in which she remained throughout her German career. Although the flotilla was based in Pola, the site of the main Austro-Hungarian Navy base, boats of the flotilla operated out of the Austro-Hungarian base at Cattaro, located farther south and closer to the Mediterranean. German U-boats returned to Pola only for repairs. On 17 August, Steinbauer and UB-47 achieved their first success when they sank the Italian steamer Stampalia south of Cape Matapan. Although Italy and Germany would not formally be at war for another ten days, German U-boats in the Mediterranean attacked Italian vessels by posing as Austro-Hungarian submarines and flying the ensign of that country's navy.
Stampalia was an ocean liner of 9,000 gross register tons, in passenger service between New York and Genoa, had been one of the first Italian merchant vessels to be armed against submarine attacks. At the time of her sinking, she was in the service of the Italian government but was not carrying any passengers. Three weeks Steinbauer and UB-47 scored a triple kill, sinking three ships on the same day; the British steamer Butetown, en route from Malta to Mudro, was carrying coal and other cargo when she was sent down 55 nautical miles west-southwest of Cape Matapan on 8 September. UB-47 attacked Llangorse, another British steamer, 7 nautical miles away, sending the ship and her cargo of