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SN 1987A

SN 1987A was a type II supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy satellite of the Milky Way. It occurred 51.4 kiloparsecs from Earth and was the closest observed supernova since Kepler's Supernova. 1987A's light reached Earth on February 23, 1987, as the earliest supernova discovered that year, was labeled "1987A". Its brightness peaked in May, with an apparent magnitude of about 3, it was the first supernova that modern astronomers were able to study in great detail, its observations have provided much insight into core-collapse supernovae. SN 1987A provided the first opportunity to confirm by direct observation the radioactive source of the energy for visible light emissions, by detecting predicted gamma-ray line radiation from two of its abundant radioactive nuclei; this proved the radioactive nature of the long-duration post-explosion glow of supernovae. For over thirty years, the expected collapsed neutron star could not be found, but in 2019 it was announced found using the ALMA telescope.

SN 1987A was discovered independently by Ian Shelton and Oscar Duhalde at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile on February 24, 1987, within the same 24 hours by Albert Jones in New Zealand. Investigations found photographs showing the supernova brightening early on February 23rd. On March 4–12, 1987, it was observed from space by Astron, the largest ultraviolet space telescope of that time. Four days after the event was recorded, the progenitor star was tentatively identified as Sanduleak −69 202, a blue supergiant. After the supernova faded, that identification was definitively confirmed by Sk −69 202 having disappeared; this was an unexpected identification, because models of high mass stellar evolution at the time did not predict that blue supergiants are susceptible to a supernova event. Some models of the progenitor attributed the color to its chemical composition rather than its evolutionary state the low levels of heavy elements, among other factors. There was some speculation that the star might have merged with a companion star before the supernova.

However, it is now understood that blue supergiants are natural progenitors of some supernovae, although there is still speculation that the evolution of such stars could require mass loss involving a binary companion. Two to three hours before the visible light from SN 1987A reached Earth, a burst of neutrinos was observed at three neutrino observatories; this was due to neutrino emission, which occurs with core collapse, but before visible light was emitted. Visible light is transmitted. At 07:35 UT, Kamiokande II detected 12 antineutrinos. Three hours earlier, the Mont Blanc liquid scintillator detected a five-neutrino burst, but this is not believed to be associated with SN 1987A; the Kamiokande II detection, which at 12 neutrinos had the largest sample population, showed the neutrinos arriving in two distinct pulses. The first pulse started at 07:35:35 and comprised 9 neutrinos, all of which arrived over a period of 1.915 seconds. A second pulse of three neutrinos arrived between 9.219 and 12.439 seconds after the first neutrino was detected, for a pulse duration of 3.220 seconds.

Although only 25 neutrinos were detected during the event, it was a significant increase from the observed background level. This was the first time neutrinos known to be emitted from a supernova had been observed directly, which marked the beginning of neutrino astronomy; the observations were consistent with theoretical supernova models in which 99% of the energy of the collapse is radiated away in the form of neutrinos. The observations are consistent with the models' estimates of a total neutrino count of 1058 with a total energy of 1046 joules, i.e. a mean value of some dozens of MeV per neutrino. The neutrino measurements allowed upper bounds on neutrino mass and charge, as well as the number of flavors of neutrinos and other properties. For example, the data show that within 5% confidence, the rest mass of the electron neutrino is at most 16 eV/c2, 1/30,000 the mass of an electron; the data suggest that the total number of neutrino flavors is at most 8 but other observations and experiments give tighter estimates.

Many of these results have since been confirmed or tightened by other neutrino experiments such as more careful analysis of solar neutrinos and atmospheric neutrinos as well as experiments with artificial neutrino sources. SN 1987A appears to be a core-collapse supernova, which should result in a neutron star given the size of the original star; the neutrino data indicate. Since the supernova first became visible, astronomers have been searching for the collapsed core; the Hubble Space Telescope has taken images of the supernova since August 1990 without a clear detection of a neutron star. A number of possibilities for the "missing" neutron star are being considered; the first is. Another is that a pulsar was formed, but with either an unusually small magnetic field, it is possible that large amounts of material fell back on the neutron star, so that it further collapsed into a black hole. Neutron stars and black holes give off light as material falls onto them. If there is a compact object in the supernova remnant, but no material to fall onto it, it would be dim and could therefore avoid detection.

Other scenarios have been considered, such as whether the collapsed core became a quark star. In 2019, evidence was presented that a neutron star wa

Politics and Vision

Politics and Vision: Continuity and Innovation in Western Political Thought is a work of political theory by Princeton Emeritus Professor Sheldon S. Wolin. Part One, consisting of ten chapters and first published in 1960, distinguishes political philosophy from philosophy in general and traces political philosophy from its Platonic origins to modern day. Part Two, consisting of seven chapters and published in a 2004 expanded edition, traces the development of political thought from Marx and others up to the late 20th century. Wolin left Part One unaltered in the expanded edition, confining the expressions of his changes in thought about political theory to those sections of Part Two that overlap with Part One. One sign of the significance of the work is the large number of graduate students and professors who for three decades used it as a primary source of guidance in the field of political theory. In revising the work, Wolin cites three major changes in political theory and politics between 1960 and 2004: the aftermath of Fascism's fall in Europe and Communism's fall with an intervening constant "semi-mobilization" by liberal democracies, an increase in the rights of citizens against the tendencies of regimentation by the state, an increase in the ability of nations to "control, survey and influence citizens."

Wolin states that the first change necessitated the latter two changes, leading to an "inverted totalitarianism" where increased rights exist alongside a less participatory citizenry under more pervasive governmental control. Wolin states that an inquiry is a tool to find truths. Philosophy is distinguished from other forms of inquiry in that "philosophy claims to deal with truths publicly arrived at and publicly demonstrable." Contrasted with this are revealed truths dealing with sacred rites and private findings of conscience or feelings. Political philosophy hews close to this characteristic of philosophy as a whole, with the public at times in history demanding that laws be publicly demonstrated and accessible if their origin was revealed truth. For Wolin, it is the nature of politics that common concerns are brought before the political process, because the political is best equipped both to confront those concerns and to do so in a public and thus philosophical manner; the discernment of what within philosophy is political and what is not is confused by two factors: the line can be blurred due to the interaction of political factors with other influences and the language used to describe political ideas is used in other contexts, vocabulary from other areas is applied to the political.

Wolin, Sheldon. Politics and vision: continuity and innovation in Western political thought. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. P. xvi. ISBN 9780691119779

Sahim Omar Kalifa

Sahim Omar Kalifa is a Belgian-Kurdish filmmaker based in Belgium. In 2001, he came to Belgium, in 2008 he got his Master's degree in filmmaking at Sint-Lukas Film School, Brussels. With his short film Nan, Kalifa won the Best Flemish Student Film at the Leuven International Short Film Festival. Kalifa has won more than 100 international awards for his short films Land of the Heroes, Baghdad Messi, Bad Hunter; the biggest achievements so far are: A-Jury Prize as Best Short film for ‘Land of the heroes’ at the 61st Berlin International Film Festival – Generation B- ‘Baghdad Messi’ was shortlisted for the 87th Academy Awards, the Oscars. It was one of the 10 finalists C- ‘Bad Hunter’ was shortlisted for the 88th Academy Awards, the Oscars D- ZAGROSFeature Film’: Winner of The Grand Prix For BEST FILM at 44th Ghent Film Festival. Audience Award for Best Film at 18th Arras Film FestivalFrance. Best Director at 18th Arras Film Festival – France. Audience Award for Best Film at 35th Annonay Film Festival – France.

47th Rotterdam International Film Festival – Official selection. 72nd Edinburgh Film Festival – Official Selection - UK. 35th Munich Film Festival – Official Selection. 42nd Montreal World Film Festival - Canada. More than 10.000 visitors in the Belgian Cinemas. Bad Hunter won the Jury Prize in the Muhr Short Film Competition at the 2014 Dubai International Film Festival.‘Bad Hunter’ won several international Awards at some important film festivals, like Jury Award at 59th Valladolid, 38th Montreal World, Dubai IFF and Flickerfest International Film Festival. 2014, Sahim was chosen in Istanbul as Best Kurdish film director. In 2016 Sahim became a member of the Academy Awards ‘The Oscars’, he can vote for the Oscar awards In 2017 his Documentary Film ‘Cornered in Molenbeek’ has won Best Belgian Documentary TV Series at Docville Documentary Film Festival. And selected for Hot Docs Documentary Film Festival – Official competition Summer 2016, Sahim had filmed his debut film ‘Zagros’, supported by Vlaams Audiovisueel Fonds, Dutch Film Fund and Eurimages.

Sahim Omar Kalifa on IMDb

Christian Szymczak

Christian Szymczak is an American racecar driver who competed in the Barber Dodge Pro Series in 2001 and 2002, finishing 11th and 8th in points in his two years, respectively. Christian began his racing career in January 2000 with the Skip Barber Western Series, at the age of 25. Having been an avid player of racing simulations such as PapyrusGrand Prix Legends and Microprose's Grand Prix series, Christian had aspired to race real cars from a young age; that opportunity presented itself with the Skip Barber Western Series at Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca, a racetrack 2 hours from Christian's hometown in Oakland, CA. Having never seen a race track nor been in a race car, Christian scored pole position in his first race; the pressure of leading in his first laps saw him crash from the lead in turn 4, but his fate was sealed. Christian had bit bitten by the race car bug and felt that he must continue to race! In 2013 Christian won the SCCA Pro Racing Playboy Mazda MX-5 Cup championship. Away from racing, Christian works as a developer of low income multifamily apartments, specializing in the preservation of “At-Risk” Section 8 housing developments.

With the use of low-income housing tax credits, Christian rehabilitates these projects, pledges to keep them affordable for the long-term future. This ensures that the low-income residents of these projects have a safe and affordable place to live for the long-term future

Milos Kostic

Milos Kostic from Regina, Saskatchewan is the current world record holder of the Ironman World Championship in the Men's 65-69 age group with a time of 11 hours 29 minutes 45 seconds set in 2006. He has won his age group there in Kona every time he has raced there, in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, he won his age group at the Ironman 70.3 World Championship in 2011 and 2012. In 2011 he set the world record of the Ironman World Championship in the Men's 70-74 age group with a time of 11 hours 14 minutes. In 2006, 2007, 2008 he was awarded the Canadian Grand Master Athlete of the Year by Triathlon Canada, he was selected as Triathlon Magazine Canada's athlete of the year for 2012. Kostic attended the University of British Columbia as a foreign student from Yugoslavia. After obtaining a degree in engineering, he remained in Canada. 2006 Saskatchewan Sport, Masters Athlete of the Year 2006 Triathlon Canada, Masters Long Distance Triathlon Athlete of the Year 2007 Triathlon Canada Grand Master Male Athlete of the Year 2007 Triathlon Magazine Canada, Masters Athlete of the Year 2008 Triathlon Canada Grand Master Male Athlete of the Year Ironman Canada Iron Spirit Award, August 30, 2009 2009 Triathlon Magazine Canada, Age Group Triathlete of the Year 2012 Triathlon Magazine Canada, Triathlete of the YearIn June 2015 was inducted into the Saskatchewan Sports Hall of Fame

Military Operations Research Society

The Military Operations Research Society is a society for professionals active within defense applications of operations research in the United States. Membership include analysts, researchers and officers in the United States Department of Defense, organizations within the military of the United States, various think tanks, academic institutions and consultancy firms; the Military Operations Research Society arranges symposia and courses, publishes books, a quarterly bulletin called Phalanx, a peer reviewed journal called Military Operations Research. Participation in MORS activities requires a United States security clearance. MORS is headquartered in Virginia; the MORS has served the Department of Defense analytic community for over forty years and now includes other aspects of national security for the United States federal government. Under the sponsorship of the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Staff and the Department of Homeland Security, the objective of MORS is to enhance the quality and effectiveness of operations research as applied to national security issues.

MORS vision is to "become the recognized leader in advancing the national security analytic community through the advancement and application of the interdisciplinary field of Operations Research to national security issues, being responsive to our constituents, enabling collaboration and development opportunities, expanding our membership and disciplines, while maintaining our profession’s heritage." This vision encompasses all aspects of national security including not only the military but Homeland Security and the other agencies of government – including the US and its allies. Members of the Society include a cross section of the defense analysts and managers from government and academia, their involvement fosters professional interchange within the military operations research community, the sharing of insights and information on challenging national security issues and specific support to decision makers in the many organizations and agencies that address national defense. MORS provides an array of publications.

In particular, the Society provides a unique environment in which classified presentations and discussions can take place with joint service participation and peer criticism from the full range of students, theoreticians and users of military analysis. Throughout its activities, the Society promotes professional methodology, individual excellence and ethical conduct. Before and during World War II, OR was an area of military analysis, so original membership of the Operations Research Society of America, founded in 1952, included many practitioners within military OR; the scope of ORSA became wider, but still includes a Military Applications Society. In August 1957, the first Military Operations Research Symposium was held in California under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research in Pasadena and were gatherings of the military OR community on the west coast of the United States. In 1962 these symposia had become joint in focus. In April 1966, the Military Operations Research Society was incorporated in order to handle these symposia, in 1989 MORS was adopted as the acronym of the society while the symposia were called MORSS.

The First Military Operations Research Symposium, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research – Pasadena, was held at Corona Naval Ordnance Lab, California in August 1957. The subject was Air Defense; this and subsequent early meetings were oriented to fulfill the needs of the Operations Research Community on the West Coast. Starting with the Eighth MORS the Symposia became nationally joint-service meetings; the first national Symposium was the Ninth MORS held at Fort Monroe, Virginia in April 1962. From the First through the 10th MORS there was no formal organization to stage the meetings, they were conducted by ONR – Pasadena with the help of a volunteer steering committee. Beginning with the 11th MORS, ONR – Washington assumed their supervision and hired a contractor to perform the work in cooperation with a volunteer executive committee; this arrangement continued until April 1966 at which time the Military Operations Research Society was incorporated. In 1989, the symposia became the Military Operations Research Society Symposia and MORS became the acronym for the Society.

During its over forty years, MORS has expanded its services. In addition to conducting the classified Symposium, MORS holds several other special meetings and workshop annually; the Society publishes abstracts, brochures, a quarterly bulletin – PHALANX and a refereed journal – Military Operations Research, for professional exchange and peer criticism among students, theoreticians and users of military operations research. Since its incorporation in 1966, MORS has been led by a Board of Directors; this consists of 28 voting members and two non-voting members – the Chief Executive Officer and the Immediate Past President. The Board is led by an Executive Council consisting of The President, the President-Elect, the Immediate Past President, the Vice President for Financial Management, the Vice President for Societal Services, the Vice President for Member Services, the Secretary of the Society and the Chief Executive Officer. MORS makes unclassified documents and information available; the Military Operations Research Society is a professional Society incorporated under the laws of Virginia.

The Society does not make or advocate official policy nor does it attempt to influence the formulation of policy. Matters discussed or statements made in the course of MORS symposia or print