U-boat is the anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally undersea boat. While the German term refers to any submarine, the English one refers specifically to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First and Second World Wars. Although at times they were efficient fleet weapons against enemy warships, they were most effectively used in an economic warfare role. Austro-Hungarian navy submarines were known as U-boats. The first submarine built in Germany, the three-man Brandtaucher, sank to the bottom of Kiel harbor on 1 February 1851 during a test dive, the inventor and engineer Wilhelm Bauer had designed this vessel in 1850, and Schweffel & Howaldt constructed it in Kiel. Dredging operations in 1887 rediscovered Brandtaucher, it was raised and put on display in Germany, there followed in 1890 the boats WW1 and WW2, built to a Nordenfelt design. The SM U-1 was a completely redesigned Karp-class submarine and only one was built, the Imperial German Navy commissioned it on 14 December 1906.
It had a hull, a Körting kerosene engine. The 50%-larger SM U-2 had two torpedo tubes, the U-19 class of 1912–13 saw the first diesel engine installed in a German navy boat. At the start of World War I in 1914, Germany had 48 submarines of 13 classes in service or under construction, during that war the Imperial German Navy used SM U-1 for training. Retired in 1919, it remains on display at the Deutsches Museum in Munich, on 5 September 1914, HMS Pathfinder was sunk by SM U-21, the first ship to have been sunk by a submarine using a self-propelled torpedo. On 22 September, U-9 sank the obsolete British warships HMS Aboukir, HMS Cressy, for the first few months of the war, U-boat anticommerce actions observed the prize rules of the time, which governed the treatment of enemy civilian ships and their occupants. On 20 October 1914, SM U-17 sank the first merchant ship, surface commerce raiders were proving to be ineffective, and on 4 February 1915, the Kaiser assented to the declaration of a war zone in the waters around the British Isles.
This was cited as a retaliation for British minefields and shipping blockades, under the instructions given to U-boat captains, they could sink merchant ships, even potentially neutral ones, without warning. In February 1915, a submarine U-6 was rammed and both periscopes were destroyed off Beachy Head by the collier SS Thordis commanded by Captain John Bell RNR after firing a torpedo, on 7 May 1915, SM U-20 sank the liner RMS Lusitania. The sinking claimed 1,198 lives,128 of them American civilians, munitions that it carried were thousands of crates full of ammunition for rifles, 3-inch artillery shells, and various other standard ammunition used by infantry. The sinking of the Lusitania was widely used as propaganda against the German Empire, a widespread reaction in the U. S was not seen until the sinking of the ferry SS Sussex. The sinking occurred in 1915 and the United States entered the war in 1917, the initial U. S. response was to threaten to sever diplomatic ties, which persuaded the Germans to issue the Sussex pledge that reimposed restrictions on U-boat activity
Sir Jagatjit Singh Bahadur GCSI GCIE GBE was the ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Kapurthala in the British Empire of India from 1877 until his death in 1949. He ascended the throne of Kapurthala state on 16 October 1877 and he assumed full ruling powers in November 1890 and commenced a career as a world traveller and Francophile. He received the title of Maharaja in 1911 and he built palaces and gardens in the city of Kapurthala, his main palace Jagatjit Palace there was modelled on the Palace of Versailles. He built in the Kapurthala citys mosque and a gurudwara at Sultanpur Lodhi. He was cousin of Sardar Bhagat Singh, one of the few Indian Justices of High Court during the British Raj and his son Arun Singh was a Minister in the Rajiv Gandhi government. His full name was, Major-General His Highness Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh-al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI, GCIE, GBE. Agatha of San Marino-1935 Grand Cross of the Order of St.
Sylvester of the Vatican-1935 Singh married firstly at Paprola, on 16 April 1886, Harbans Kaur, married secondly at Katoch,1891, Parvati Kaur, daughter of a Sardar of Katoch. Married thirdly,1895, Lachmi Kaur, a Princess of a Rajput family from Bashahr, married fourthly, daughter of a Dewan of Jubbal. Married fifthly at Paris,28 January 1908, Prem Kaur, married sixthly at Kapurthala,1942, Tara Devi, she was the daughter of a Czech count and Nina Maria Grossupova, an actress. She committed suicide by jumping off the Qutub Minar in Delhi on December 9,1946 in Delhi and he appeared in the American Horror Story, Freak Show episode Orphans in a flashback where he gives Elsa Mars custody of Mahadevi Ma Petite Patel. Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, the first female Indian Cabinet Minister, ahluwalia Sita Devi of Kapurthala, pre-WWII fashion icon, wife of Maharajkumar Karam of Karputhala
Compound steam engine
A compound steam engine unit is a type of steam engine where steam is expanded in two or more stages. Multiple-expansion engines employ additional cylinders, of lower pressure, to extract further energy from the steam. Invented in 1781, this technique was first employed on a Cornish beam engine in 1804, around 1850, compound engines were first introduced into Lancashire textile mills. In a single-expansion steam engine, the steam enters the cylinder at boiler pressure through an inlet valve. The steam pressure forces the piston down the cylinder, until the valve shuts and this cut-off allows much more work to be extracted, since the expansion of the steam is doing additional work beyond that done by the steam at boiler pressure. An earlier cut-off increases the ratio, which in principle allows more energy to be extracted and increases efficiency. This temperature drop would occur if the cylinder were perfectly insulating so that no heat is released from the system. As a result, steam enters the cylinder at high temperature, the changing steam temperature alternately heats and cools the cylinder with every stroke and is a source of inefficiency which increases at higher expansion ratios.
Beyond a certain point, further increasing the ratio will actually decrease efficiency due to the increased heating and cooling. A method to lessen the magnitude of this heating and cooling was invented in 1804 by British engineer Arthur Woolf, in the compound engine, high-pressure steam from the boiler first expands in a high-pressure cylinder and enters one or more subsequent lower pressure cylinders. The complete expansion of the steam occurs across multiple cylinders and, as there is less expansion in each cylinder and this reduces the magnitude of cylinder heating and cooling, making higher expansion ratios practical and increasing the efficiency of the engine. There are other advantages, as the range is smaller, cylinder condensation is reduced. Loss due to condensation is restricted to the LP cylinder, pressure difference is less in each cylinder so there is less steam leakage at the piston and valves. The turning moment is uniform, so balancing is easier. Only the smaller HP cylinder needs to be built to withstand the highest pressure, components are subject to less strain, so they can be lighter.
The reciprocating parts of the engine are lighter, reducing the engine vibrations, the compound could be started at any point in the cycle, and in the event of mechanical failure the compound could be reset to act as a simple, and thus keep running. To derive equal work from lower-pressure steam requires a larger cylinder volume as this steam occupies a greater volume, the bore, and often the stroke, are increased in low-pressure cylinders, resulting in larger cylinders. Double-expansion engines expand the steam in two stages, but this does not imply that all engines have two cylinders
Treasure hunting is the physical search for treasure. Early work in Egyptology included a similar motive, modern amateur treasure hunters use relatively inexpensive metal detectors to locate finds at terrestrial sites. Underwater archaeologist and sometime treasure hunter Peter Throckmorton, in a paper he wrote in 1969 as part of a Historical Archaeology Forum on E. Spence, I do not mean this to be so. More recently, most serious treasure hunters have started working underwater, where technology allows access to wrecks containing valuables. Starting with the suit, and moving on through Scuba and to ROVs. Many of these wrecks have resulted in the salvage of many fascinating artifacts from Spanish treasure fleets as well as many others. This convention is a legal instrument helping states parties to improve the protection of their cultural heritage. In 2013 the National Geographic Channel set off a firestorm of controversy with its reality show Diggers, capt. Martin Bayerle located the shipwreck of RMS Republic in 1981.
Treasure Salvors, Inc. founded by Mel Fisher, located the Nuestra Señora de Atocha wreck and its mother lode of silver and emeralds, in July 1985. Robert E. Burgess, Sunken Treasure Cork Graham, The Bamboo Chest,2004 Dr. E.2 million, Fayetteville Observer Lawmakers enter legal battle over Blackbeards ship, News & Observer
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Historically, it was called an automotive, locomotive or fish torpedo, colloquially called a fish. The term torpedo was originally employed for a variety of devices, from about 1900, torpedo has been used strictly to designate an underwater self-propelled weapon. Todays torpedoes can be divided into lightweight and heavyweight classes, and into straight-running, autonomous homers and they can be launched from a variety of platforms. The word torpedo comes from the name of a genus of rays in the order Torpediniformes. In naval usage, the American Robert Fulton introduced the name to refer to a gunpowder charge used by his French submarine Nautilus to demonstrate that it could sink warships. The concept of a torpedo existed many centuries before it was successfully developed. In 1275, Hasan al-Rammah described. an egg which moves itself, in modern language, a torpedo is an underwater self-propelled explosive, —but historically, the term applied to primitive naval mines. These were used on an ad hoc basis during the modern period up to the late 19th century.
An early submarine, the Turtle, attempted to lay a bomb with a fuse on the hull of HMS Eagle during the American Revolutionary War. In the early 1800s, the American inventor Robert Fulton, while in France and he coined the term torpedo in reference to the explosive charges he outfitted his submarine Nautilus. However, both the French and the Dutch governments were uninterested in the submarine, Fulton concentrated on developing the torpedo independent of a submarine deployment. However, the British government refused to purchase the invention, stating they did not wish to introduce into naval warfare a system that would give advantage to weaker maritime nations. Fulton carried out a demonstration for the US government on 20 July 1807. Further development languished as Fulton focused on his steam-boat matters, during the War of 1812, torpedoes were employed in attempts to destroy British vessels and protect American harbors. In fact a submarine deployed torpedo was used in an attempt to destroy HMS Ramillies while in New Londons harbor.
Hardy to warn the Americans to cease efforts with the use of any boat in this cruel and unheard-of warfare. Torpedoes were used by the Russian Empire during the Crimean War in 1855 against British warships in the Gulf of Finland and they used an early form of chemical detonator. During the American Civil War, the torpedo was used for what is today called a contact mine
Greenock is a town and administrative centre in the Inverclyde council area in Scotland and a former burgh within the historic county of Renfrewshire, located in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. It forms part of an urban area with Gourock to the west. The 2011 census showed that Greenock had a population of 44,248 and it lies on the south bank of the Clyde at the Tail of the Bank where the River Clyde expands into the Firth of Clyde. The name of the town has had various spellings over time and it was printed in early Acts of Parliament as Grinok, Grinock, Greinnock, and as Greinok. Old Presbyterial records used Grenok, a common spelling until it was changed to Greenock around 1700 and it has been suggested that Grian cnoc or sunny hill could refer to the hill on which the castle and mansion house stood, but this has not found much support. The towns modern indoor shopping centre is called The Oak Mall, the name is recalled in a local song. Significantly, no green oak appears on the coat of arms which features the three chalices of the Shaw Stewarts, a sailing ship in full sail and two herring above the motto God Speed Greenock.
Hugh de Grenock was created a Scottish Baron in 1296, around 1540 the adjoining barony of Finnart was passed to the Schaw family, extending their holdings westward to the boundary of Gourock, and in 1542 Sir John Schaw founded Wester Greenock castle. The coast of Greenock formed a bay with three smaller indentations, the Bay of Quick was known as a safe anchorage as far back as 1164. To its east, a sandy bay ran eastwards from the Old Kirk, the fishing village of Greenock developed along this bay, and around 1635 Sir John Schaw had a jetty built into the bay which became known as Sir Johns Bay. In that year he obtained a Charter raising Greenock to a Burgh of Barony with rights to a weekly market, further east, Saint Laurence Bay curved round past the Crawfurd Barony of Easter Greenock to Garvel Point. When a pier was built making the bay an important harbour, in 1642 it was made into the Burgh of Barony of Crawfurdsdyke, and part of the ill-fated Darien Scheme set out from this pier in 1697.
This town was renamed Cartsdyke, the fishing trade grew prosperous, with barrels of salted herring exported widely, and shipping trade developed. As seagoing ships could not go further up the River Clyde, a separate Barony of Cartsburn was created, the first baron being Thomas Craufurd. The work was completed in 1710, with quays extended out into Sir Johns Bay to enclose the harbour, in 1711 the shipbuilding industry was founded when Scotts leased ground between the harbour and the West Burn to build fishing boats. A whaling business operated for about 40 years, in 1714 Greenock became a custom house port as a branch of Port Glasgow, and for a period this operated from rooms leased in Greenock. Receipts rose rapidly from the 1770s, and in 1778 the custom house moved to new premises at the West Quay of the harbour. By 1791 a new pier was constructed at the East Quay, in 1812 Europes first steamboat service was introduced by PS Comet with frequent sailings between Glasgow and Helensburgh, and as trade built up the pier became known as Steamboat Quay
John Bigham, 1st Viscount Mersey
John Charles Bigham, 1st Viscount Mersey was a British jurist and politician. After early success as a lawyer, and a successful spell as a politician, he was appointed a judge. Bigham was born in Liverpool, the son of John Bigham, a prosperous merchant. He was educated at the Liverpool Institute High School for Boys, and the University of London, Bigham left the university without taking a degree. He travelled to Berlin and Paris to continue his education, called to the bar in 1870 by the Middle Temple, he practised commercial law in and around his native city. On 17 August 1871 he married Georgina Sarah Rogers, from Liverpool, the first of their three sons, Charles Clive Bigham, was born in 1872. In 1883, Bigham was named a Queens Counsel, in 1885, he tried his hand at politics, standing as a Liberal candidate for Parliament at the Liverpool constituency of East Toxteth, but lost. In 1892, he stood unsuccessfully in another Liverpool seat, the Exchange constituency and he was finally elected at his third attempt in 1895, standing as a Liberal Unionist.
He was never able to make a political impact, and his interest in politics was less than his interest in his legal work. During his last decade as a barrister, he was so in demand that he one of the richest lawyers in his circle. In October 1897, Bigham was named a judge to the Queens Bench, continuing his work in business law and he was knighted the following month. He presided over the railway and canal commission of 1904, worked in the bankruptcy courts and he was appointed President of the Probate and Admiralty Division in 1909, but found the divorce work unfulfilling and retired in 1910. He was raised to the peerage as Baron Mersey, of Toxteth in the County Palatine of Lancaster, in the same year. There was some criticism of his handling of the inquiry, some felt he was biased towards the Board of Trade, about the last, Mersey is among those suspected by conspiracy theorists of a coverup. His biographer Hugh Mooney writes that such suspicions are wholly conjectural, Mersey was raised in the peerage from baron to viscount in 1916.
His wife died in 1925, and he died four years at Littlehampton in Sussex, merseys third son was Sir Trevor Bigham, who became Deputy Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis. His first son, Colonel Charles Clive Bigham, survived the sinking of the passenger ship SS Persia in 1915, the full story of the RMS Titanic
A cargo liner is a type of merchant ship which carries general cargo and often passengers. They became common just after the middle of the 19th century, a cargo liner has been defined as, A vessel which operated a regular scheduled service on a fixed route between designated ports and carries many consignments of different commodities. Cargo liners transported general freight, from raw materials to manufactures to merchandise, many had cargo holds adapted to particular services, with refrigerator space for frozen meats or chilled fruit, tanks for liquid cargos such as plant oils, and lockers for valuables. Cargo liners typically carried passengers as well, usually in a single class and they differed from ocean liners which focussed on the passenger trade, and from tramp steamers which did not operate on regular schedules. Cargo liners sailed from port to port along routes and on published in advance. The cargo liner developed in the century with the advancement of technology allowing bigger steamships to be built.
As cargo liners were faster than cargo ships, they were used for the transport of perishable and high-value goods. At first, they were used in Europe and America as well as across the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and America. The use and increased reliability of the steam engine gave greater fuel efficiency. Alfred Holt pioneered the use of engines in his steamships. By the last third of the 19th century it was possible for a steamship to carry coal to travel 6,000 miles before needing to refuel. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the Panama Canal in 1914 made the use of cargo liners more profitable, Cargo liners soon comprised the great portion of the British merchant fleet, the largest in the world. With a focus on freight, most cargo liners carried a limited number of passengers, most commonly 12. The decline of the cargo liner came in the 1970s with the introduction of container ships, surviving examples include RMS St Helena and Claymore II. A number of container vessels still offer a small number of berths to paying passengers.
Typically a maximum of 12 passengers are carried as the ship would be required to carry a doctor if a greater number were on board. The recreational facilities are used by the crew and may be limited to a lounge, a gym with exercise equipment. Such journeys are of interest to people seeking a travel experience
Imperial German Navy
The Imperial German Navy was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire. It existed between 1871 and 1919, growing out of the small Prussian Navy, which primarily had the mission of coastal defence, Kaiser Wilhelm II greatly expanded the navy, and enlarged its mission. The key leader was Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, who expanded the size and quality of the navy. The result was an arms race with Britain as the German navy grew to become one of the greatest maritime forces in the world. The German surface navy proved ineffective during World War I, its only major engagement, the submarine fleet was greatly expanded and posed a major threat to the British supply system. The Imperial Navys main ships were turned over to the Allies, all ships of the Imperial Navy were designated SMS, for Seiner Majestät Schiff. The Imperial Navy achieved some important operational feats, the Navy emerged from the fleet action of the Battle of Jutland having destroyed more ships than it lost, although the strategic value of both of these encounters was minimal.
The Imperial Navy was the first to operate successfully on a large scale in wartime, with 375 submarines commissioned by the end of the First World War. The unification of Germany under Prussian leadership was the point for the creation of the Imperial Navy in 1871. The newly created emperor, Wilhelm I, as King of Prussia, had previously been head of state of the strongest state forming part of the new empire, supreme command was vested in the emperor, but its first appointed chief was General der Infanterie Albrecht von Stosch. Kiel on the Baltic Sea and Wilhelmshaven on the North Sea served as the Navys principal naval bases, the former Navy Ministry became the Imperial Admiralty on 1 February 1872, while Stosch became formally an admiral in 1875. Initially the main task of the new Imperial Navy was coastal protection, with France, the Imperial Navys tasks were to prevent any invasion force from landing and to protect coastal towns from possible bombardment. In March 1872 a German Imperial Naval Academy was created at Kiel for training officers, followed in May by the creation of a Machine Engineer Corps, in July 1879 a separate Torpedo Engineer Corps was created dealing with torpedoes and mines.
In May 1872 a ten-year building programme was instituted to modernise the fleet, the building plan had to be approved by the Reichstag, which controlled the allocation of funds, although one-quarter of the money came from French war reparations. In 1883 Stosch was replaced by general, Count Leo von Caprivi. At this point the navy had seven armoured frigates and four armoured corvettes,400 officers and 5,000 ratings, in October 1887 the first torpedo division was created at Wilhelmshaven and the second torpedo division based at Kiel. In 1887 Caprivi requested the construction of ten armoured frigates, greater importance was placed at this time on development of the army, which was expected to be more important in any war. This shortened the journey for commercial ships, but specifically united the two areas principally of concern to the German navy, at a cost of 150 million marks, the protection of German maritime trade routes became important