Alan Kenneth Mackenzie Clark was a British Conservative Member of Parliament and diarist. He served as a Junior Minister in Margaret Thatcher's governments at the Departments of Employment and Defence, he became a privy counsellor in 1991. He was the author of several books of military history, including his controversial work The Donkeys, which inspired the musical satire Oh, What a Lovely War! Clark became known for his flamboyance and irreverence. Norman Lamont called him "the most politically incorrect, outspoken and reckless politician of our times", he is remembered for his three-volume diary, a candid account of political life under Thatcher and a moving description of the weeks preceding his death, when he continued to write until he could no longer focus on the page. Clark was a keen supporter of animal rights. Clark was born at 55 Lancaster Gate, the elder son of art historian Kenneth Clark, of Scottish parentage, his wife Elizabeth Winifred Clark, Irish, his sister and brother, fraternal twins Colette and Colin, were born in 1932.
At the age of six he matriculated as a day boy to Egerton House, a preparatory school in Marylebone, from there at the age of nine went on to board at St Cyprian's School, Eastbourne. Clark was one of the seventy boys rescued when the school building was destroyed by fire in May 1939, he was relocated with the school to Midhurst. In September 1940, with the Luftwaffe threatening south east England, the Clarks moved their son to a safer location at Cheltenham College Junior School. From there he went to Eton College in January 1942. In February 1946 while at Eton he joined the Territorial training regiment of the Household Cavalry based at Windsor, but was discharged in August when he had left Eton, he went to Christ Church, where he read Modern History under Hugh Trevor-Roper, obtaining a third-class honours degree. After Oxford he wrote articles for the motoring press, he did not practise law. Instead, he began studying military history with a view to professional writing on the topic. Clark's first book, The Donkeys, was a revisionist history of the British Expeditionary Force's campaigns at the beginning of World War I.
The book covers Western Front operations during 1915, including the offensives at Neuve Chapelle, Aubers Ridge and Loos, ending with the dismissal of Sir John French as Commander-in-Chief of the BEF, his replacement by Douglas Haig. Clark describes the battle scenes and criticises the actions of several of the generals involved in the heavy loss of life that occurred; however much of the book is based on the political manoeuvres behind the scenes as commanders jostled for influence, Sir John French's difficulties dealing with his French allies and with Herbert Kitchener. Haig's own diaries are used to demonstrate; the publication sold well, is still in print 50 years after its first print run, being regarded as an important work on the British experience of the World War. The book's title was drawn from the expression "Lions led by donkeys", used to compare British soldiers with their commanders. In 1921 Princess Evelyn Blücher published her memoirs, which attributed the phrase to OHL in 1918.
Clark was unable to find the origin of the expression. He prefaced the book with a supposed dialogue between two generals and attributed the dialogue to the memoirs of German general Erich von Falkenhayn. Clark was equivocal about the source for the dialogue for many years, but in 2007, a friend Euan Graham recalled a conversation in the mid-1960s when Clark, on being challenged as to the dialogue's provenance, looked sheepish and said, "Well I invented it." This invention has provided a major opportunity for critics of The Donkeys to condemn the work. Clark's choice of subject was influenced by Lord Lee of Fareham, a family friend who had never forgotten what he saw as the shambles of the B. E. F. In developing his work, Clark became close friends with historian Basil Liddell Hart, who acted as his mentor. Liddell Hart read the drafts and was concerned by Clark's "intermittent carelessness", he produced several lists of corrections which were incorporated, wrote "It is a fine piece of writing, brilliantly penetrating."Even before publication, Clark's work was coming under attack from supporters of Haig, including his son and historians John Terraine, Robert Blake and Hugh Trevor-Roper, former tutor to Clark, married to Haig's daughter.
On publication, The Donkeys received supportive comments from Lord Beaverbrook, who recommended the work to Winston Churchill, The Times printed a positive review. However, John Terraine and A. J. P. Taylor wrote damning reviews and historian Michael Howard wrote "As history, it is worthless", criticising its "slovenly scholarship". Howard nonetheless commended its readability and noted that descriptions of battles and battlefields are "sometimes masterly". Field Marshal Montgomery told Clark it was "A Dreadful Tale: You have done a good job in exposing the total failure of the generalship"; the book was considered to be the inspiration for the popular pacifist musical Oh! What a Lovely War and Clark, after legal wrangles, was awarded some royalties. In more recent years, the work has been criticised by some historians for being one-sided in its treatment of World War One generals. Brian Bond, in editing a 1991 collection of essays on First World War history, expressed the collective desire of the authors to move beyond "popular stereotypes of The Donkeys" while acknowledging that serious l
Lucas Industries plc was a Birmingham-based British manufacturer of motor industry and aerospace industry components. Once prominent, it was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. In August 1996, Lucas merged with the American Varity Corporation to form LucasVarity plc. After LucasVarity was sold to TRW the Lucas brand name was licensed for its brand equity to Elta Lighting for aftermarket auto parts in the United Kingdom; the Lucas trademark is owned by ZF Friedrichshafen, which retained the Elta arrangement. In the 1850s, Joseph Lucas, a jobless father of six, sold paraffin oil from a barrow cart around the streets of Hockley. In 1860, he founded the firm, his 17-year-old son Harry joined the firm around 1872. At first it made general pressed metal merchandise, including plant pot holders and buckets, in 1875 lamps for ships. Joseph Lucas & Son was based in Little King Street from 1882 and Great King Street Birmingham. In 1902, what had by become Joseph Lucas Ltd, incorporated in 1898, started making automotive electrical components such as magnetos, windscreen wipers, lighting and starter motors.
The company started its main growth in 1914 with a contract to supply Morris Motors Limited with electrical equipment. During the First World War Lucas made shells and fuses, as well as electrical equipment for military vehicles. Up until the early 1970s, Lucas was the principal supplier to British manufacturers of magnetos, alternators and other electrical components. After the First World War the firm expanded branching out into products such as braking systems and diesel systems for the automotive industry and hydraulic actuators and electronic engine control systems for the aerospace industry. In 1926 they gained an exclusive contract with Austin. Around 1930, Lucas and Smiths established a trading agreement to avoid competition in each other's markets. During the 1920s and 1930s Lucas grew by taking over a number of their competitors such as Rotax and C. A. Vandervell. During WW2 Lucas were engaged by Rover to work on the combustion and fuel systems for the Whittle jet engine project making the burners.
This came about because of their experience of sheet metal manufacture and CAV for the pumps and injectors. In the 1950s they started a semiconductor manufacturing plant to make transistors. In 1976, the militant workforce within Lucas Aerospace were facing significant layoffs. Under the leadership of Mike Cooley, they developed the Lucas Plan to convert the company from arms to the manufacture of useful products, save jobs; the plan was described at the time by the Financial Times as "one of the most radical alternative plans drawn up by workers for their company", by Tony Benn as "one of the most remarkable exercises that has occurred in British industrial history". The Plan took a year to put together, consisted of six volumes of around 200 pages each, included designs for 150 proposed items for manufacture, market analysis and proposals for employee training and restructuring the firm's work organisation; the plan was not put into place but it is claimed that the associated industrial action saved some jobs.
In addition the Plan had an impact outside of Lucas Aerospace: according to a 1977 article in New Statesman, "the philosophical and technical implications of the plan now being discussed on average of twenty five times a week in international media". Workers in other companies subsequently undertook similar initiatives elsewhere in the UK, continental Europe and the United States, the Plan was supported by and influenced the work of radical scientists such as the British Society for Social Responsibility in Science and community and environmental activists through spreading the idea of encouraging useful production; the Plan's proposals had an influence on the economic development strategies of a number of left-wing Labour councils, for example the West Midlands, Sheffield and the Greater London Council, where Cooley was appointed Technology Director of the Greater London Enterprise Board after being sacked by Lucas in 1981 due to his activism. In August 1996, Lucas Industries plc merged with the North American Varity Corporation to form LucasVarity plc.
Its specific history is covered on the LucasVarity page but for the sake of continuity key aspects of the old Lucas business histories to date that referring to CAV and Lucas Diesel Systems are still included here. Harry Lucas designed a hub lamp for use in a high bicycle in 1879 and named the oil lamp "King of the Road"; this name would come to be associated with the manufactured products of Lucas Companies, into the present day. However, Lucas did not use the "King of the Road" epithet for every lamp manufactured, they used this name on only their most prestigious and highest priced lamps and goods. This naming format would last until the 1920s when the "King of the Road" wording was pressed into the outer edge of the small "lion and torch" button motifs that decorated the tops of both bicycle and motor-car lamps; the public were encouraged by Lucas to refer to every Lucas lamp as a "King of the Road", but speaking, this is quite wrong, as most lamps throughout the 20th century possessed either a name, a number, or both.
Joseph and Harry Lucas formed a joint stock corporation with the New Departure Bell Co. of America in 1896, so that Lucas designed bicycle lamps could be manufactured in America to avoid import duties. The King of the Road name returned in 2013 as Lucas Electrical reintroduced a range of bicycle lighting to the UK
Jaguar is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, England. Jaguar Cars was the company, responsible for the production of Jaguar cars until its operations were merged with those of Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover on 1 January 2013. Jaguar's business was founded as the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922 making motorcycle sidecars before developing bodies for passenger cars. Under the ownership of S. S. Cars Limited the business extended to complete cars made in association with Standard Motor Co, many bearing Jaguar as a model name; the company's name was changed from S. S. Cars to Jaguar Cars in 1945. A merger with the British Motor Corporation followed in 1966, the resulting enlarged company now being renamed as British Motor Holdings, which in 1968 merged with Leyland Motor Corporation and became British Leyland, itself to be nationalised in 1975. Jaguar was spun off from British Leyland and was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1984, becoming a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index until it was acquired by Ford in 1990.
Jaguar has, in recent years, manufactured cars for the British Prime Minister, the most recent delivery being an XJ in May 2010. The company holds royal warrants from Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Charles. In 1990 Ford acquired Jaguar Cars and it remained in their ownership, joined in 2000 by Land Rover, till 2008. Ford sold both Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors. Tata created Jaguar Land Rover as a subsidiary holding company. At operating company level, in 2013 Jaguar Cars was merged with Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover Limited as the single design, sales company and brand owner for both Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles. Since the Ford ownership era and Land Rover have used joint design facilities in engineering centres at Whitley in Coventry and Gaydon in Warwickshire and Jaguar cars have been assembled in plants at Castle Bromwich and Solihull; the Swallow Sidecar Company was founded in 1922 by two motorcycle enthusiasts, William Lyons and William Walmsley. In 1934 Walmsley elected to sell-out and in order to buy the Swallow business Lyons formed S.
S. Cars Limited, finding new capital by issuing shares to the public. Jaguar first appeared in September 1935 as a model name on an SS 2½-litre sports saloon. A matching open two seater sports model with a 3½-litre engine was named SS Jaguar 100. On 23 March 1945 the S. S. Cars shareholders in general meeting agreed to change the company's name to Jaguar Cars Limited. Said chairman William Lyons "Unlike S. S. the name Jaguar is distinctive and cannot be connected or confused with any similar foreign name."Though five years of pent-up demand ensured plenty of buyers production was hampered by shortage of materials steel, issued to manufacturers until the 1950s by a central planning authority under strict government control. Jaguar sold Motor Panels, a pressed steel body manufacturing company bought in the late 1930s, to steel and components manufacturer Rubery Owen, Jaguar bought from John Black's Standard Motor Company the plant where Standard built Jaguar's six-cylinder engines. From this time Jaguar was dependent for their bodies on external suppliers, in particular independent Pressed Steel and in 1966 that carried them into BMC, BMH and British Leyland.
Jaguar made its name by producing a series of successful eye-catching sports cars, the Jaguar XK120, Jaguar XK140, Jaguar XK150, Jaguar E-Type, all embodying Lyons' mantra of "value for money". The sports cars were successful in international motorsport, a path followed in the 1950s to prove the engineering integrity of the company's products. Jaguar's sales slogan for years was "Grace, Pace", a mantra epitomised by the record sales achieved by the MK VII, IX, Mks I and II saloons and the XJ6. During the time this slogan was used; the core of Bill Lyons' success following WWII was the twin-cam straight six engine, conceived pre-war and realised while engineers at the Coventry plant were dividing their time between fire-watching and designing the new power plant. It had a hemispherical cross-flow cylinder head with valves inclined from the vertical; as fuel octane ratings were low from 1948 onwards, three piston configuration were offered: domed and dished. The main designer, William "Bill" Heynes, assisted by Walter "Wally" Hassan, was determined to develop the Twin OHC unit.
Bill Lyons agreed over misgivings from Hassan. It was risky to take what had been considered a racing or low-volume and cantankerous engine needing constant fettling and apply it to reasonable volume production saloon cars; the subsequent engine was the mainstay powerplant of Jaguar, used in the XK 120, Mk VII Saloon, Mk I and II Saloons and XK 140 and 150. It was employed in the E Type, itself a development from the race winning and Le Mans conquering C and D Type Sports Racing cars refined as the short-lived XKSS, a road-legal D-Type. Few engine types have demonstrated such ubiquity and longevity: Jaguar used the Twin OHC XK Engine, as it came to be known, in the Jaguar XJ6 saloon from 1969 through 1992, employed in a J60 variant as the power plant in such diverse vehicles as the British Army's Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance family of vehicles, as well as the Fox armoured reconnaissance vehicle, the Ferret Scout Car, the Stonefield four-wheel-drive all-terrain lorry. Properly maintained, the standard production XK Engine would a
Standard Motor Company
The Standard Motor Company Limited was a motor vehicle manufacturer, founded in Coventry, England, in 1903 by Reginald Walter Maudslay. It purchased Triumph in 1945 and in 1959 changed its name to Standard-Triumph International and began to put the Triumph brandname on all its products. For many years, it manufactured. All Standard's tractor assets were sold to Massey Ferguson in 1959. In September 1959, Standard Motor Company was renamed Standard-Triumph International Limited. A new subsidiary took the name The Standard Motor Company Limited and took over the manufacture of the group's products; the Standard name was last used in Britain in 1963, in India in 1988. Maudslay, great grandson of the eminent engineer Henry Maudslay, had trained under Sir John Wolfe-Barry as a civil engineer. In 1902 he joined his cousin Cyril Charles Maudslay at his Maudslay Motor Company to make marine internal combustion engines; the marine engines did not sell well, still in 1902 they made their first engine intended for a car.
It was fitted to a chain-drive chassis. The three-cylinder engine, designed by Alexander Craig was an advanced unit with a single overhead camshaft and pressure lubrication. Realising the enormous potential of the horseless carriage and using a gift of £3,000 from Sir John Wolfe-Barry, R. W. Maudslay left his cousin and became a motor manufacturer on his own account, his Standard Motor Company was incorporated on 2 March 1903 and he established his business in a small factory in a two-storey building in Much Park Street, Coventry. Having undertaken the examination of several proprietary engines to familiarise himself with internal combustion engine design he employed seven people to assemble the first car, powered by a single-cylinder engine with three-speed gearbox and shaft drive to the rear wheels. By the end of 1903 three cars had been built and the labour force had been increased to twenty five; the increased labour force produced a car every three weeks during 1904. The single-cylinder model was soon replaced by a two-cylinder model followed by three- and four-cylinder versions and in 1905 the first six.
The first cars boasted shaft drive as opposed to chains, the engines were not "square" but had 6" diameter pistons with a 3" stroke. As well as supplying complete chassis, the company found a good market selling engines for fitting to other cars where the owner wanted more power. Although Alex Craig, a Scottish engineer, was engaged to do much of the detail work, Maudslay himself was sufficiently confident to undertake much of the preliminary layout. One of the several derivations of the name "Standard" is said to have emanated from a discussion between Maudslay and Craig during which the latter proposed several changes to a design on the grounds of cost, which Maudslay rejected, saying that he was determined to maintain the best possible "Standard". In 1905 Maudslay himself drove the first Standard car to compete in a race; this was the RAC Tourist Trophy in which he finished 11th out of 42 starters, having had a non-stop run. In 1905 the first export order was received, from a Canadian who arrived at the factory in person.
The order was reported in the local newspaper with some emphasis, "Coventry firm makes bold bid for foreign markets". The company exhibited at the 1905 London Motor Show in Crystal Palace, at which a London dealer, Charles Friswell 1872-1926 agreed to buy the entire factory output, he joined Standard and was managing director for many years. In late 1906 production was transferred to larger premises and output was concentrated on 6-cylinder models; the 16/20 h.p. tourer with side-entrance body was priced at £450. An indication of how much this was can be gained from the fact. In 1907 Friswell became company chairman, he worked hard to raise its profile, the resulting increase in demand necessitated the acquisition of a large single-storey building in Cash's Lane, Coventry. This was inadequate after the publicity gained when a fleet of 20 cars, 16/20 tourers, were supplied for the use of Commonwealth editors attending the 1909 Imperial Press Conference in London. In 1909 the company first made use of the famous Union Flag Badge, a feature of the radiator emblem until after the Second World War.
By 1911 the range of vehicles was comprehensive, with the 8-horsepower model being produced in quantity whilst a special order for two 70 hp cars was at the same time executed for a Scottish millionaire. Friswell's influence culminated in supplying seventy 4-cylinder 16 hp cars for King George V and his entourage, including the Viceroy of India, at the 1911 Delhi Durbar. In 1912 Friswell sold his interest in Standard to C. J. Band and Siegfried Bettmann, the founder of the Triumph Motor Cycle Company. During the same year the first commercial vehicle was produced, the 4-cylinder model "S" was introduced at £195, the first to be put into large-scale production. 1,600 were produced before the outbreak of the First World War, 50 of them in the final week of car production. These cars were sold with a three-year guarantee. In 1914 Standard became a public company. During the First World War the company produced more than 1,000 aircraft, including the Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.12, Royal Aircraft Factory R.
E.8, Sopwith Pup and Bristol F.2-B in a new works at Canley that opened on 1 July 1916. Canley would subsequently become the main centre of operations. Other war materials produced included shells, mobile workshops for the Royal Engineers, trench mortars. Civilian car production was restarted in 1919 with models based on pre-war designs, for example the 9.5 model "S" was re-introduced as the model SLS although this was soon superseded by an
SU carburettors are a brand of carburettor of the constant depression type. The design remained in quantity production for much of the twentieth century; the S. U. Carburetter Company Limited manufactured dual-choke updraught carburettors for aero-engines such as the Rolls-Royce Merlin and Rolls-Royce Griffon. Herbert Skinner, pioneer motorist and an active participant in the development of the petrol engine, invented his Union carburettor in 1904, his much younger brother Carl Skinner a motoring enthusiast, had joined the Farman Automobile Co in London in 1899. He helped Herbert to develop the carburettor. Herbert's son could remember his mother sewing the first leather bellows, it would be given on loan to The Science Museum, South Kensington in 1934. In 1905 Herbert applied for a patent, granted in early 1906. Carl sold his interest in footwear business Lilley & Skinner and became a partner in G Wailes & Co of Euston Road, manufacturers of their carburettor. Herbert continued to develop and patent improvements through to the 1920s including the replacement of the leather bellows by a brass piston though he was a full-time director and divisional manager of Lilley & Skinner.
S. U. Company Limited —Skinner-Union— was incorporated in August 1910 to acquire Herbert's carburettor inventions and it began manufacture of the carburettors in a factory at Prince of Wales Road, Kentish Town in North London. Sales were slow. Following the outbreak of war in 1914 carburettor production nearly stopped with the factory making machine gun parts and some aircraft carburettors. With peace in 1918 production resumed but sales remained slow and the company was not profitable so Carl Skinner approached his customer, W. R. Morris, managed to sell him the business. Carl Skinner became a director of Morris's held empire and remained managing director of S. U. until he retired in 1948 aged 65. Production was moved to the W R Morris owned Wolseley factory at Birmingham. In 1936 W R Morris sold many of his held businesses including S. U. to his listed company, Morris Motors. Manufacture continued, now by The S. U. Carburetter Company Limited, incorporated 15 September 1936 as part of the Morris Organization known as the Nuffield Organization.
The S. U. Carburetter Company Limited of 1936 was voluntarily liquidated in December 1994. In 1996 the name and rights were acquired by Burlen Fuel Systems Limited of Salisbury which incorporated an new company with the name The S. U. Carburetter Company Limited which continues to manufacture carburettors and components for the classic car market. S. U. carburettors were used not only in Morris's Morris and MG products but Rolls-Royce, Rover, Turner, Jaguar and Swedish Volvo, Saab 99 automobiles for much of the twentieth century. S. U. produced carburettors for aircraft engines including the early versions of the Rolls-Royce Merlin, but these were of the conventional fixed-jet updraught type rather than the firm's patented constant-depression design. They remained on production cars through to 1993 in the Mini and the Maestro by which time the company had become part of the Rover Group. Hitachi built carburettors based on the SU design which were used on the Datsun 240Z, Datsun 260Z and other Datsun Cars.
While these appear the same, only their needles are interchangeable. SU carburettors featured a variable venturi controlled by a piston; this piston has a tapered, conical metering rod that fits inside an orifice which admits fuel into the airstream passing through the carburettor. Since the needle is tapered, as it rises and falls it opens and closes the opening in the jet, regulating the passage of fuel, so the movement of the piston controls the amount of fuel delivered, depending on engine demand; the exact dimensions of the taper are tailored during engine development. The flow of air through the venturi creates a reduced static pressure in the venturi; this pressure drop is communicated to the upper side of the piston via an air passage. The underside of the piston is open to atmospheric pressure; the difference in pressure between the two sides of the piston lifts the piston. Opposing this are the weight of the piston and the force of a spring, compressed by the piston rising; because the spring is operating over a small part of its possible range of extension, its force is constant.
Under steady state conditions the upwards and downwards forces on the piston are equal and opposite, the piston does not move. If the airflow into the engine is increased - by opening the throttle plate, or by allowing the engine revs to rise with the throttle plate at a constant setting - the pressure drop in the venturi increases, the pressure above the piston falls, the piston is pushed upwards, increasing the size of the venturi, until the pressure drop in the venturi returns to its nominal level. If the airflow into the engine is reduced, the piston will fall; the result is that the pressure drop in the venturi remains the same regardless of the speed of the airflow - hence the name "constant depression" for carburettors operating on this principle - but the piston rises and falls according to the rate of air delivery. Since the position of the piston controls the position of the needle in the jet and thus the open area of the jet, while the depression in the venturi sucking fuel out of the jet remains constant, the rate of fuel delivery is always a definite function of the rate of air delivery.
The precise nature of the function is determined by the profile of the needle. With appropriate selection of the needle, the fuel delivery can be m
Goodwood Festival of Speed
The Goodwood Festival of Speed is an annual hill climb featuring historic motor racing vehicles held in the grounds of Goodwood House, West Sussex, England in late June or early July. In the early years of the Festival, tens of thousands attended over the weekend. A record crowd of 158,000 attended in 2003, before an advance-ticket-only admission policy came into force; the Goodwood Festival of Speed was founded in 1993 by Lord March in order to bring motor racing back to the Goodwood estate — a location steeped in British motor racing history. Shortly after taking over the estate in the early 1990s, Lord March wanted to bring back motor racing to Goodwood Circuit, but did not have the necessary permit to host a race there. Therefore, he instead hosted it on his own grounds. With a small selection of entrants made up of invited historic vehicles, the first event that took place on Sunday 13 June proved to be a success, taking in a crowd of 25,000 despite a date clash with the 24 Hours of Le Mans that year.
After the first event's date clash, Lord March would ensure that the event would never be allowed to clash with either Le Mans or Formula One races. In 1994, Saturday was added. In 1996, Friday was added. In 2010, the Moving Motor Show was added on the Thursday; the event is classified as a hill climb, visitors are accorded close access to that part of the track. The track has an elevation change of 92.7 metres, for an average gradient of 4.9%. The record time for the hillclimb was set in 1999 when Nick Heidfeld drove a McLaren MP4/13 Formula One car up the hill in 41.6 seconds. For safety reasons Formula One cars are no longer allowed to do official timed runs, will focus on demonstrations that are spectacular rather than fast. In 2016, to commemorate the 40 year anniversary of James Hunt winning the F1 World Championship, McLaren commissioned a P1 GTR which ran up the hill driven by Bruno Senna. From 2000 to 2004 this was a downhill race for gravity-powered cars. Starting from just below the hill-climb finish line, to a finish line in front of the house.
It included entries from Cosworth and other top companies. With some famous riders/drivers piloting them, including Barry Sheene. However, there were frequent accidents. Despite an official cap on the cost of cars, the unofficial costs were becoming too high, so it did not return in 2005. However, it did return in 2013. Companies such as Bentley and McLaren competed. From 2005 to present there has been a demonstration area for the rally cars at the top of the hill. In 2005, the track through the forest was widened, the rally cars ran down through the forest, turned on the tarmac section just outside the wood, returned up the same track; this meant. In 2006, a full forest stage was introduced, designed by Hannu Mikkola this was a complete circuit, with a separate start and finish line at the top of the wood; this allowed the cars to start at timed intervals. Since its inception Southern Car Club have been entrusted with the organization of the rally stage, held under an MSA permit. Since 2000, there has been a Michelin Supercar Run, for road-going supercars.
Since 2014 cars could opt to do a timed run. It is now common for specialty car manufacturers to show off their latest sports model, including newly released mass-produced sports models and working concept models. Since 1995 this is an auto show, it is a similar format to the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance. Entry is by invitation, this provides some leeway as to which type of vehicle can enter resulting in a more varied event than usual Concours d'Elegance. Unlike most concours shows, the Cartier Style et Luxe is judged by a panel of selected judges consisting of celebrities from all around the world to car designers. Since 2010, the Moving Motor Show, was added. In response to the cancellation of the British International Motor Show aimed for buyers of new cars, allowing them a chance to test the cars on the course. Following its success, it was announced the MMS would return in 2011; the 2010 event included the running of the new McLaren MP4-12C. The official website lists the Festival of speed dates as the Friday to Sunday, but the weekend tickets for the Festival include a moving motor show ticket.
So it's not part of the Festival of Speed, but it is a part of the Festival of Speed weekend. Other popular attractions at the event are the real life replicas of the Wacky Races cars, which serves to provide lunchtime entertainment for the crowds, the airshows, which include the RAF Tornado and Red Arrows, in 2004 and 2005 a low-flying Boeing 747. From the festival's beginning, poster art had been illustrated by renowned motor racing artist Peter Hearsey until his retirement in 2015. In 2016, the poster art was designed by Klaus Wagger, who rose to prominence as a racing artist when he won a competition to design the official poster for Mille Miglia in 2000. In recent years, they have put on the GAS Arena who showcase extreme stunts such as Freestyle Motorcross, BMX and Trial bike Riding In 2018 f