Ateliers de Construction du Nord de la France was a French locomotive manufacturer, based at Crespin in the Arrondissement of Valenciennes, northern France. Known as ANF Industrie or ANF the company was acquired by Bombardier Transportation in 1989 and is now part of Bombardier Transport France S. A. S. Les Ateliers de Construction du Nord de la France was founded in 1882 as a subsidiary of Franco-Belgian company La Métallurgique; the company was established to avoid import tariffs imposed in 1881 in France on goods imported from Belgium. In 1908 the company merged with and absorbed Société Nicaise et Delcuve, was renamed Ateliers du Nord de la France et Nicaise et Delcuve by 1910. In 1913 the Trust Métallurgique Belge-Français reorganised. During World War One the factory was occupied by the Germans, its material removed to Germany. Post war the factory was rebuilt and its machinery recovered. By 1928 production had employed around 4000 people; the Great Depression caused a reduction in the workforce to half previous, a similar decrease in production.
In 1934 the company acquired part of the shares of Sambre et Meuse, which became an important manufacturer of cast steel parts for rolling stock. During the Second World War the main ANF plant at Blanc-Misseron produced orders for military use, was occupied by the German forces; the plant was a target of Allied bombing in 1944 due to its use in keeping the rail network in occupied territory running. In 1970 ANF Industrie produced a high-speed gas turbine train, it saw limited success due to the oil crisis of the late 1970s, was overshadowed by the TGV. Between 1986 and 1988, the 425 R68 New York City Subway Cars were manufactured by Westinghouse Amrail Company, a joint venture of Westinghouse and Francorail, with ANF Industrie as leader. In 1987 the Francorail industrial association ended, due to the transfer of Schneider group's railway activities to Alsthom. In November 2001 after the acquisition of Adtranz, Bombardier indicated that the plant would be one of three main sites in Europe for bogie manufacture, a core site for final assembly.
Bombardier has made the plant one of its key production sites with over 2000 employees, claims an investment of over €500 million. The site accounts for around one third of French domestic passenger rail production. La Brugeoise et Nivelles, Belgian rolling stock manufacturer, now part of Bombardier Transportation Société Franco-Belge, rolling stock manufacture, now part of Alstom with factory located at Raismes, France d'Ambrières, René, "Les Pelabon: entre industrie et patriotisme, ou des ANF aux Mureaux en passant par Londres", Bulletin de la Sabix, 48
SNCF Class X 73500
The X73500 is a Diesel Multiple Unit train type operated by the SNCF in France. They were built from 1999 to 2004 by Alsthom DDF; the trains are single railcars. The units were ordered joint with their Class 641 units; the trains have modern features which were new to TER trains, such as: PIS inside and out of the train Low floor section with wide doors, for those with poor mobility Air conditioning Stronger cab area for reduced crash damageThe trains can work in multiple of up to 3 sets. X73813 - X7318 are former CFL units 2101 - 2106 and operate in the Alsace region. SNCF Class X 73900 is an identical version of the X 73500, but can operate into Germany. TER livery - metallic grey with blue ends and TER logos. Most X 73500 carry this. TER Bourgogne livery - metallic grey with red and yellow ends TER Languedoc-Roussillon - metallic grey with red, yellow sun rays. X 73744 and X 73751 wear a special livery for the Andelot-en-Montagne - La Cluse railway X 73752 - X 73755 have been fitted with Integra-Signum and are used on the Besançon - Le Locle - La Chaux-de-Fonds service.
X 73809 with Poitou-Charentes region has been fitted with solar panels to its roof to power the electrical components of the train The units are used on rural, unelectrified railway lines in France and are operated by all TER regions except Île-de-France and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. They operate the following services: Bourges - Nevers Chartres - Courtallain — Saint-Pellerin Reims - Tergnier Saint-Etienne - Le Puy Saint-Marcellin - Grenoble - Chambéry Grenoble - Chambéry - Bellegarde - Genève Grenoble - Veynes - Gap Grenoble - Clelles Toulouse - Auch Toulouse - Figeac - Aurillac Aurillac - Brive-la-Gaillarde Rodez - Figeac - Brive-la-Gaillarde Le Havre - Rolleville Nantes - Vertou Sarreguemines - Sarre-Union Strasbourg - Wissembourg Strasbourg - Lauterbourg Strasbourg - Saverne Colmar - Munster - Metzeral Tours - Chinon Besançon - La Chaux-de-Fonds Dole - Morez - Saint Claude Montbéliard - Belfort - Lure - Vesoul Beauvais - Le Tréport-Mers Clermont-Ferrand - Gannat - Lapeyrouse - Commentary - Montluçon Montluçon - Saint-Amand-Montrond - Bourges Bressuire - Thouars - Saumur - Tours Mulhouse - Thann - Kruth Lison - Saint-Lô - Coutances Granville - Argentan Limoges - Ussel Marvejols - La Bastide-Saint-Laurent-les-Bains Monsempron-Libos - Penne-d'Agenais - Agen Étang-sur-Arroux - Autun - Avallon - Auxerre - Laroche-Migennes Corbigny - Clamecy - Auxerre - Laroche-Migennes Brest - Châteaulin - Quimper Brest - Le Relecq-Kerhuon - Landerneau Brest - Landerneau - Morlaix Brest - Landerneau - Landivisiau Quimper - Lorient Roscoff - Morlaix Nantes - Sainte-Pazanne - Saint-Gilles-Croix-de-Vie Nantes - Sainte Pazanne - Pornic Nantes - Vertou Saint-Brieuc - Dinan Dol de Bretagne - Dinan Plouaret - Lannion Le Mans - Alençon Nevers - Cosne sur Loire Lyon - Tassin - Lozanne / Brignais / Sain-Bel Lisieux - Pont-l'Eveque - Trouville-Deauville Dijon - Moulins Alès - Bessèges La Rochelle - Rochefort Pau - Oloron Carcassonne - Limoux - QuillanThis list does not include all services.
TER Alsace - Strasbourg - 24 Railcars TER Aquitaine - Limoges - 15 Railcars TER Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand - 35 Railcars TER Basse-Normandie - Caen - 11 Railcars TER Bourgogne - Nevers - 10 Railcars TER Bretagne - Rennes - 15 Railcars TER Centre - Tours - 15 Railcars TER Champagne-Ardenne - Epernay - 20 Railcars TER Franche-Comté - Dijon - 20 Railcars TER Haute-Normandie - Sotteville-les-Rouen - 11 Railcars TER Languedoc-Roussillon - Toulouse - 9 Railcars TER Limousin - Limoges - 15 Railcars TER Lorraine - Metz - 6 Railcars TER Midi-Pyrénées - Toulouse - 28 Railcars TER Nord-Pas-de-Calais - Lille - 10 Railcars TER Pays de la Loire - Nantes - 17 Railcars TER Picardie - Longueau - 12 Railcars TER Poitou-Charentes - Limoges - 8 Railcars TER Rhône-Alpes - Lyon - 50 Railcars Alstom Coradia LINT Media related to SNCF Class X 73500 at Wikimedia Commons
SNCF Class Z 5300
SNCF Class Z 5300 are three and four car Electric Multiple Unit type for Paris commuter and regional services. They were built by Carel et Fouche, MTE/Francorail, Fives-Lille and OC Oerlikon between 1965-1968 and 1972-1975. Many of these trains have been withdrawn starting from 2003; these stainless steel-bodied EMUs were built as 4-car units including a driving motor car, two intermediate trailers and a driving trailer. However, some units were shortened to three or two cars by removing one or both of the intermediate trailers. Up to three elements can be coupled together to form a 12-car trainset; the power supply is 1500 V DC with electromechanical traction equipment. As the use of stainless steel eliminates the need for painting, the units are silvery, with only an orange stripe between the headlights, they are therefore nicknamed petit gris, couscoussière, "silver arrow" or "tin can". However, as some units were modified, the doors were painted red, light blue or dark blue according to the services they were intended for.
Since 2011, only red-doored units subsist. As of 2015, Z 5300s are operating on two commuter services in the south-east of Paris: Melun-Juvisy, Melun-Montereau through Héricy; this class has been replaced by more recent stock. Such services include: Paris-Lyon-Montereau, Paris-Lyon-Montargis, Paris-Montparnasse-Rambouillet, Paris-Montparnasse-Plaisir-Grignon, Commuter services on the southern part of RER C, Paris-Montparnasse-Chartres, Paris-Montparnasse-Le Mans, Paris-Austerlitz-Orleans, Shuttle services between Orleans and Les Aubrais with 3-car elements, Shuttle services between Tours and Saint Pierre des Corps on the same principle. Haydock, David. European Handbook No. 4 French Railways Locomotives & Multiple Units, Third Edition, Sheffield, UK: Platform 5 Publishing Ltd.. ISBN 1-872524-87-7
SNCF Class T 2000
SNCF Class T 2000 trainsets known under their French acronym RTG, were the second generation of turbine-powered trains in France and saw commercial service from 1972 to 2004. Building on the successful experience of the earlier TGS and the ETG turbotrains, French state railway company SNCF commissioned the T 2000 for entry into service in the early 1970s; the objective was to offer the same service speed as electric traction on French trunk lines that had yet to be electrified. The first trains were put into service in late 1972 on the Lyon-Strasbourg and Nantes-Bordeaux routes, two key trunk lines that were not electrified at the time. Though the trainsets were rated for 160 km/h, they only could achieve this speed on short sections due to the ancient design of the lines that restricted speed to 120 km/h on many segments; as the capacity of the smaller T1000s serving the Western line from Paris-Saint-Lazare to Caen and Cherbourg was proving less and less adequate, the next batch of T 2000s was affected to this line whose straighter profile allowed them at last to demonstrate superb performance and reliability.
In addition to the SNCF units, ANF built 6 similar Turboliners for Amtrak. The 1973 oil crisis and France's decision to invest in nuclear power caused SNCF to redirect its focus towards electric traction and put a stop to new orders of T 2000s, ending production at thirteen sets. By the late 1970s T 2000 service on the Nantes-Bordeaux line stopped and T 2000s were reallocated to the Lyon-Nantes route, an unelectrified trunk line with severe gradients where turbine traction could once again demonstrate its potential. With the electrification of the Lyon-Strasbourg and Paris-Caen-Cherbourg routes and the switch to regular Diesel Electric locomotive hauled traction on the Lyon-Nantes route, the future of the T 2000 became bleak in the 1990s, it remained unrivaled on the Lyon-Bordeaux route, where four reversals are required and the T 2000's double-ended cabs avoided the considerable time involved to switch the locomotive from one end of the train to the other. As trainsets neared the end of their life span, the fleet was reduced down to ten sets and was equipped with train-to-ground radio.
Hybrid trains were formed with engines from different sets to lengthen their lifespan, the dwindling fleet was retired at the end of 2004. With Diesel locomotives less able to maintain speed on the line's steep gradients and requiring four reversals, the direct journey from Lyon to Bordeaux has since been lengthened from 7 hours 30 minutes to 9 hours. T 2000s were equipped with two 775 kW Turbomeca Turmo III turbines which drove Voith Hydraulic Transmissions at each end and two auxiliary 300 kW Turbomeca Astazou turbines to power air conditioning and lighting, they were aesthetically similar to the T 1000s, sharing in particular the same driving cabin, yet were built on a longer chassis and featured five passenger cars instead of the T 1000's three. The paint scheme was different and resembled a reversal of the T 1000's; each turboengine was equipped with a 3500-litre diesel tank for use on long routes, with a consumption of 430 litres per hour for traction and 150 litres per hour for passenger comfort.
Electropneumatic braking was performed by cast-iron shoe-and-disc brakes, with electromagnetic track brakes under each bogie for emergency braking. The second oil crisis, in 1979, prompted the refitting of T 2000s with more fuel-efficient Turmo XII turbines which offered a power increase from 775 to 1,150 kW. Unlike T 1000s, the T 2000s' control equipment was modified so that a coupled set could be operated by a single engineer. One power car, number T 2057, has been preserved at the French National Railway Museum
Alstom SA is a French multinational company operating worldwide in rail transport markets, active in the fields of passenger transportation and locomotives, with products including the AGV, TGV, Pendolino high-speed trains, in addition to suburban and metro trains, Citadis trams. Alstom was formed from a merger between Compagnie Française Thomson Houston and the Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques in 1928. A merger with parts of the General Electric Company plc formed GEC Alsthom in 1989. In 2004, Alstom was in financial crisis due to massive inherited unexpected costs arising from a design flaw inherited from the acquisition of ABB Group's turbine business, in addition to losses in other areas of the business; the company required a €3.2 billion state-backed bailout in 2003 – and as a result was required to sell several divisions including shipbuilding and electrical transmission to Nikhanj Power, in order to comply with EU rules on state aid. In 2014, Alstom and General Electric announced that a US$17 billion bid for the company's power and grid divisions had been made and provisionally accepted.
After modification of the deal following political controversy in France relating to the take over by a foreign company of a strategic player in heavy industry, GE's bid was modified. The GE acquisition deal for the power and grid division was accepted by EU and US anticompetition authorities in mid 2015, subject to the sale of Alstom's heavy gas turbine business; the acquisition was finalised on 2 November 2015, with GE acquiring Alstom's power generation and electricity transmission business leaving the Alstom company operating in the rail transport market. In 2017, Alstom announced a proposed merger with Siemens Mobility of Germany, to be completed in 2018, at which point the company would be called Siemens Alstom; the European Commission has expressed its concern about the two companies being too dominant in Europe after their merger, there have been popular protests concerning international-financial reforms to French territorial railway infrastructure and SNCF. Objections to the merger include possible increases in passenger fares and cargo fees.
Alsthom was founded in 1928 from the merger of French heavy engineering interests of the Thomson-Houston Electric Company – the Compagnie française pour l'exploitation des procédés Thomson Houston and Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques, with the first factory in Belfort. In 1932, Alsthom expanded into transportation by acquiring Constructions Electriques de France, Tarbes, a manufacturer of electric locomotives as well as electrical and hydraulic equipment. In 1969, Compagnie Générale d'Electricité became the majority shareholder of Alsthom. In 1976, Alsthom merged with Chantiers de l'Atlantique. Thus, the business expanded into marine; the next year, it constructed the first 1300 MW generator set for the Paluel power station, setting a world record with an output of 1500 MW. In 1978, Alsthom delivered its first TGV to SNCF; the TGV went on to break world rail speed records in 1981 and in 1990. It set the world endurance record for high-speed train lines in 2001, travelling the 1,067.2 kilometres from Calais to Marseille in 3 hours and 29 minutes.
In 1986, Alsthom Belfort received an order from EDF for the largest gas turbine in the world. In 1988–89, holding company CGEE Alsthom acquired ACEC Energie and ACEC Automatisme from the dissolution of Belgian electrical engineering company ACEC SA. Alsthom acquired 100 % of ACEC's transport division. In 1989 GEC Alsthom was formed from a 50–50 merger of the power and transport activities of Compagnie Générale d'Electricité subsidiary Alstom and the Powers System Division of the British General Electric Company plc, with the intent to allow Alsthom to export outside France. In May 1989 the rail vehicle manufacturer Metro-Cammell was acquired. In 1994 GEC Alsthom acquired the rail vehicle manufacturer Linke-Hofmann-Busch from Salzgitter AG. In 1995, the company acquired the remaining shares in the steam turbine manufacturer MAN Energie. In early 1998, GEC Alsthom acquired the electrical contractor Cegelec, renaming it Alstom Power Conversion. In 1998 GEC-Alsthom bought Italian firm SASIB SpA's rail signalling subsidiary Sasib Railways, which included the former General Railway Signal.
In June 1998 GEC Alsthom was listed on the Paris Stock Exchange. In 1999 Alstom's energy division merged with ABB in a 50–50 joint company known as ABB Alstom Power. Alstom bought Canada's Télécité, a passenger information and security solutions company, sold its heavy-duty gas turbine business to General Electric; the next year, it bought out ABB's share in ABB Alstom Power. In 2000 Alstom sold its diesel engine businesses to MAN Group, it acquired a 51% stake in Fiat Ferroviaria, the Italian rail manufacturer and world leader in tilting technology. In April 2003, Alstom sold its industrial turbine business to Siemens for €1.1 billi
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Île-de-France called the région parisienne, contains the city of Paris, is the most populous of the 18 regions of France. It covers 12,012 square kilometres, or two percent of the national territory, has official estimated population of 12,213,364 as of January 1, 2019, or 18.2% of the population of France. The region accounts for nearly 30 percent of the French Gross Domestic Product; the region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines. It was created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961 renamed in 1976 after the historic province of Île-de-France, when its status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Residents are sometimes referred to an administrative word created in the 1980s; the GDP of the region in 2016 was €681 billion. It has the highest per-capita GDP among regions in France and the third-highest of regions in the European Union. In 2018 all of the twenty-eight French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 had their headquarters in the Paris region.
Besides the landmarks of Paris, the region has many important historic sites, including the Palace of Versailles and the Palace of Fontainebleau, as well as the most-visited tourist attraction in France, Disneyland Paris. Although the modern name Île-de-France means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear; the "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise and Seine, or it may have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, where the French royal palace and cathedral were located. The Île-de-France was inhabited by the Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris's Left Bank, it became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris. In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks, was elected King of the Franks. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris became the largest and most prosperous city in France; the Kings of France enjoyed getting away from Paris and hunting in the game-filled forests of the region. They built palatial hunting lodges, most notably Palace of Fontainebleau and the Palace of Versailles. From the time of Louis XIV until the French Revolution, Versailles was the official residence of the Kings and the seat of the French government; the Ile-de-France became the term used for the territory of Paris and the surrounding province, administered directly by the King.
During the French Revolution, the royal provinces were abolished and divided into departments, the city and region were governed directly by the national government. In the period after World War II, as Paris faced a major housing shortage, hundreds of massive apartment blocks for low-income residents were built around the edges of Paris. In the 1950s and the 1960s, Many thousands of immigrants settled in the communes bordering the city. In 1959, under President Charles De Gaulle, a new region was created out of six departments, which corresponded with the historic region, with the name District de la région de Paris. On 6 May 1976, as part of the process of regionalisation, the district was reconstituted and increased administrative and political powers and renamed the Île-de-France region. Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2. It is composed of eight départements centered on Paris. Around the département of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments known as the petite couronne, extends into a second outer ring of four départements known as the grande couronne.
The former département of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne. The petite couronne consists of the départements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, the grande couronne of those of Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines and Val-d'Oise. Politically, the region is divided into 8 départements, 25 arrondissements, 155 cantons and 1 276 communes, out of the total of 35 416 in metropolitan France, The outer parts of the Ile-de-France remain rural. Agriculture land and natu