Fly ash or flue ash known as pulverised fuel ash in the United Kingdom, is a coal combustion product, composed of the particulates that are driven out of coal-fired boilers together with the flue gases. Ash that falls to the bottom of the boiler is called bottom ash. In modern coal-fired power plants, fly ash is captured by electrostatic precipitators or other particle filtration equipment before the flue gases reach the chimneys. Together with bottom ash removed from the bottom of the boiler, it is known as coal ash. Depending upon the source and composition of the coal being burned, the components of fly ash vary but all fly ash includes substantial amounts of silicon dioxide, aluminium oxide and calcium oxide, the main mineral compounds in coal-bearing rock strata; the minor constituents of fly ash depend upon the specific coal bed composition but may include one or more of the following elements or compounds found in trace concentrations: arsenic, boron, chromium, hexavalent chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, strontium and vanadium, along with small concentrations of dioxins and PAH compounds.
It has unburnt carbon. In the past, fly ash was released into the atmosphere, but air pollution control standards now require that it be captured prior to release by fitting pollution control equipment. In the United States, fly ash is stored at coal power plants or placed in landfills. About 43% is recycled used as a pozzolan to produce hydraulic cement or hydraulic plaster and a replacement or partial replacement for Portland cement in concrete production. Pozzolans ensure the setting of concrete and plaster and provide concrete with more protection from wet conditions and chemical attack. In the case that fly ash is not produced from coal, for example when solid waste is incinerated in a waste-to-energy facility to produce electricity, the ash may contain higher levels of contaminants than coal ash. In that case the ash produced is classified as hazardous waste. Fly ash material solidifies while suspended in the exhaust gases and is collected by electrostatic precipitators or filter bags. Since the particles solidify while suspended in the exhaust gases, fly ash particles are spherical in shape and range in size from 0.5 µm to 300 µm.
The major consequence of the rapid cooling is that few minerals have time to crystallize, that amorphous, quenched glass remains. Some refractory phases in the pulverized coal do not melt, remain crystalline. In consequence, fly ash is a heterogeneous material. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and CaO are the main chemical components present in fly ashes; the mineralogy of fly ashes is diverse. The main phases encountered are a glass phase, together with quartz and the iron oxides hematite, magnetite and/or maghemite. Other phases identified are cristobalite, free lime, calcite, halite, portlandite and anatase; the Ca-bearing minerals anorthite, gehlenite and various calcium silicates and calcium aluminates identical to those found in Portland cement can be identified in Ca-rich fly ashes. The mercury content can reach 1 ppm, but is included in the range 0.01 - 1 ppm for bituminous coal. The concentrations of other trace elements vary as well according to the kind of coal combusted to form it. In fact, in the case of bituminous coal, with the notable exception of boron, trace element concentrations are similar to trace element concentrations in unpolluted soils.
Two classes of fly ash are defined by ASTM C618: Class F fly ash and Class C fly ash. The chief difference between these classes is the amount of calcium, silica and iron content in the ash; the chemical properties of the fly ash are influenced by the chemical content of the coal burned. Not all fly ashes meet ASTM C618 requirements, although depending on the application, this may not be necessary. Fly ash used as a cement replacement must meet strict construction standards, but no standard environmental regulations have been established in the United States. Seventy-five percent of the fly ash must have a fineness of 45 µm or less, have a carbon content, measured by the loss on ignition, of less than 4%. In the US, LOI must be under 6%; the particle size distribution of raw fly ash tends to fluctuate due to changing performance of the coal mills and the boiler performance. This makes it necessary that, if fly ash is used in an optimal way to replace cement in concrete production, it must be processed using beneficiation methods like mechanical air classification.
But if fly ash is used as a filler to replace sand in concrete production, unbeneficiated fly ash with higher LOI can be used. Important is the ongoing quality verification; this is expressed by quality control seals like the Bureau of Indian Standards mark or the DCL mark of the Dubai Municipality. The burning of harder, older anthracite and bituminous coal produces Class F fly ash; this fly ash is pozzolanic in nature, contains less than 7% lime. Possessing pozzolanic properties, the glassy silica and alumina of Class F fly ash requires a cementing agent, such as Portland cement, quicklime, or hydrated lime—mixed with water to react and produce cementitious compounds. Alternatively, adding a chemical activator such as sodium silicate to a Class F ash can form a geopolymer. Fly ash produced from the burning of younger lignite or sub-bituminous coal, in addition to having pozzolanic properties has s
Holland is a city in the western region of the Lower Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. It is situated near the eastern shore of Lake Michigan on Lake Macatawa, fed by the Macatawa River; the city spans the Ottawa/Allegan county line, with 9.08 square miles in Ottawa and the remaining 8.13 square miles in Allegan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,051, with an Urbanized Area population of 113,164, Holland, MI Urbanized Area as of 2015, ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: Holland is the largest city in Ottawa County, as of 2013 part of the Grand Rapids-Wyoming-Muskegon Metropolitan Statistical Area. Holland was founded by Dutch Americans, is in an area that has a large percentage of citizens of Dutch American heritage, it is home to Hope College and Western Theological Seminary, institutions of the Reformed Church in America. In February of 1996 the Holland City Council approved a sister city relationship between Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro and the City of Holland, Michigan, USA.
Ottawa County was populated by Ottawa Indians. In 1846, Reverend Alex Tomasik established the Old Wing Mission as an outreach to the native population. Holland was settled in 1847 by Dutch Calvinist separatists, under the leadership of Dr. Albertus van Raalte. Dire economic conditions in the Netherlands compelled them to emigrate, while their desire for religious freedom led them to unite and settle together as a group. Van Raalte and his colony settled on land in the midst of the Ottawa people's Old Wing Mission Colony near the Black River where it streamed to Black Lake which, in turn, led to Lake Michigan. Joint occupation by the two communities was not a marriage made in heaven; the Dutch settlers purchased the land from the natives, who moved north in an effort to preserve their way of life and culture. In 1848, Michigan suffered from a smallpox epidemic. In consideration of the massive influx settlers into the Ottawa County area, Chief Peter Waukazoo and Reverend George Smith decided to move the community as well as the Holland-area Ottawa Mission from Holland up to Northport via on boats and canoes.
In Holland's early history, Van Raalte was a spiritual leader, as well as overseeing political and financial matters. In 1847 Van Raalte established a congregation of the Reformed Church in America, which would be called the First Reformed Church of Holland. On March 25, 1867, Holland was incorporated as a city with Isaac Cappon being the city's first mayor; the city suffered a major fire on October 8–9, 1871, the same time as the Great Chicago Fire in Illinois and the deadly Peshtigo Fire in Wisconsin. Because of the Great Michigan Fire and Port Huron, Michigan burned at the same time. Holland was known as the "City of Churches." There are 170 churches in the greater Holland area, many of which are with the Reformed Church in America and Christian Reformed Church in North America denominations. The city is the home to the church that started the trend of the "What Would Jesus Do?" bracelets in 1989. In 1987, a 23-year-old City Council member Phil Tanis was elected mayor of Holland, becoming its youngest mayor while he was still a Hope College student.
The city is best known for its Dutch heritage, which serves not only as a part of the city's cultural identity, but the local economy as well: the Tulip Time Festival in May and various Dutch-themed attractions augment the nearby Lake Michigan shoreline in attracting thousands of tourists annually. The Holland Museum contains exhibits about the city's history. Another, the Cappon House Museum, was built in 1874 and is a historic museum that once housed the first mayor of Holland, Dutch immigrant Isaac Cappon; the Settlers House Museum, a building that survived the great fire, contains furnishings and relics from the 19th Century. Holland's downtown is listed in the National Register of Historic Places; the "Snowmelt Project" established pipes transporting warm water from the nearby power plant to travel underneath downtown with the purpose of clearing the streets and sidewalks in the downtown area of any snow. Nearby Holland State Park is a Michigan State Park. Across the channel from the State Park is the Holland Harbor Light, known as "Big Red."
De Zwaan, an original 250-year-old Dutch windmill, is situated on a municipal park. Its height is 125 feet with 40-foot sails. Holland boasts an annual Fiesta, organized by Latin Americans United for Progress on the Saturday closest to May 5. Holland is host to the annual Tulipanes Latino Art & Film Festival, held to celebrate the Latino contribution to the culture. In 2013, Farmer's Insurance named the Holland/Grand Haven Area the most secure mid-sized city in the United States. In 2010, Holland was ranked the second healthiest/happiest town in the United States by the Well-being Index. In 2006, CNN Money named Holland as one of the top five places to retire; each May Holland hosts an annual Tulip Time Festival. Tulip planting and the festival began in 1930. Six million tulips are used throughout the city. Tulips are planted along many city streets, in city parks and outside municipal buildings as well as at tourist attractions like Dutch Village, the city-owned Windmill Island Gardens, at a large tulip farm named Veldheer Tulip Gardens.
It is held the second week of May, during to the tulip blooming season. Cruise ships such as the Yorktown from the Great Lakes Cruising Company make Holland a port of call. About one million tourists visit Tulip Time each year, for which the community finds innovat
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets and adheres to other materials to bind them together. Cement is used on its own, but rather to bind sand and gravel together. Cement mixed with fine aggregate produces mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel, produces concrete. Cement is the most used material in existence and is only behind water as the planet's most-consumed resource. Cements used in construction are inorganic lime or calcium silicate based, can be characterized as either hydraulic or non-hydraulic, depending on the ability of the cement to set in the presence of water. Non-hydraulic cement does not set under water. Rather, it sets as it reacts with carbon dioxide in the air, it is resistant to attack by chemicals after setting. Hydraulic cements set and become adhesive due to a chemical reaction between the dry ingredients and water; the chemical reaction results in mineral hydrates that are not water-soluble and so are quite durable in water and safe from chemical attack.
This allows setting in wet conditions or under water and further protects the hardened material from chemical attack. The chemical process for hydraulic cement found by ancient Romans used volcanic ash with added lime; the word "cement" can be traced back to the Roman term opus caementicium, used to describe masonry resembling modern concrete, made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. The volcanic ash and pulverized brick supplements that were added to the burnt lime, to obtain a hydraulic binder, were referred to as cementum, cimentum, cäment, cement. In modern times, organic polymers are sometimes used as cements in concrete. Non-hydraulic cement, such as slaked lime, hardens by carbonation in the presence of carbon dioxide, present in the air. First calcium oxide is produced from calcium carbonate by calcination at temperatures above 825 °C for about 10 hours at atmospheric pressure: CaCO3 → CaO + CO2The calcium oxide is spent mixing it with water to make slaked lime: CaO + H2O → Ca2Once the excess water is evaporated, the carbonation starts: Ca2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2OThis reaction takes time, because the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the air is low.
The carbonation reaction requires that the dry cement be exposed to air, so the slaked lime is a non-hydraulic cement and cannot be used under water. This process is called the lime cycle. Conversely, hydraulic cement hardens by hydration. Hydraulic cements are made of a mixture of silicates and oxides, the four main components being: Belite; the silicates are responsible for the cement's mechanical properties—the tricalcium aluminate and brownmillerite are essential for formation of the liquid phase during the kiln sintering. The chemistry of these reactions is not clear and is still the object of research; the earliest known occurrence of cement is from twelve million years ago. A deposit of cement was formed after an occurrence of oil shale located adjacent to a bed of limestone burned due to natural causes; these ancient deposits were investigated in the 1970s. Cement, chemically speaking, is a product that includes lime as the primary curing ingredient, but is far from the first material used for cementation.
The Babylonians and Assyrians used bitumen to bind together burnt alabaster slabs. In Egypt stone blocks were cemented together with a mortar made of sand and burnt gypsum, which contained calcium carbonate. Lime was used by the ancient Greeks. There is evidence that the Minoans of Crete used crushed potshards as an artificial pozzolan for hydraulic cement. Nobody knows who first discovered that a combination of hydrated non-hydraulic lime and a pozzolan produces a hydraulic mixture —but such concrete was used by the Ancient Macedonians, three centuries on a large scale by Roman engineers. There is... a kind of powder. It is found in the neighborhood of Baiae and in the country belonging to the towns round about Mt. Vesuvius; this substance when mixed with lime and rubble not only lends strength to buildings of other kinds, but when piers of it are constructed in the sea, they set hard under water. The Greeks used volcanic tuff from the island of Thera as their pozzolan and the Romans used crushed volcanic ash with lime.
This mixture could set under water. The material was called pozzolana from the town of Pozzuoli, west of Naples where volcanic ash was extracted. In the absence of pozzolanic ash, the Romans used powdered brick or pottery as a substitute and they may have used crushed tiles for this purpose before discovering natural sources near Rome; the huge dome of the Pantheon in Rome and the massive Baths of Caracalla are examples of ancient structures made from these concretes, many of which still stand. The vast system of Roman aqueducts made extensive use of hydraulic cement. Roman concrete was used on the outside of buildings; the normal technique was to use brick facing material as the formwork for an infill of mortar mixed with an aggregate of broken pieces of stone, potsherds, recycled chunks of concrete, or other building ru
Ludington is a city in the state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 8,076, it is the county seat of Mason County. Ludington is a harbor town located on Lake Michigan at the mouth of the Pere Marquette River. Many people come to Ludington year round for recreation, including boating and swimming on Lake Michigan, Hamlin Lake, other smaller inland lakes, as well as hunting and camping. Nearby are Ludington State Park, Nordhouse Dunes Wilderness, Manistee National Forest. Ludington is the home port of the SS Badger, a vehicle and passenger ferry with daily service in the summer across Lake Michigan to Manitowoc, Wisconsin. Watching the Badger come into port in the evening from the end of the north breakwall by the Ludington lighthouse is a favorite local pastime. Ludington has multiple disc golf courses, attracting numerous players. In summer, the city hosts quite a few large events. Examples are one of the largest Gus Macker basketball tournaments, the Ludington Area Jaycees Freedom Festival, the Lakestride Half Marathon in June, the West Shore Art League's Art Fair.
As a result of its many attractions, Ludington is the fifth-most-popular tourist city in Michigan, behind Mackinaw City, Traverse City and Sault Ste. Marie. In 1675, Father Jacques Marquette, French missionary and explorer and was laid to rest here. A memorial and large iron cross mark the location. There was a petition to remove this monument due to it involving religion, it is still being considered. In 1845, Burr Caswell moved to the area near the mouth of the Pere Marquette River as a location for trapping and fishing. In July 1847, when he brought his family to live there, they became the first permanent residents of European ancestry. Two years they built a two-story wood-framed house on their farm. After the organization of Mason County in 1855, the first floor of this building was converted into the county's first courthouse. Restored in 1976 by the Mason County Historical Society, the structure stands today as a part of White Pine Village, a museum consisting of several restored and replica Mason County buildings.
The town was named Pere Marquette later named after the industrialist James Ludington, whose logging operations the village developed around. Ludington was incorporated as a City in 1873, the same year that the County seat was moved from the Village of Lincoln to the City of Ludington; the area boom in the late 19th century was due to these sawmills and the discovery of salt deposits. By 1892, 162 million board feet of lumber and 52 million wood shingles had been produced by the Ludington sawmills. With all of this commerce occurring, Ludington became a major Great Lakes shipping port. In 1875, the Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad began cross-lake shipping operations with the sidewheel steamer SS John Sherman, it became apparent quite early that the John Sherman was not large enough to handle the volume of freight and the F&PM Railroad contracted with the Goodrich Line of Steamers to handle the break bulk freight out of the Port of Ludington. In 1897, the F&PM railroad constructed the Pere Marquette.
This was the beginning of the creation of a fleet of ferries to continue the rail cargo across Lake Michigan to Manitowoc, Wisconsin. The fleet was expanded to carry cars and passengers across the lake. By the mid-1950s, Ludington had become the largest car ferry port in the world. Due to disuse and declining industry, this fleet dwindled. Only one carferry, the SS Badger, makes regular trips across the lake from Ludington, one of only two lake-crossing car ferries on Lake Michigan. During the late 1910s and early 1920s, Ludington was the home of the Ludington Mariners minor league baseball team. A team of the same name plays "old time base ball" in historical reenactments of the original version of the game. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.71 square miles, of which 3.37 square miles is land and 0.34 square miles is water. The Ludington North Breakwall Light is at the end of the north pierhead on Lake Michigan. Ludington is part of Northern Michigan.
Ludington has a humid continental climate bordering on the hot-summer subtype Dfa seen further south in Michigan. Winters are cold and snowy, albeit somewhat moderated by Lake Michigan, whereas summers are warm and hot, although records have not ranged in the 100 °F as a result of said lake moderation. US 10 enters the city from the east, connecting with Clare and Bay City, it continues across Lake Michigan into Wisconsin via the SS Badger, providing carferry service to Manitowoc. US 31 is a freeway to the south of a junction with US 10 east of Ludington. US 31 and US 10 run concurrently for about five miles east of Ludington before US 31 turns northerly again at Scottville. Bus. US 31 is a section of the former US 31 along Pere Marquette Highway east of the city. M-116 is a spur route providing access to Ludington State Park, to the north of the city, from US 10 downtown. In addition, U. S. Bicycle Route 20 runs through Ludington ends at south side of the city; as of the 2010 census, there were 8,076 people, 3,549 households, 2,004 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,396.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,432 housing units at an average density of 1,315.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.2% White, 1.1% African American, 1.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 2.0% from other races, a
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin
Sturgeon Bay is a city in and the county seat of Door County, United States. The population was 9,144 at the 2010 census, it is located at the natural end of Sturgeon Bay, although the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal was built across the remainder of the Door Peninsula. Traditionally, this area was inhabited by the Menominee; the town is known in the Menominee language as Namāēw-Wīhkit, or "bay of the sturgeon". The Menominee ceded this territory to the United States in the 1836 Treaty of the Cedars following years of negotiations with the Ho-Chunk and the United States government over how to accommodate the incoming populations of Oneida, Stockbridge-Munsee, Brothertown peoples, removed from New York. After that, the area was available for white settlement. In 1891, Charles Mitchell Whiteside, member of the Wisconsin Assembly, sponsored a bill that merged the community of Sawyer, Wisconsin with Sturgeon Bay. Sturgeon Bay is located at 44°49′56″N 87°22′19″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.66 square miles, of which, 9.82 square miles is land and 1.84 square miles is water.
Sturgeon Bay has a humid continental climate. The city experiences warm summers and cold snowy winters, with an average temperature ranging from 68.7 °F in the summer down to 18.0 °F in the winter. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,288 households and 2,385 families; the population density was 931.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,903 housing units at an average density of 499.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.1% White, 1.0% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 1.0% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.7% of the population. There were 4,288 households of which 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.4% were non-families. 38.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.07 and the average family size was 2.74. The median age in the city was 45.2 years. 19.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.9 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,437 people, 4,048 households, 2,432 families residing in the city; the population density was 981.4 people per square mile. There were 4,447 housing units at an average density of 462.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.22% White, 0.33% Black or African American, 0.78% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 1.28 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 4,048 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.81% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.9% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 18.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,935, the median income for a family was $45,084. Males had a median income of $31,879 versus $21,414 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,899. About 5.5% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.2% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over. Police — 12 patrol officers, 4 sergeants, nine cars with a supporting staff of five. Fire — 14 full-time, 15 part-time firefighters and 11 vehicles operating out of two stations. WIS 42 Northbound travels to Fish Creek, Sister Bay, Ellison Bay and Gills Rock.
South it travels to Algoma, Two Rivers,and Manitowoc, where it connects to I-43. WIS 57 connects with Baileys Harbor and Jacksonport northbound. Sturgeon Bay is served by Door County Cherryland Airport, off of Wisconsin Highway 42 and 57 on County Highway PD; the community is served by Sturgeon Bay High School and has a satellite campus of Northeast Wisconsin Technical College. The city of Sturgeon Bay has two elementary schools: Sawyer, Sunrise; the middle school, T. J. Walker Middle School, is connected to the high school. St. Peter's Lutheran School is a Pre-K to 8th grade school of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod in Sturgeon Bay. Three former schools, Saint Peter and Paul, Corpus Christi, Saint Joseph, have combined to form Saint John Bosco; the community has one local movie theater, Sturgeon Bay Cinema 6, a professional regional theatre, the Third Avenue Playhouse. Every year, the town hosts "Steel Bridge Songfest,". Past performers include Jackson Browne, Jane Wiedlin of the Go-Gos and Pat MacDonald of Timbuk3.
City of Sturgeon Bay Sturgeon Bay Visitor CenterSanborn fire insurance maps: 1885 1891 1898 1904 1911 1919
Walter J. Kohler Jr.
Walter Jodok Kohler Jr. was a member of the Kohler family of Wisconsin and was the 33rd Governor of Wisconsin, serving three terms from 1951 to 1957. He was a leading figure in national Republican Party activities, his role in the clash between Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and presidential candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 has interested historians for decades. Kohler was for many years a sales executive at the Kohler Company and served as president at The Vollrath Company, he was a distinguished Naval officer in World War II. He had two children - a son, Terry Jodok Kohler, daughter, Charlotte Nicolette Kohler. Kohler's father, Walter J. Kohler Sr. was Governor of Wisconsin from 1929 to 1931. His son Terry Kohler lost. Walter Jodok Kohler Jr. was born on April 4, 1904 on his family's lavish estate in Kohler, Wisconsin. His grandfather, John Michael Kohler had founded the Kohler Company in the late 19th century, his father, Walter J. Kohler Sr. was active in his family's plumbing supply business and served one term as the State's Republican governor.
Walter Jr.'s mother was the former Henrietta "Lottie" Schroeder, he had three brothers: John Michael Kohler III, Carl James, Robert Eugene. Walter enjoyed many luxuries while growing up, but they were tempered by a strong-willed father who impressed his boys with the necessity of integrity, hard work, good manners and service to the community. Walter followed what was becoming a family tradition by graduating from Phillips Academy in Andover and Yale University. In 1925, after college, Walter joined the Kohler Company, he knew much about the factory, having been employed there in a number of grueling jobs during school breaks—another family tradition for males. In 1932, he married a divorcée with a child; the couple had two children: Charlotte Nicolette. In 1938, Walter and Celeste built a handsome estate, not far from the main plant. After World War II, he and Celeste divorced. In 1948 Walter married a wealthy divorcée from Philadelphia. In his last years, he and Charlotte traveled throughout the world and enjoyed long holidays in Antigua and Florida.
He died in Sheboygan on March 1976 following a heart attack. Obituaries emphasized Walter's character and integrity, noting his wartime service, his business success, his three successive terms as governor. In August 1942, Kohler joined the United States Navy as a Lieutenant and was assigned duty as a combat intelligence officer in the Solomon Islands. In January 1944 he became part of the crew of the USS Hancock, a huge new aircraft carrier of the Essex class assigned to the South Pacific as part of the Third Fleet. Kohler was the ship's air combat intelligence officer; the Hancock was in the thick of fierce fighting throughout the year. On December 3, Kohler was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Commander, receiving the highest recommendations. On April 7, 1945 the Hancock was hit by a Kamikaze plane. Walter vowed that if he survived the war, he would go into public service to put an end to such violence and destruction. Soon afterward, exhausted by intense battle, he sought an honorable discharge.
On September 24, he left the Navy. Now 41, Kohler had served 37 months of active duty; the Bronze Star Medal and the Asiatic theater ribbon with five battle stars were among his awards. Walter discovered after the war that the entire Kohler Company was in the control of his uncle, Herbert V. Kohler; the industrialist told the veteran. Using inheritance funds and borrowed money, Walter made an effort to run the Vollrath Company in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, a maker of kitchen utensils and dairy supply products; the Kohlers and Vollraths had long enjoyed economic ties. With the aid of a key insider, Walter became president of Vollrath in April, 1947. Under his energetic leadership, the company began immediately to increase its profits. Between 1945 and 1950, the net worth of the company doubled, an assortment of new products appeared. By early 1958 sales had doubled in a decade. Walter led the Vollrath Company until his death. A short time Terry Kohler, Walter's son, assumed the reins of the expanded and profitable corporation.
He had worked full-time for the company since 1963. Walter J. Kohler Jr. decided to move in politics in 1948 and he joined Team Stassen for the presidential elections. While this was unsuccessful, his networking and hard work in politics paid off when he became the 33rd Governor of Wisconsin in 1951. Walter had experienced politics first hand, being active in his father's reelection campaign in 1932. After returning from the war, he thought of running for the United States Senate. But, the driving ambition of Joseph R. McCarthy, an ex-Marine who had run for the Senate two years earlier. Walter had little choice. In the late 1940s, Walter rose within the state G. O. P. by making friends, working for others, winning the support of industrialist Tom Coleman, a dominant force within the Party. In 1948, Kohler was a delegate to the national convention and made it clear that he was a moderate Republican in the mold of the GOP's presidential candidate Thomas Dewey. Dewey's unpredictable loss to Harry Truman prompted many Republicans, in the next few years, to employ "Red Scare" tactics in order to win office.
Kohler would neve