SS Central America, known as the Ship of Gold, was a 280-foot sidewheel steamer that operated between Central America and the eastern coast of the United States during the 1850s. She was named the SS George Law, after Mr. George Law of New York; the ship sank in a hurricane in September 1857, along with 425 of her 578 passengers and crew and 30,000 pounds of gold, contributing to the Panic of 1857. On 3 September 1857, 477 passengers and 101 crew left the Panamanian port of Colón, sailing for New York City under the command of William Lewis Herndon; the ship was laden with 10 short tons of gold prospected during the California Gold Rush. After a stop in Havana, the ship continued north. On 9 September 1857, the ship was caught up in a Category 2 hurricane while off the coast of the Carolinas. By 11 September, the 105 mph winds and heavy seas had shredded her sails, she was taking on water, her boiler was threatening to fail. A leak in one of the seals between the paddle wheel shafts and the ship's sides sealed its fate.
At noon that day, her boiler could no longer maintain fire. Steam pressure dropped; the paddle wheels that kept her pointed into the wind failed as the ship settled by the stern. The passengers and crew flew the ship's flag inverted to signal a passing ship. No one came. A bucket brigade was formed, her passengers and crew spent the night fighting a losing battle against the rising water. During the calm of the hurricane, attempts were made to get the boiler running again, but these failed; the second half of the storm struck. The ship was now on the verge of foundering. Without power, the ship was carried along with the storm and the strong winds would not abate; the next morning, September two ships were spotted, including the brig Marine. Only 153 passengers women and children, made their way over in lifeboats; the ship remained in an area of intense winds and heavy seas that pulled the ship and most of her company away from rescue. Central America sank at 8:00 that evening; as a consequence of the sinking, 425 people were killed.
A Norwegian bark, rescued an additional 50 from the waters. Another three were picked up over a week in a lifeboat. In the immediate aftermath of the sinking, greatest attention was paid to the loss of life, described as "appalling" and as having "no parallel" among American navigation disasters. At the time of her sinking, Central America carried gold valued at US$8,000,000; the loss shook public confidence in the economy, contributed to the Panic of 1857. The valuation of the ship itself was less than those lost in other disasters of the period, being $140,000. Commander William Lewis Herndon, a distinguished officer who had served during the Mexican–American War and explored the Amazon Valley, was captain of Central America, went down with his ship. Two US Navy ships were named USS Herndon in his honor, as was the town of Herndon, Virginia. Two years after the sinking, his daughter Ellen married Chester Alan Arthur the 21st President of the United States; the ship was located by the Columbus-America Discovery Group of Ohio, led by Tommy Gregory Thompson, using Bayesian search theory.
A remotely operated vehicle was sent down on 11 September 1988. Significant amounts of gold and artifacts were recovered and brought to the surface by another ROV built for the recovery; the total value of the recovered gold was estimated at $100–150 million. A recovered gold ingot weighing 80 lb sold for a record $8 million and was recognized as the most valuable piece of currency in the world at that time. Thirty-nine insurance companies filed suit, claiming that because they paid damages in the 19th century for the lost gold, they had the right to it; the team that found it argued. After a legal battle, 92% of the gold was awarded to the discovery team in 1996. Thompson was sued in 2005 by several of the investors who had provided $12.5 million in financing, in 2006 by several members of his crew, over a lack of returns for their respective investments. In 2009 he had an off-shore account in the Cook Islands of 4.16 million. Thompson went into hiding in 2012. A receiver was appointed to take over Thompson's companies and, if possible, salvage more gold from the wreck, in order to recover money for Thompson's various creditors.
In March 2014, a contract was awarded to Odyssey Marine Exploration to conduct archeological recovery and conservation of the remaining shipwreck. The original expedition had only excavated "5 percent" of the ship. Thompson was located in January 2015, along with assistant Alison Antekeier, by US Marshals agents, was extradited to Ohio to provide an accounting of the expedition profits. In November 2018 Thompson agreed to surrender 500 gold coins-but claimed he has no access to the missing coins. On 28 November 2018 a jury awarded Investors 19.4 million in compensatory damages-3.2 Million to the Dispatch Printing Company and 16.2 million to the court appointed receiver of the other investors. Other successful treasure recoveries include: Nuestra Señora de Atocha SS Georgiana SS Republic RMS Republic Kinder, Gary.. Ship of Gold in the Deep Blue Sea. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-717-8 Thompson, Tommy.. America's Lost Treasure. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-732-1 Klare, Norman.. The Final Voyage of the Central America, 1857: The Saga of a Gold Rush Steamship.
Institute of Technology, Blanchardstown established in 1999, was a third-level institution, now amalgamated into Technological University Dublin. It was the last-founded Institute of Technology in Ireland and its campus is located within the Business and Technology Park on Blanchardstown Road North, about 15 km from Dublin City and close to the N3. ITB provided full-time and part-time higher education courses in a wide range of subjects, making awards at levels from higher certificate, to PhD; the Regional Technical Colleges Act 1999 was enacted by the Oireachtas in July 1999, putting the Institute of Technology Blanchardstown on the same statutory footing as the twelve other Institutes of Technologies in Ireland operating under the Regional Technical Colleges Acts 1992 and 1994. The institute operated under the Qualifications Act,1999 and the Institutes of Technology Act 2006; the Institute was overseen by a statutory Governing Body, appointed by the Minister for Education and Science, with representation from the college community, broader local community, business interests and the State.
Academic affairs and standards were controlled by the Academic Council. ITB achieved delegated authority in 2006 and had the authority to award qualifications ) to those completing courses up to Level 9 of the National Framework of Qualifications. Management of the Institute was led by the President, who leads a management team comprising the Registrar and Financial Controller, Heads of Schools and other functions. School of Business & Humanities Department of Business Department of Humanities School of Informatics & Engineering Department of Computing and Creative Digital Media Department of Engineering Full-time and part-time courses were, are within TUD, offered in Applied Social Studies, Computing, Digital Media, Horticulture, Languages and Community Development, Sports Management and Early Childhood Care & Education, with awards made at higher certificate, ordinary degree, honours degree, Master's Degree and PhD levels; the research community at ITB was, remains within TUD, involved collaboratively with research projects with industry, community organisations and different agencies in the locality.
Some of these include National Road Authority, IBM, Havoc, Wavebob, ESB, Health Service Executive, SMEs on the Innovation Voucher Scheme. As part of ITB's strategic plan 2006-2011 "Making Education Accessible" ITB recognised that one of its core activities was research and established itself as an active member of the research community within the third level sector in Ireland; the LINC Centre is the centre which supports the research activities taking place in the Institute supporting technology transfer activities, applied research links with industry and links to the funding agencies for the research activities in the Institute. Since it opened in 1999 funding has been secured from: The Technological Sector Postgraduate R&D Skills Training Programme Enterprise Ireland's Innovation Partnership scheme where the Institute has teamed up with local companies to conduct R&D to improve processes and procedures Enterprise Ireland’s Proof Of Concept funding which allows the development of a possible commercial activity Enterprise Ireland’s Research Equipment grant The Embark Initiative The Higher Education Authority including the Research Funding Enhancement Scheme Leonardo da Vinci programs The college had a 22 hectares campus within Fingal County Council's College Business and Technology Park, on Blanchardstown Road North, now designated TUD Blanchardstown Campus.
The component buildings, with a total area of over 22,000 square metres, capital cost exceeding €50 million, are: A Block: ITB's first building, opened September 1999, contains computing and engineering laboratories, three large lecture theatres and offices for Academic Administration and Human Resources. It has the counsellor's office. Learning and Innovation Centre: Built May–October 2001 for workshops, now hosting small business ventures and supporting college-industry links. Post-Grad research facilities. Multipurpose Building: Canteen, medical centre, Students' Union, chaplains' offices, sports hall and gym. D Block: Apprentice workshops, including electrical, masonry and plumbing, as well as maintenance and goods receiving. E Block: A two-wing building containing classrooms, science laboratories, language laboratories, two large lecture theatres, most academic staff offices and the student helpdesk. F Block: The current official entry point, this holds the reception and senior management offices, the largest lecture theatre.
The Institute's library has a wide range of books, a selection of DVDs and videos, along with access to online information in the form of scientific journals and databases. Every student in the Institute can through a self-service checkout system rent any of the items on offer. A short loan is a long loan being two, with the option to renew each term online; the first sporting club was founded in ITB in 1999. Prominent ITB Sports clubs include GAA, Soccer, Pool, Swimming, Martial Arts, Badminton, Golf and Olympic Handball. Many of these clubs have won numerous awards. Sports Scholarships ITB offers Sports Scholarships to all full-time students to assist them in reaching their potential, both academical
In the city of Dwarahat, Bipin Tripathi Kumaon Institute of Technology Kumaon Engineering College, is an autonomous engineering and technology institute in the Almora district in state of Uttarakhand, India. It is financed by the government of Uttarakhand and managed by the Board of Governors with the Minister of Technical Education Government of Uttarakhand as the Chairman and Secretary of Technical Education as Vice-Chairman. Affiliated to Kumaun University, it is now a autonomous institute; the college was established by the government of Uttar Pradesh in 1986 and started functioning in 1991. Now the institute is named after the renowned Uttarakhand movement activist Bipin Chandra Tripathi; the foundation of college was under the guidance of Narayan Dutt Tiwari, Govt. of India on 20 April 1986, during the reign of late Chief Minister Vir Bahadur Singh. Academic session in B. E. was started with two branches, CSE and ECE, in 1991 with a well-planned educational program, similar to the one followed at IITs and RECs/NITs for the development of technology & engineering education facilities in the Kumaon Region.
Seeing the availability and usefulness of land, the college prepared a master plan and project report regarding development in 1996, approved by the administrative council. At present, the institute runs seven graduate engineering programs — Computer Science & Engineering and Communication Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering — and three postgraduate programs: Masters of Computer Applications, Master of Technology in CSE and Mechanical departments. Besides this, the institute started PhD programs in 2016; the institute offers other infrastructural facilities for faculty and students, such as hostels, staff residential campus, departmental buildings, student’s activity club and a multipurpose hall have been developed. An atmosphere conducive to learning and all-round personality development of the students is being created. Emphasis is being laid on mutual respect; the college is in the hilly region of Dwarahat on Kathgodam-Ranikhet-Karnaprayag National Highway, about 30 km from Ranikhet and about 3 km from Dwarahat near Gauchar village.
The nearest railway station is at Kathgodam. The college is spread over an area of 155 acres at an altitude of 1450 meter in a quiet, congenial and pollution-free environment with a picturesque view; the summer is pleasant with a max of 30 °C for a few weeks. The Dunagiri and Panduakhal temples are at the outskirts of Dwarahat; the institute is administered by an autonomous society named "Bipin Tripathi Kumaun Institute of Technology Dwarahat Society", registered under Societies Registration Act. The memorandum of association, society rules, bye-laws and employees conduct rules are duly approved by the Uttarakhand state government; the institute enjoys freedom with regard to internal functioning. The Administration Section of BTKIT, Dwarahat is headed by a registrar and functions under the overall supervision of the principal; the following functions/duties being performed by the Administration Section: All establishment matters pertaining to the teaching and non-teaching employees of the institute.
Maintenance of their Service Books and Personal Files of all employees. Legal cases. Disciplinary cases. Conducting of meetings of Board of Governors and KEC Society. Recruitment of regular, ad hoc and contract employees and maintenance of Roster Register. Processing of Career Advancement and Assured Career Progression Cases. Printing of Advertisements on behalf of the institute. Central Dispatch work. Vigilance cases; the college offers Bachelor of Technology and Master of Technology degrees, as well as Master of Computer Applications. It offers Oracle courses; the college has departments that offer seven B. Tech degree programs in Electrical Engineering, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computer Science & Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Bio-chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering & Chemical Engineering; the college provides three M. Tech degrees programs in Thermal Engineering and Computer Science & Engineering; the institute is offers a three-year degree program in Master of Computer Applications.
The college started offering the Doctor of Philosophy degree as part of its doctoral education programme in disciplines from July 2016. The national-level techfest Aarohan was being organised in the odd semester every year; the college has eight departments: Applied Science Computer Science Engineering Electronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Biochemical Engineering Electrical Engineering Civil Engineering Chemical Engineering The college has a Central Library, open access. Students and staff have access to a large number of books and journals, besides many competitive and technical magazines; the library is procuring 50 national journals. It is the heart of academic and research activities of BTKIT, it has been catering to the needs of faculty members, research scholars, students on campus. It has huge volumes of books and e-journals which cover the disciplines of Technology, Computer Science, Humanities, Applied Science and other related areas; the library with its modern collection of knowledge resources andn essential role for the academic community in their intellectual pursuits at BTKIT.
It is provided to students and faculty members for updating their knowledge and supporting the research and teaching/learning activities. These services are provided through the