A cargo liner known as a passenger-cargo ship or passenger-cargoman, is a type of merchant ship which carries general cargo and passengers. They became common just after the middle of the 19th century, gave way to container ships and other more specialized carriers in the latter half of the 20th century. A cargo liner has been defined as: A vessel which operated a regular scheduled service on a fixed route between designated ports and carries many consignments of different commodities. Cargo liners transported general freight, from raw materials to manufactures to merchandise. Many had cargo holds adapted to particular services, with refrigerator space for frozen meats or chilled fruit, tanks for liquid cargos such as plant oils, lockers for valuables. Cargo liners carried passengers as well in a single class, they differed from ocean liners which focussed on the passenger trade, from tramp steamers which did not operate on regular schedules. Cargo liners sailed from port on schedules published in advance.
The steam-powered cargo liner developed in the mid-19th century with the advancement of technology allowing bigger steamships to be built. As cargo liners were faster than tramp cargo ships, they were used for the transport of perishable and high-value goods, as well as providing a passenger service. At first, they were used in Europe and America as well as across the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and America. Longer routes, such as that to Oceania remained in the hands of sailing ships a little bit longer, due to the inefficiency of the steamship of the time, until the late-1860s when the 1869 opening of the Suez Canal put sailships to disadvantage; the use and increased reliability of the compound steam engine gave greater fuel efficiency and opened these routes up to steamships. Alfred Holt pioneered the use of these engines in his steamships. By the last third of the 19th century it was possible for a steamship to carry enough coal to travel 6,000 miles before needing to refuel; the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the Panama Canal in 1914 made the use of cargo liners more profitable, made possible regular scheduled overseas services.
Cargo liners soon comprised "the great portion of the British merchant fleet", the largest in the world. With a focus on high-value freight, most cargo liners carried a limited number of passengers, most 12, as British regulations required a doctor for ships with over 12 passengers; the decline of the cargo liner came in the 1970s with the introduction of container ships. A surviving example is the Claymore II. A number of large container vessels still offer a small number of berths to paying passengers. A maximum of 12 passengers are carried as the ship would be required to carry a doctor if a greater number were on board; the recreational facilities are those used by the crew and may be limited to a lounge, a gym with exercise equipment and a small swimming pool. Such journeys are of interest to people seeking an unusual travel experience. Craig, Robin, "Steam Tramps and Cargo Liners, 1850–1950", The Ship, London: National Maritime Museum/W. S. Cowell Ltd. for Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 5, ISBN 0-11-290315-0 Woodman, The History of the Ship, London: Lyons Press /Conway Maritime Press, ISBN 1-58574-621-5.
Greenway, Lord Ambrose. The Cargo Liners, an illustrated history. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-006-2
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
SS Arabic (1902)
SS Arabic was a British-registered ocean liner that entered service in 1903 for the White Star Line. She was sunk on 19 August 1915, during the First World War, by German submarine SM U-24, 50 mi south of Kinsale, causing a diplomatic incident. Arabic was intended to be Minnewaska, one of four ships ordered from Harland and Wolff, Ireland, by the Atlantic Transport Line, but fell victim to the recession and the shipbuilding rationalization following the ATL's 1902 incorporation into the International Mercantile Marine Company, was transferred before completion to the White Star Line as Arabic, she was extensively modified before launch with additional accommodation which extended her superstructure aft of her third mast and forward of her second mast. She had accommodations for 1,400 Passengers, her accommodations were configured similar to most other White Star passenger ships, First Class amidships, Second Class abaft of First, Third Class divided at the fore and after ends of the vessel.
Arabic commenced her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York City via Queenstown on 26 June 1903, arriving in New York on 5 July, marking the beginning of a 12-year career during which she spent half of on White Star's main route between Liverpool and New York, the other half on White Star's secondary service to Boston, both of which included stops at Queenstown. She spent her first two years on the Liverpool-New York service before being transferred to the Boston route in April 1905, on which she sailed alongside Cymric and Republic for the next two years, while returning to the New York route during the winter months. In the late spring of 1907, the White Star Line started their new express service out of Southampton, to which they transferred Teutonic, Majestic and the newly completed Adriatic, after which the Arabic was returned to the New York service to make up for this rearrangement, she remained on the New York service for the next four years, after Olympic entered service in June 1911, she was again transferred back to the Boston route, on which she remained until White Star suspended their Liverpool-Boston service in November 1914 due to the escalation of the First World War, during which several of their ships were requisitioned by the British Navy for.
She was transferred back to the New York service in January 1915, on which she remained until the end of her career the following August. On 19 August 1915 U-24 sank the Arabic, outward bound for the United States, 50 mi south of Kinsale. Arabic was zigzagging at the time, the commander of U-24 said that he thought she was trying to ram his submarine, he fired a single torpedo which struck the liner aft, she sank within 10 minutes, killing 44 passengers and crew, 3 of whom were American. On 22 August US President Wilson's press officer issued a statement to the effect that the White House staff was speculating on what to do if the Arabic investigation indicated that there had been a deliberate German attack. If true, there was speculation that the US would sever relations with Germany, while if it was untrue, negotiations were possible. At the same time, US Secretary of State Robert Lansing approved Assistant Secretary Chandler Anderson's suggestion for a meeting with German Ambassador Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff to explain informally that if Germany abandoned submarine warfare, Britain would be the only violator of American neutral rights.
Anderson met Bernstorff at the Ritz Carlton Hotel in New York and reported to Lansing that Bernstorff had recognized the advantage of making Britain responsible for illegal acts unless Britain ended its war zone. Following the Arabic incident, German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg and Foreign Secretary Gottlieb von Jagow decided to tell the Americans about their secret orders of 1 June and 5 June, which instructed submarine commanders not to torpedo passenger ships without notice and provisions for the safety of passengers and crew, on 25 August Bethmann-Hollweg informed US Ambassador James W. Gerard about the June orders. Bethmann-Hollweg and von Jagow sought the Kaiser's approval to spare all passenger ships from submarine attack; this proposal angered the German admiralty, Alfred von Tirpitz offering to resign his post as Naval Secretary. The Kaiser rejected Tirpitz's offer and supported Bethmann and on 28 August the Chancellor issued new orders to submarine commanders and relayed them to Washington.
The new orders stated that until further notice, all passenger ships could only be sunk after warning and the saving of passengers and crews. In his note to Bernstorff, Bethmann instructed him to negotiate as follows: Offer Hague arbitration for the RMS Lusitania and Arabic incidents Passenger liners to be sunk only after warning and saving of lives, provided they do not flee or resist US to endeavour to reestablish free seas on the basis of the Declaration of London Haws, Duncan. Merchant Fleets in Profile. 2. London: Pan. Smith, Eugene W. Passenger Ships of the World Past and Present. New York: George H Dean Co. ISBN 99922-1-286-1. Media related to Arabic at Wikimedia Commons 1915 NYTimes article about sinking of SS Arabic
P&O was a British shipping and logistics company dating from the early 19th century. A public company, it was sold to DP World in March 2006 for £3.9 billion. DP World operate three P&O branded businesses, P&O Ferries, P&O Maritime and P&O Heritage. P&O Cruises was spun off from P&O in 2000, is now owned and operated by Carnival Corporation & plc; the former shipping business, P&O Nedlloyd, is now part of Maersk Line. In 1822, Brodie McGhie Willcox, a London ship broker, Arthur Anderson, a sailor from the Shetland Isles, northern Scotland, went into partnership to operate a shipping line operating routes between England and Spain and Portugal. In 1835, Dublin shipowner Captain Richard Bourne joined the business, the three men started a regular steamer service between London and Spain and Portugal – the Iberian Peninsula – using the name Peninsular Steam Navigation Company, with services to Vigo, Lisbon and Cádiz; the company flag colours are directly connected with the Peninsular flags: the white and blue represent the Portuguese flag in 1837, the yellow and red the Spanish flag.
At the height of the Carlist Wars the British lent their support to the legitimate heirs of Spain and Portugal and all three of P&O founders played their part, from gun running to chartering steamers. As a consequence of this association and involvement P&O officers are the only Merchant Navy officers entitled to wear swords. In 1837, the business won a contract from the British Admiralty to deliver mail to the Iberian Peninsula and in 1840 they acquired a contract to deliver mail to Alexandria in Egypt. In 1847, shortly after the Opium War, P&O entered the opium trade, they faced stiff competition from the incumbent shippers and the Apcar Line. As the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company was incorporated in 1840 by a Royal Charter its name therefore included neither "Plc" nor "Limited". Mail contracts were the basis of P&O's prosperity until the Second World War, but the company became a major commercial shipping line and passenger liner operator. In 1914, it took over the British India Steam Navigation Company, the largest British shipping line, owning 131 steamers.
In 1918, it gained a controlling interest in the Orient Line, its partner in the England-Australia mail route. Further acquisitions followed and the fleet reached a peak of 500 ships in the mid-1920s. In 1920, the company established a bank, P&O Bank, that it sold to Chartered Bank of India and China in 1927. At this time it established a commercial relationship with Spinney's of Haifa, that developed into a major regional high-end grocery store chain, which provided shipping services access to much of the Middle East; until 1934 it operated liners from Florida to Havana. Eighty-five of the company's ships were 179 in the Second World War. After 1945, the passenger market declined to India, but boomed to Australia with the advent of paid-passages for literate and healthy European immigrants known as Ten Pound Poms. P&O built 15 large passenger liners, including SS Himalaya, SS Chusan, SS Arcadia, SS Iberia, culminating in SS Canberra, its last and largest in 1961. By 1968, over 1 million immigrants had arrived—many via P&O—and Australia ended the programme.
P&O began to sell and scrap many of these liners. It concentrated on cargo ships, it entered the tanker trade in the roll-on roll-off ferry business in the mid-1960s. P&O and Orient Line were formally merged in 1960 to form P&O-Orient Lines. In 1964, Orcades and Oronsay were transferred to the P&O fleet; the name Orient Line was dropped altogether in 1966 when Orsova and Oriana were transferred to the P&O fleet. In 1969, British and Commonwealth Shipping, Furness Withy, P&O and The Ocean Steamship Company established Overseas Containers Limited to exploit containerisation. By the early 1980s, it had converted all of its dry cargo liner routes to container operations and in 1986 it bought out the remaining OCL partners, renaming the operation P&O Containers Limited. P&OCL was merged with Nedlloyd in 1996 to form P&O Nedlloyd. In 1972 P&O formally absorbed the British-India Steam Navigation Company; the amalgamation of these two companies began in 1914 but BI had retained its own identity until this time.
Strick Line and Hain-Nourse, amongst several other lines were taken over in the early 1970s. B. I. cargo ships were renamed Strath*M* or Strath*C*, the Strick line ships renamed Strath*A* and the Hain-Nourse ships Strath*T*. The newest ships were 6 Strath. P&O built 6 ships in Stocznia Gdansk, Poland and 2 ships in Japan and bought into DOT, a naval shipping company. In 1975 P&O established Pandoro for operation of the company's Irish Sea RORO routes. Pandoro was an acronym for O Ro. In 1998 P&O European Ferries Ltd was formed by the internal merger of Pandoro Ltd. and P&O European Ltd. to run the Irish Sea routes. In 1987 P&O took over the European Ferries Group Plc—to which it had sold its cross channel ferry services in 1985—which traded as Townsend Thoresen, renamed the company P&O European Ferries. Over the last quarter of the Twentieth Century P&O diversified into con
Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete, one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece; the capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065. Crete forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits, it was once the centre of the Minoan civilisation, the earliest known civilisation in Europe. The palace of Knossos lies in Crete; the island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated in Neo-Assyrian records and the Bible. It was known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu suggesting a similar Minoan name for the island; the current name of Crete is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words ke-re-te, ke-re-si-jo, "Cretan".
In Ancient Greek, the name Crete first appears in Homer's Odyssey. Its etymology is unknown. One proposal derives it from a hypothetical Luwian word, *kursatta. In Latin, it became Creta; the original Arabic name of Crete was Iqrīṭiš, but after the Emirate of Crete's establishment of its new capital at ربض الخندق Rabḍ al-Ḫandaq, both the city and the island became known as Χάνδαξ or Χάνδακας, which gave Latin and Venetian Candia, from which were derived French Candie and English Candy or Candia. Under Ottoman rule, in Ottoman Turkish, Crete was called Girit. Crete is the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, it is located in the southern part of the Aegean Sea separating the Aegean from the Libyan Sea. The island has an elongated shape: it spans 260 km from east to west, is 60 km at its widest point, narrows to as little as 12 km. Crete covers an area of 8,336 km2, with a coastline of 1,046 km, it lies 160 km south of the Greek mainland. Crete is mountainous, its character is defined by a high mountain range crossing from west to east, formed by three different groups of mountains: The White Mountains or Lefka Ori 2,454 m The Idi Range (Psiloritis 35.18°N 24.82°E / 35.18.
The island has a number of gorges, such as the Samariá Gorge, Imbros Gorge, Kourtaliotiko Gorge, Ha Gorge, Platania Gorge, the Gorge of the Dead and Richtis Gorge and waterfall at Exo Mouliana in Sitia. The rivers of Crete include the Ieropotamos River, the Koiliaris, the Anapodiaris, the Almiros, the Giofyros, Megas Potamos. There are only two freshwater lakes in Crete: Lake Kournas and Lake Agia, which are both in Chania regional unit. Lake Voulismeni at the coast, at Aghios Nikolaos, was a freshwater lake but is now connected to the sea, in Lasithi. Lakes that were created by dams exist in Crete. There are three: the lake of Aposelemis Dam, the lake of Potamos Dam, the lake of Mpramiana Dam. A large number of islands and rocks hug the coast of Crete. Many are visited by tourists, some are only visited by biologists; some are environmentally protected. A small sample of the islands includes: Gramvousa the pirate island opposite the Balo lagoon Elafonisi, which commemorates a shipwreck and an Ottoman massacre Chrysi island, which hosts the largest natural Lebanon cedar forest in Europe Paximadia island where the god Apollo and the goddess Artemis were born The Venetian fort and leper colony at Spinalonga opposite the beach and shallow waters of Elounda Dionysades islands which are in an environmentally protected region together the Palm Beach Forest of Vai in the municipality of Sitia, LasithiOff the south coast, the island of Gavdos is located 26 nautical miles south of Hora Sfakion and is the southernmost point of Europe.
Crete straddles two climatic zones, the Mediterranean and the North African falling within the former. As such, the climate in Crete is Mediterranean; the atmosphere can be quite humid, depending on the proximity to the sea, while winter is mild. Snowfall is rare in the low-lying areas. While some mountain tops are snow-capped for most of the year, near the coast snow only stays on the ground for a few minutes or hours. However, a exceptional cold snap swept the island in February 2004, during which period the whole island was blanketed with snow. During the Cretan summer, average temperatures reach the high 20s-low 30s Celsius, with maxima touching the upper 30s-mid 40s; the south coast, including the Mesara Pla
Sir Jagatjit Singh Sahib Bahadur was the ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Kapurthala in the British Empire of India from 1877 until his death in 1949. He ascended the throne of Kapurthala state on 16 October 1877, he assumed full ruling powers on 24 November 1890 and commenced a career as a world traveller and Francophile. He received the title of Maharaja in 1911, he built gardens in the city of Kapurthala. He built in the Kapurthala city's mosque and a handsome gurudwara at Sultanpur Lodhi, sacred to Guru Nanak, he served as the Indian Representative to the League of Nations General Assembly in Geneva in 1925, 1927 and 1929, attended the Round Table Conference in 1931 and was Lt Governor of the PEPSU at the time of his death in 1949, aged 76. He was cousin of Sardar Bhagat Singh, one of the few Indian Justices of High Court during the British Raj, his grandson Arun Singh was a Minister in the Rajiv Gandhi government. His full name was: Major-General His Highness Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh-al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI, GCIE, GBE.
During his life he acquired many other titles: 1872–1877: Tikka Raja Sri Jagatjit Singh Sahib Bahadur 1877–1897: His Highness Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh-al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Raja Jagatjit Singh Sahib Bahadur, Raja of Kapurthala 1897–1911: His Highness Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh-al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Raja Sir Jagatjit Singh Sahib Bahadur, Raja of Kapurthala, KCSI 1911–1918: His Highness Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh-al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI 1918–1921: Lieutenant-Colonel His Highness Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh-al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI 1921–1926: Lieutenant-Colonel His Highness Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh-al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI, GCIE 1926–1927: Colonel His Highness Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh-al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI, GCIE 1927–1943: Colonel His Highness Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh-al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI, GCIE, GBE 1943–1948: Brigadier His Highness Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh-al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI, GCIE, GBE 1948–1949: Major-General His Highness Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh-al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI, GCIE, GBE This is list of the orders and medals awarded to Jagatjit Singh, in the same order as appears on the ribbon bar: Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India 1911 Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire 1 January 1921 Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire 29 November 1927 Queen Victoria Diamond Jubilee Medal in Gold 1897 Delhi Durbar Medal in Gold 1903 King George V Coronation Medal, with Delhi Durbar Clasp 1911 King George V Silver Jubilee Medal 1935 King George VI Coronation Medal 1937 Indian Independence Medal 1947 Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown, 1st Class of the Kingdom of Prussia 1911 Grand Cordon of the Order of the Nile of the Kingdom of Egypt 1924 Grand Cordon of the Sharifan Order of Alaoui of the Kingdom of Morocco 1924 Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus of the Kingdom of Italy 1924 Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of Chile 1925 Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru 1925 Grand Cross of the Order of the Red Cross of Honour and Merit of Cuba 1925 Grand Cross of the Order of Menelik II of Empire of Ethiopia 1928 Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Sava of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1928 Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III of the Kingdom of Spain 1928 Grand Cordon of the Order of Glory of Tunisia 1928 Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Cambodia 1929 Grand Cordon of the Order of the Crown of Empire of Iran 1930 Grand Cross of the Order of the White Lion, 1st Class of Czechoslovakia 1934 Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania 1935 Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Agatha of San Marino 1935 Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Sylvester of the Vatican 1935 Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour of France 1948 Grand Cross of the Hamidiya Order of Merit of the Rampur State 1926 Singh married firstly at Paprola, on 16 April 1886, Maharani Harbans Kaur Sahiba, daughter of Mian Ranjit Singh Guleria of Paprola.
They had one son. Married secondly at Katoch, 1891, Rani Parvati Kaur Sahiba, daughter of a Sardar of Katoch, they had one son. Married thirdly at Bashahr, 1892, Rani Lakshmi Kaur Sahiba, a Princess of a Rajput family from Bashahr, they had one son. Married fourthly at Jubbal, 1895, Rani Kanari Sahiba, daughter of the Dewan of Jubbal, they had one daughter. Married fifthly at Paris, 28 January 1908, Rani Prem Kaur Sahiba, they had one son. Married sixthly at Kapurthala, 1942, Rani Tara Devi Sahiba, she committed suicide by jumping off the Qutub Minar in Delhi on 9 December 1946 in Delhi. They had no issue. Proba
Captain Christian August Max Ahlmann Valentiner was a German U-boat commander during World War I. He was the third highest-scoring U-boat commander of the war, was awarded the Pour le Mérite for his achievements, he was listed as a war criminal by the Allies, for killing hundreds of civilians by sinking the passenger liner Persia without warning on December 30, 1915, contrary to international law. The eldest of the four children of Otto Friedrich Valentiner and Mathilde Julie Valentiner, Valentiner was born in Tondern, Province of Schleswig-Holstein. In 1882, the family moved to Ketting on Als where his father held a job as a priest for two years moving to Sonderburg. Valentiner started his time in school in Ketting Augustenburg and in Sonderburg on Reimers school. At the age of 18, he joined the Imperial German Navy of the German Empire on April 1, 1902, as a Seekadett on the school ship Moltke. On August 15, 1902, he saved a ship's boy from drowning in Swinemünde's harbor, received his first of many decorations, the Rettungsmedaille.
In 1903, Valentiner joined the naval school where he attended many courses in diving, his preferred topic. He ended his training on the Hansa. On May 14, 1903, he saved an able seaman in Heligoland harbour from the waves and certain death, was awarded the Order of the Crown Medal for his courage and valour in action. On September 29, 1905, he was promoted to Leutnant zur See and in 1907 he became an officer on SMS Braunschweig, he was promoted again on March 1908, to Oberleutnant zur See. From 1908 to 1910, Valentiner was company commander for 1. Matrosen-Artillerie-Abteilung in Kiel. In 1911, Valentiner became an officer on the U-boat salvage ship SMS Vulkan. In this job, on January 17, 1911, he saved all 30 men of U-3 by getting them out via a torpedo tube after it sank in Kiel Harbour due to an unclosed valve in the ventilation shaft. Among the saved crew was Otto Weddigen the commander of U-9, Paul Clarrendorf, the commander of U-boot-Abnahme-Kommando in Kiel which enlisted U-boat crews. Valentiner received the Order of the Crown 4th class for the life-saving mission.
On July 1, 1911, Valentiner took command of the new U-boat U-10. On board he showed incredible skill and boldness and on training manoeuvres he sank several ships with drill torpedoes without being sighted, his performance changed the German vision of U-boat warfare. On March 22, 1914, Valentiner was promoted to Kapitänleutnant and nine days he became a teacher at the U-boat school in Kiel, a position he held until the outbreak of World War I on August 4, 1914, when the United Kingdom declared war on the German Empire; when World War I broke out, Valentiner took command of U-3, the U-boat on which he three years earlier saved 30 men from dying. His orders were to sink Russian warships in the Baltic Sea, but he failed, blamed the old U-boat which did not have the capabilities of the newer boats in the Kaiserliche Marine. Valentiner returned to base without any successes and was relieved from his command on October 27, 1914, he was sent to Berlin to explain the problems with the older U-boats. The prince sent him away.
When Valentiner returned to Kiel he was quite surprised to learn that he was to take command of the newest U-boat, U-38. He was allowed to choose his own officers from the U-boat school. From December 5, 1914, to September 15, 1917, Valentiner was stationed by 2. U-Halbflottille/U-Flottille Pola at the Austrian base of Cattaro, in Montenegro. All German U-boat activities in the eastern Mediterranean Sea took place from here; until the end of March 1915, U-38 had several problems with its diesel engine, repairs were required. Training of the new crew took place between repairs near the British east coast, which were considered the most safe and simple for training. After March, U-38 started to patrol in the eastern Mediterranean Sea and on December 30, 1915, U-38 and Valentiner sank the British passenger ship Persia without any warning. Of the 519 aboard, 343 perished; the action was controversial since it broke naval international law and the Rules of Prize Warfare. The action took place under Germany’s policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, but broke the Imperial German Navy’s own restriction on attacking passenger liners, the Arabic pledge.
After the attack, Valentiner was placed on the Allies list of war criminals. At home, he was awarded with the Knight's Cross with Swords of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern on May 14, 1916. On December 3, 1916, Valentiner took U-38 into the Funchal harbor on Madeira and sank three enemy ships. For this accomplishment, he became the sixth U-boat commander awarded the Pour le Mérite, on December 26. On September 15, 1917, Valentiner left U-38 and Cattaro and returned to Kiel to take command of the new U-157. Kapitänleutnant Rabe von Pappenhein was to have taken this command, but for unknown reasons, this was changed. With U-157, Valentiner undertook the longest cruise of the war, from November 27, 1917, to April 15, 1918, a total of 139 days; this cruise came to be his last. In total, he sank 150 ships with a tonnage of about 300,000 tons. Valentiner returned to the U-boat school to teach new submariners his techniques, his experience and advice were taken into account in the construction of the new boat U-143, faster and had a much improved dive time, but it was never finished.
Valentiner was accused of "cruel and inhuman treatment of crews" in fifteen different incidents involving French and Italian ships. The Allies demanded all war criminals be extradited, but most resigned and disappeared for a while, including Valentiner, he went first to Berlin, was deleted