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STOBAR is a system used for the launch and recovery of aircraft from the deck of an aircraft carrier, combining elements of short take-off and vertical landing with catapult-assisted take-off barrier-arrested recovery. Aircraft launch under their own power using a ski-jump to assist take-off. However, the planes are conventional, rather than STOVL aircraft, thus require arrestor wires to land on the ship; the STOBAR system is simpler to build than CATOBAR. As of 2018 it has been used on Russian and Chinese carriers. Compared to CATOBAR, STOBAR is less expensive to develop, it is easier to operate than a CATOBAR configuration which requires large number of operators to launch the aircraft. Lack of any moving parts in ski-jump makes it less expensive to maintain the launch system, it does not require any additional system to generate force required to launch the aircraft unlike CATOBAR where an external force is needed to be generated either from steam catapult or Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System to launch the aircraft.

One major limitation of STOBAR configuration is that it only works with fighter aircraft that have a high thrust-to-weight ratio such as Su-33 or MiG-29K and thus limits the kind of aircraft that can be operated from the carrier. It is not known what restrictions ski-jump takeoff implies on maximal aircraft weight. According to some sources, in order to become airborne, the aircraft may be required to limit its weaponry and fuel package in order to reduce the launch weight of the aircraft; however according to other sources, the Super Hornet can take-off from a ski-jump with a significant weapons load. Using ski-jump can limit the ability to conduct sorties faster on STOBAR aircraft carrier. STOBAR carriers must maintain a speed of 20–30 kn in order to generate wind speed required on deck, essential for conducting aircraft launch operations. HAL Tejas – two naval variants are being developed for the Indian Navy. Mikoyan MiG-29K – active with the Indian Navy and the Russian Navy. Shenyang J-15 – based on the Su-33, operated by the People's Liberation Army Navy on Liaoning.

Sukhoi Su-33 – developed from Su-27 and only operated by the Russian Navy. As of February 2020, three countries operate STOBAR type carriers. However, both India and China are in the process of building their own STOBAR carriers

Rauch (company)

Rauch is an Austrian beverage company based in Rankweil. It was founded in 1919. Rauch brand is known for producing a range of juices; the company exports products to about 100 countries and offers private-label production services such as Bravo sold throughout the former Yugoslavia, Albania. The family business was founded by Franz Josef Rauch in 1919 as a cider press for the surrounding farmers. In the interwar period, the fruit juice production was carried out industrially. In 1962 the company got internationally oriented. In the 1970s, Rauch became the market leader in the Austrian market with the brands Happy Day and Bravo and sold Tetra-Pak instead of glass bottles; when a campaign against smoking was launched in Austria with the slogan "Ohne Rauch geht's auch", the company Rauch created the advertising slogan "Ohne Rauch geht's nicht, wenn man denn vom Fruchtsaft spricht" and was thus known until the 1980s. In 1998, the beverage supply was extended to ice tea. In addition, the brewery Fohrenburg was taken over in Bludenz.

Since other brands of various non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages have been launched on the market. On 8 June 2016, the Federal Competition Authority of Austria announced a decision of the Cartel Court on 3.3.2016 against Rauch Fruchtsäfte GmbH & Co OG and Rauch Fruchtsäfte GmbH. Due to vertical price adjustments of final retail prices to retail customers in the period from September 2003 to March 2012, a fine of 1.7 million euro was imposed. In 2017, the beverage producer was honored as the "Top Brand 2017" in the fruit drinks category in Germany, it was the most successful year in the company's history and the company was able to increase sales by 88 percent from EUR 881 million to EUR 902 million. The production covers four business areas: the actual fruit juice production, fruit juice concentrates, the brewery Fohrenburg and co-packing; the products are exported to over 90 countries. Today, Rauch is the world's only bottler of beverages for Red Bull GmbH. Rauch cooperates with the German Bitburger Brewery Group.

As part of this cooperation since February 2008 Rauch products are distributed by Bitburger. The company has a total of 17 locations in 12 European countries, with each subsidiary being assigned to a respective national subsidiary of Rauch; the following production branches exist: Austria: Rankweil und Nüziders Hungary: Budapest Switzerland: Widnau Serbia: Koceljeva and Belgrad Poland: PrzeworskOther branches are located in: Bulgaria: Sofia Germany: Planegg Italy: Brianza Croatia: Zagreb Poland: Siemiatycze, Płońsk, Kluczkowice-Osiedle Romania: Bukarest Slovakia: Bratislava Slovenia Czech Republic: Prag In ski racing, Rauch Fruchtsäfte is partner of the Austrian Ski Association as well as the Slovenian and the ski racers Anna Veith, Katharina Liensberger and Petra Vlhová are supported. Rauch fruit juices supports the football clubs FC Red Bull Salzburg and in Germany since 2017 the RB Leipzig. In cooperation with Red Bull GmbH, the Rauch logo can be seen on the Formula 1 car from Red Bull Racing.

In beach volleyball was Rauch fruit juices sponsors of various events, such as the 2017 World Cup in Vienna. Since Commission Regulation No. 259/2008 in March 2008, recipients of the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development have been published on the internet. As a result, it has been announced that Rauch receives export refunds from these funds to offset the difference between world sugar prices and high EU prices in order to remain internationally competitive. In the years 2008 to 2010, Rauch was by far the largest beneficiary of this money in Austria. Since 2011, the prices of EU sugar and the world market price are more or less balanced and compensation payments are therefore unnecessary. Company website Rauch Valley

Staple Bend Tunnel

The Staple Bend Tunnel, about 4 miles east of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, in a town called Mineral Point, was constructed between 1831 and 1834 for the Allegheny Portage Railroad. Construction began on April 12, 1831; this tunnel, at 901 feet in length, was the first railway tunnel constructed in the United States. It is stone-lined. Finished in June 1833, the Staple Bend Tunnel was advertised as the first railroad tunnel in the United States, it was the third tunnel of any kind built in the U. S.. Work began on November 21, 1831, occurred during inclement conditions; the men were paid room and board for 12-hour days, 6 days per week. Workers blasted 901 feet of solid rock to make the tunnel. 14,900 cubic yards of bedrock was removed using black powder blasting. This was done by packing them with powder. Drilling one typical hole took up to three hours of hard effort using a three-man crew. Nine to ten holes, each one inch in diameter and 36 inches in length, were made before blasting. One pound of explosive powder wrapped in paper was pushed into each hole, tamped down, punctured with a sharp needle, a fuse added.

Fuses were lit with explosions to occur at mealtime. Workers would eat. Of the 36-inch hole drilled only 18 inches, or half of the hole, was blasted; the tunnel grew about 18 inches each day, with both sides moving toward the center. On December 21, 1832, the workmen broke through the final barrier and connected the two ends of the tunnel. There was much celebration with toasts; the full tunnel excavation was completed in April 1833. The ends of the Staple Bend Tunnel were lined with cut stone for safety. Rock and dirt might fall due to rain or other weather, or from the effects of the Portage Railroad going through the tunnel; the fancy entrances to the tunnel were to impress the general public. The style was described as a "Roman Revival style with low relief lintel supported by Doric pilasters on each side." Of the total $37,498.85 spent, nearly half was to build the fancy entrance ways. After a few years of operation, the Allegheny Portage Railroad, including the tunnel, was sold to the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1857.

In 1907, Henry Storey wrote that the east entrance facade of the tunnel had been removed for building purposes. He gave no indication of the building on which the stones were used; the west entrance facade has been restored to its former grandeur. After the demise of the old Portage Railroad the tunnel had other uses. Neither the "new Portage" nor the Pennsylvania Railroad used the tunnel, it was instead a popular carriage route until the Johnstown Flood in 1889. Afterward, flood damage and other concerns made the tunnel a less desirable driving spot although local residents continued to visit, go courting at the tunnel until the 1940s. In the 1940s a concrete liner was added to the east portal of the tunnel and large water lines as well as a water vault structure were built; the Manufacturer's Water Company closed the tunnel to the public and the water lines were used by Bethlehem Steel. The tunnel was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1994, in 2001 became part of the Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site, administered by the National Park Service.

Rock bolts, shoring posts, other reinforcements were added as well as a thin mortar between the historic blocks. The tunnel is now open to the public for use as part of the Staple Bend Tunnel Trail. List of tunnels documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in Pennsylvania This article incorporates public domain text created by the US government. See: Historic American Buildings Survey No. PA-1233, "Allegheny Portage Railroad, Staple Bend Tunnel" Historic American Engineering Record No. PA-240, "Allegheny Portage Railroad, Staple Bend Tunnel" National Park Service website for Staple Bend Tunnel Cambria County listings at National Register of Historic Places Staple Bend Tunnel restoration

Queen's (TV series)

Queen's known as Queen's Glass Slipper, is a 2007 Taiwanese romantic comedy television series starring Tang Zhen Gang and Joelle Lu. It started to air on March 3, 2007, it is based on the Korean comic series Queen's by Ha Sung-Hyen. Tie Xiong has been in love with his best friend Cai Ke Er since the first day. Cai Ke Er is a girl with an obsession with Anime and Manga and dreams of designing costumes for Cosplay. In hopes of winning Ke Er's heart, Tie Xiong becomes what he thinks is Ke Er's ideal man... cute, good at cooking and sewing, not to mention... Ke Er's cross-dressing cosplay model code-named "Saber"! But who would have known that what Ke Er wanted wasn't a cute and cuddly at all... but an athletic, ill-tempered basketball player, Jin Yong Jun. Tie Xiong, being somewhat devastated, sets out to become all and more of what Ke Er wants... and finds some added help when he picks up a comic book titled: "The Real Man". Tang Zhen Gang as Tie Xiong Joelle Lu as Lin Fu Nan Amanda Cou as Cai Ke Er Andy Gong as Jin Yong Jun Shatina Chen as Sun Ya Ying Michael Zhang as Zhuang Ren He Renzo Liu as Tie Xiong's father Lin Mei-hsiu as Tie Xiong's mother Gina Lin as Tie Xiong's eldest sister Wei Ru (as Tie Xiong's second sister Shen Dong Jing as Wu Rong En Liu Er Jin as School Dean Weber Yang as General manager secretary Official CTS Site Official GTV Site

Oxfordshire rising of 1596

The Oxfordshire rising took place in November 1596 under the rule of Queen Elizabeth I of England during times of bad harvest and unprecedented poverty. A small group of impoverished men developed a plan to seize weapons and armour and march on London, hoping to attract "200 or 300... from various towns of that shire". They met on Enslow Hill on 21 November, but without any of the assumed support were arrested, tortured due to suspicions of a wider conspiracy. A year two of the men were hanged and quartered for their treason; the years 1596-98 were the worst for many years for the English population, as bad harvests coincided with outbreaks of disease, as well as a fall in wages which forced many people into starvation. Given the state of the poorest classes, those with property felt threatened by revolt, a fact not helped by the boom in publishing of sensationalist literature detailing the many'crimes' of vagrants thanks to new printing technology. Over 20% of the rural population were considered'poor' and so these fears were easy to feed.

Furthermore, as it was up to the local gentry and JPs to enforce these laws there was a great deal of inconsistency in their application. As population levels started to rise in the second half of the sixteenth century, pressure on land for food and work increased, the enclosure of common land, whether agreed amicably among farmers or enforced illegally by greedy landlords, was seen by distressed groups as the cause of their grief. For much of the period grain prices rose ahead of wool prices and enclosure attracted less political attention. By the 1590s, private profit was replacing communal co-operation. Allegations that common lands had been fenced off, villagers denied rights of pasturage and land converted from arable to pasture lay behind events in Oxfordshire in 1596; the ringleader of the rising was a carpenter from Hampton Poyle named Bartholomew Steer. Along with two other men, Steer formulated a plan to protest against enclosures after between forty and sixty men visited the county's Lord Lieutenant, Lord Norris, asked him to help the poor.

However the protest soon escalated into a more violent plot, first to throw down the enclosures themselves and to seize weapons from the Lord Lieutenant's residence and kill several local landowners. Steer and two brothers, millers James and Richard Bradshaw, tried to recruit further support as they travelled round the local area. Steer arranged for the plotters to meet on Enslow Hill at 9pm on 21 November, assuming they would attract wide support, proposed they march to London after attacking local targets in order to link up with the London apprentices. Steer seems to have selected Enslow Hill due to folk memories of a previous rising, suppressed there in 1549: he told one man that the commons had risen and been "hanged like dogs" after being persuaded to return home, but that he intended to go through with his plan and "would never yield". However, there were some signs; when Steer asked his brother how much support he could expect in Witney and received a discouraging response, he commented that "if all men were of that mind they might live like slaves as he did.

But for himself happ what would, for he could die but once and he would not alwaies live like a slave". Four men gathered at Enslow Hill on the 21st: Steer, Thomas Horne, a servant from Hampton Gay, Robert Burton, a Beckley mason, Edward Bompass, a fuller who had promised to bring support from the neighbouring village of Kirtlington. However, no one else appeared and the gathering disbanded after two hours, it is possible that they were victims of a misunderstanding, as a larger group of armed men, who remained anonymous, had been seen to gather on the hill the preceding Sunday. It seems that the men's proposal of violent methods and their marginal status in the community as young, landless artisans contributed to the lack of support; the plotters were arrested after a servant, Roger Symonds, who Steer had tried to recruit, informed his landlord of the plan. Although Norris himself tried to play down the significance of the'rising', the Privy Council considered this rebellion threatening in the context of the time and the climate of general dissatisfaction as Robert Burton was taken into custody in London, where he may have been attempting to solicit support among the City apprentices.

Sir Edward Coke advised that the ringleaders were liable for charges of treason, "making war against the Queen", under a 1571 Act, although it appears that not all the statute's legal requirements had in fact been met. Five principal ringleaders - Steer and Richard Bradshaw and Burton - were taken to London tied to the backs of horses and guarded to prevent their conversing with one another. There they were interrogated. Around twenty other men were imprisoned or interrogated, though not charged with treason as the ringleaders were; as the authorities were eager to discover if any gentry were involved in the conspiracy, the use of torture was authorised, Coke pursued the charges with extreme aggression, despite the misgivings of several judges regarding his interpretation of the statutes. Coke appears to have based his arguments on defective knowledge of a riot that took place on May Day 1517, the so-called "Evil May Day". Steer in his defiant testimony claimed that he "stood in no need" himself, but "meant to have risen to help his poor friends, other poor people in misery".

Despite the charge of treason, on the terms of the 1571 statute, b


Clément-Bayard, Bayard-Clément, was a French manufacturer of automobiles and airships founded in 1903 by entrepreneur Gustave Adolphe Clément. Clément obtained consent from the Conseil d'Etat to change his name to that of his business in 1909; the extra name celebrated the Chevalier Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard who saved the town of Mézières in 1521. A statue of the Chevalier stood in front of Clément's Mézières factory, the image was incorporated into the company logo. From 1903 Clément-Bayard automobiles were built in a modern factory at Mézières, known as La Macérienne, which Clément had designed in 1894 for building bicycles; the company entered the field of aviation in 1908, announcing the construction of Louis Capazza's'planeur', a lenticular airship, in L'Aérophile in May 1908.: however it was never built. Adolphe Clément built Alberto Santos-Dumont's Demoiselle No 19 monoplane that he had designed to compete for the Coupe d'Aviation Ernest Archdeacon prize from the Aéro-Club de France.

It was the world's first series production aircraft and by 1909 Clement-Bayard had the license to manufacture Wright engines alongside their own design. In 1908'Astra Clément-Bayard' began manufacturing airships at a new factory in La Motte-Breuil. In 1914 the factory La Macérienne at Mézières was seized by the advancing German army and automobile production in Levallois-Perret, was suspended as the factory was turned over to war production, military equipment and military vehicles, aero engines and planes. In 1922 the company was broken up and the factory in Paris was taken over by Citroën. Circa 1909 Adolphe Clément received permission from the Conseil d'État to change his name to Adolphe Clément-Bayard. In 1896 Adolphe Clément who held the profitable manufacturing rights for Dunlop tyres in France joined with a syndicate led by Dunlop's founder Harvey Du Cros to buy out the Gladiator Cycle Company and they merged it into a major bicycle manufacturing conglomerate of Clément, Gladiator & Humber & Co Limited.

The range was expanded, in 1902 a motorised bicycle led to cars and motorcycles. Clément chose the name Bayard in commemoration of the Chevalier Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard who saved the town of Mézières in 1521. A statue of the Chevalier stood in front of the Mézières factory, the image was incorporated into the company logo. After the split both marques built similar cars, but the specifications diverged. Clément-Bayard cars were imported to Britain under the Talbot brand; the initial model range comprised three models and was enhanced in 1904 with a 6Hp single-cylinder, a 7Hp twin-cylinder, 14Hp, 20Hp & 27Hp 4-cylinders. From 1904 Clément-Bayard production at Levallois-Perret increased from 1,800 cars per annum to 3,000 in 1907, employing up to 4,000 workers; the range included several models, all luxurious and high quality, from a small two-seater twin-cylinder 8-10 hp to a big four-cylinder 50-60 hp model that could exceed 60 km/h. In 1907 the 10/12 hp model was introduced with a dashboard radiator.

In 1910 Clément-Bayard started to manufacture a stylish, low cost, two-seater roadster, with a 4-cylinder 10/12 hp, a heater for the driver and passenger. It was popular and production continued until the outbreak of war in 1914. By 1913 the factories of Levallois and Mezieres were focused on the production of a wide range of products including car chassis, car bodies, trucks, airplanes, canoes, bicycles and generators. On the front page of the 15 November 1913 edition of the Revue de l’industrie automobile et aéronautique Clément-Bayard announced a new 4-cylinder 30-40 Hp motor. By early 1914 Clément-Bayard had a complete range of twelve models, from two to six seats, equipped with engines ranging from a small 7 hp twin-cylinder for less than 7000 francs to a big 6-cylinder 30 Hp unit. Additionally there was a 20 Hp four-cylinder'valveless' Knight engine, licensed from Panhard et Levassor. In 1914 the factory La Macérienne at Mézières was seized by the advancing German army and automobile manufacture in Levallois-Perret, was suspended as the factory was turned over to war production: military equipment.

After World War I motor production resumed with a 17.6 hp model. Clément-Bayard started building automobiles in 1903 and started building racing cars in 1904; the racing team included Albert Clément, Jacques Guders, Rene Hanriot, Marc-Philippe Villemain,'Carlès', "De la Touloubre" and A. Villemain, Pierre Garcets. Albert Clément finished 10th at the I Eliminatoires Françaises de la Coupe Internationale, held at the Forest of Argonne on 20 May 1904; this was an eliminating contest for the French entry into the Coupe Internationale where only three cars were allowed per country. Clement finished 532.79 km event in 7 hours 10 minutes 52.8 seconds. His team-mates Jacques Guders and Rene Hanriot failed to complete a single lap. Albert Clément won the II Circuit des Ardennes des Voiturettes on 24 July 1904 at Bastogne, he completed the 5 lap 240.010 km race in 4h 26m 52.6seconds at an average speed of 53.91 km/h in an 18Hp Clement -. He set the fastest lap of the race at 45minutes 02seconds. Clément drove his Clement-Bayard into third place at the III Circuit des Ardennes race at Bastogne, on 25 July 1904.

He completed 591.255 km event in 6 hours 34 minutes 43.2 seconds. His team-mates Jacques Guders and Rene Hanriot both abandoned after four laps. Clément finished second at the 1904 I. W. K. Vanderbilt Cup Race on Long I