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A short take-off and vertical landing aircraft is a fixed-wing aircraft, able to take off from a short runway and land vertically. The formal NATO definition is: A Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing aircraft is a fixed-wing aircraft capable of clearing a 15 m obstacle within 450 m of commencing take-off run, capable of landing vertically. On aircraft carriers, non-catapult-assisted, fixed-wing short takeoffs are accomplished with the use of thrust vectoring, which may be used in conjunction with a runway "ski-jump". Use of STOVL tends to allow aircraft to carry a larger payload compared to vertical take-off and landing, while still only requiring a short runway; the most famous examples are the Sea Harrier. Although technically VTOL aircraft, they are operationally STOVL aircraft due to the extra weight carried at take-off for fuel and armaments; the same is true of the F-35B Lightning II, which demonstrated VTOL capability in test flights but is operationally a STOVL. In 1951, the Lockheed XFV and the Convair XFY Pogo tailsitters were both designed around the Allison YT40 turboprop engine driving contra-rotating propellers.

The British Hawker P.1127 took off vertically in 1960, demonstrated conventional take-off in 1961. It was developed into the Hawker Siddeley Harrier which flew in 1967. In 1962, Lockheed built the XV-4 Hummingbird for the U. S. Army, it sought to "augment" available thrust by injecting the engine exhaust into an ejector pump in the fuselage. First flying vertically in 1963, it suffered a fatal crash in 1964, it was converted into the XV-4B Hummingbird for the U. S. Air Force as a testbed for separate, vertically mounted lift engines, similar to those used in the Yak-38 Forger; that plane flew and crashed in 1969. The Ryan XV-5 Vertifan, built for the U. S. Army at the same time as the Hummingbird, experimented with gas-driven lift fans; that plane used fans in the nose and each wing, covered by doors which resembled half garbage can lids when raised. However, it crashed twice, proved to generate a disappointing amount of lift, was difficult to transition to horizontal flight. Of dozens of VTOL and V/STOL designs tried from the 1950s to 1980s, only the subsonic Hawker Siddeley Harrier and Yak-38 Forger reached operational status, with the Forger being withdrawn after the fall of the Soviet Union.

Rockwell International built, abandoned, the Rockwell XFV-12 supersonic fighter which had an unusual wing which opened up like window blinds to create an ejector pump for vertical flight. It never generated enough lift to get off the ground despite developing 20,000 lbf of thrust; the French had a nominally Mach 2 Dassault Mirage IIIV fitted with no less than 8 lift engines that flew, but did not have enough space for fuel or payload for combat missions. The German EWR VJ 101 used swiveling engines mounted on the wingtips with fuselage mounted lift engines, the VJ 101C X1 reached supersonic flight on 29 July 1964; the supersonic Hawker Siddeley P.1154, which competed with the Mirage IIIV for use in NATO, was cancelled as the aircraft were being built. NASA uses the abbreviation SSTOVL for Supersonic Short Take-Off / Vertical Landing, as of 2012, the X-35B/F-35B are the only aircraft to conform with this combination within one flight; the experimental Mach 1.7 Yakovlev Yak-141 did not find an operational customer, but similar rotating rear nozzle technology is used on the F-35B.

The F-35B Lightning II entered service on July 31, 2015. Larger STOVL designs were considered, the Armstrong Whitworth AW.681 cargo aircraft was under development when cancelled in 1965. The Dornier Do 31 got as far as three experimental aircraft before cancellation in 1970. Although a VTOL design, the V-22 Osprey has increased payload when taking off from a short runway

Bennett Cerf

Bennett Alfred Cerf was an American publisher and co-founder of the American publishing firm Random House. Cerf was known for his own compilations of jokes and puns, for regular personal appearances lecturing across the United States, for his television appearances in the panel game show What's My Line? Bennett Cerf was born on May 25, 1898, in Manhattan, New York, to a Jewish family of Alsatian and German origin. Cerf's father Gustave Cerf was a lithographer, she died. Cerf graduated from Townsend Harris High School in 1916, the same public school as publisher Richard Simon and playwright Howard Dietz, he spent his teenage years at 790 Riverside Drive, an apartment building in Washington Heights, home to two friends who became prominent as adults: Howard Dietz and Hearst newspapers financial editor Merryle Rukeyser. He received his Bachelor of Arts from Columbia College of his Litt. B. From its School of Journalism. After graduation, he worked as a reporter for the New York Herald Tribune and for some time in a Wall Street brokerage.

He was named a vice-president of the publishing firm Boni & Liveright. In 1925, Cerf and Donald S. Klopfer formed a partnership to purchase the rights to the Modern Library from Boni & Liveright, they went into business for themselves, they increased the popularity of the series and, in 1927, they began publishing general trade books which they had selected "at random." This began their publishing business. It used as its logo a little house drawn by fellow Columbia alumnus Rockwell Kent. Cerf's talent in building and maintaining relationships brought contracts with such writers as William Faulkner, John O'Hara, Eugene O'Neill, James Michener, Truman Capote, Theodor Seuss Geisel, others, he published Atlas Shrugged, written by Ayn Rand though he vehemently disagreed with her philosophy of Objectivism. He admired her "sincerity" and "brillian," and the two became lifelong friends. In 1933, Cerf won United States v. One Book Called Ulysses, a landmark court case against government censorship, thereafter he published James Joyce's unabridged Ulysses for the first time in the United States.

In 1933, Random House had the rights to publish the book in the United States, they arranged for a test case to challenge the implicit ban so as to publish the work without fear of prosecution. The publisher therefore made an arrangement to import the French edition of the book and to have a copy seized by the United States Customs Service when the ship arrived carrying the work. Despite advance warning to Customs of the anticipated arrival of the book, the local official declined to confiscate it, stating that "everybody brings that in." He and his superior were convinced to seize the work. The United States Attorney took seven months before deciding whether to proceed further; the Assistant U. S. Attorney assigned to assess the work's obscenity felt that it was a "literary masterpiece"—yet he found it obscene within the meaning of the law; the office, decided to take action against the work under the provisions of the Tariff Act of 1930, which allowed a district attorney to bring action. Cerf presented the French-language book to Columbia University.

In 1944, Cerf published the first of his collection of joke books Try and Stop Me, with illustrations drawn by Carl Rose. A second book, Shake Well Before Using, was published in 1949, it was at this time that he became a member of the Peabody Awards Board of Jurors, serving from 1946 through 1967 returning to the board from 1970 to 1971. Additionally, he served as Chair Juror of the Peabody Jurors Board from 1954 to the end of his first term in 1967 and published a weekly column titled "The Cerf Board," in the Sunday supplement magazine This Week. In 1959, Maco Magazine Corporation published what became known as "The Cream of the Master's Crop," a compilation of Cerf's jokes, stories and wit. Prior to 1951, Cerf was an occasional panelist on the NBC game show Who Said That?, in which celebrities try to determine the speaker of quotations taken from recent news reports. In 1951, he began appearing weekly on What's My Line? and continued for 16 years until the show ended its run on CBS in 1967.

Until his death, Cerf continued to appear on the CBS Films, Inc. syndicated version of What's My Line?, along with Arlene Francis. Cerf was known as "Bennett Snerf" in a Sesame Street puppet parody of What's My Line?. During his time on What's My Line?, Cerf received an honorary degree from the University of Puget Sound. Cerf was a juror at the Miss America contest twice. Cerf was interviewed in 1967 and 1968 by Robin Hawkins, a freelancer working for the Oral History Research Office at Columbia University. Cerf claimed that, of all the awards which he'd received in his life, he was "genuinely proud of" those bestowed on him by humor magazines The Yale Record and The Harvard Lampoon. Cerf was the subject of Jessica Mitford's exposé, published in the July 1970 issue of Atlantic Monthly, which denounced the business practices of the Famous Writers School which Cerf had founded. S. J. Perelman's 1945 feuilleton "No Dearth of Mirth, Fill Out the Coupon", describes Perelman's fictionalized encounter with a jokebook publisher named Barnaby Chirp.

Perelman's 1962 play, The Beauty Part, f

Baldpate Mountain (Maine)

Baldpate Mountain is a mountain located in Oxford County, Maine. Baldpate has two prominent peaks. Baldpate is flanked to the north by Surplus Mountain, to the northeast by Black Mountain, to the southeast by Mount Hittie. To the southwest, Baldpate Mountain faces Old Speck Mountain across Grafton Notch, which by convention marks the northeast end of the Mahoosuc Range. Baldpate Mountain is within the watershed of the Androscoggin River, which drains into Merrymeeting Bay, the estuary of the Kennebec River, into the Gulf of Maine; the northwest side of Baldpate Mountain drains into the Swift Cambridge River into the Dead Cambridge River and Umbagog Lake, the source of the Androscoggin River. The southeast and southwest sides of Baldpate drain into the Bear River into the Androscoggin; the northeast side of Baldpate Mtn. drains into the West Branch of the Ellis River into the Androscoggin. The Appalachian Trail, a 2,170 mi National Scenic Trail from Georgia to Maine, runs from Grafton Notch to Surplus Mountain across both peaks of Baldpate.

List of mountains in Maine New England Hundred Highest New England Fifty Finest

Sofia Zoo

[[File:QRpedia-code-Sofia-Zoo-2. JPG|thumb|right|Interpretation panel for the Eurasian lynx Sofia Zoo in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, was founded by royal decree on 1 May 1888, is the oldest and largest zoological garden in southeastern Europe, it covers 36 hectares and, in March 2006, housed 4,850 animals representing 840 species. The zoo was located in the park of the former royal palace, with the primary attraction being a Eurasian black vulture caught in Bulgaria and exhibited in a cage in the garden. Pheasants and deer were added to the collection, but since the exhibits and facilities of the time proved inadequate to accommodate a pair of brown bears, Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria ordered a grant of land to be awarded to Sofia Zoo on the grounds of the former botanical garden in the outskirts of the city. Sofia Zoo's exhibition of animals increased, with both local and foreign species being added, most notably a pair of lions in 1892, which were housed in a former stable and a lion cub was born the same year.

Between 1893 and 1895, new cages and buildings were constructed to accommodate the ever-increasing collection of birds and mammals, including a solid three-room stone building in the back of the terrain designed to be inhabited by bears, a pool where a few pink-backed pelicans lived, a building to accommodate pheasants and another one for eagles. Sofia Zoo moved from its original location in the centre of the city to a new 36-hectare site about 4.5 kilometres south of Sofia in 1982. Grazing animalsThe zoo has some 80 individuals representing 20 grazing species, including white rhinos, elephant, red deer, wild boar, dromedary camels, American bison. PrimatesPrimates are housed in two pavilions; the zoo has 93 individuals representing 19 species, including ring-tailed lemurs, yellow baboons, common marmoset, macaques. PredatorsThe predator sector houses big cats and small predators, including lions, leopards and brown bears. PenguinsIn January 2011 the zoo received eight Humboldt penguins on loan from Germany.

The penguins are on loan for about 18 months, after which they will be returned, with any offspring to stay at the zoo. BirdsThe zoo has some 1,400 individual birds representing 192 species. Waterbirds are housed in a 1.5-hectare lake, Imperial eagles, Griffon vultures, Egyptian vultures and buzzards in a large walk-through aviary. Other species of birds at the zoo include ostriches, Silver pheasants, flamingos, blue-and-yellow macaws, owls and cockatiels; the zoo's veterinary clinic includes a separate entrance and is accessible to the public without entry to the zoo. Sofia Zoo is in the process of upgrading its facilities to meet current European standards in preparation for becoming a full member of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. In 2009, the central heating at the zoo was shut down because the gas supply into the country was stopped by Russia due to a pricing dispute. About a third of the 1,300 animals at the zoo were vulnerable to the resulting cold and employees had to find portable electric and oil heaters to heat their enclosures.

Media related to Sofia Zoo at Wikimedia Commons Official website

Jim Malloy (recording engineer)

James Edward Malloy was an American recording engineer. He worked with such artists as Elvis Presley, Duke Ellington, Johnny Cash, Henry Mancini, Mahalia Jackson, his association with Mancini earned him a Grammy Award for engineering the soundtrack of the 1963 film Charade. Malloy was born in Dixon, Illinois, in 1931. In 1954, he moved to California to work in the electronics industry, he attended night school at National Electronics in Los Angeles. He worked in electrical maintenance at a recording studio. Alan Emig, head of Columbia Records' West Coast division and a former mixing engineer for Capitol Records, tutored Malloy in engineering. Gospel singer Mahalia Jackson was the first artist. From listening to her sing in studio, he knew. Next, he worked with Duane Eddy, who liked Malloy's work so much that he suggested him to producer Chet Atkins who came to Los Angeles seeking an engineer. Atkins wanted Malloy in Nashville, he moved there in the mid-1960s, he worked with Atkins at RCA Victor from January 1965 to November 1968 at Monument Records.

In the early 1970s, Malloy produced Sammi Smith's Grammy-winning recording of "Help Me Make It Through the Night" and started his own company, called DebDave Music, named after his two children and David. Aside from his Grammy win, Malloy was nominated for five more Grammys for his work on Elvis Presley's How Great Thou Art, Eddy Arnold's The Last Word in Lonesome, The Latin Sound of Henry Mancini, The Pink Panther soundtrack, "The Addams Family Theme". Jim Malloy at AllMusic Jim Malloy discography at Discogs Jim Malloy at


Valburga is a settlement on the left bank of the Sava River in the Municipality of Medvode in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia. It includes the hamlets of Na Mlaki. Valburga was attested in written sources in 1324 as Sand Walpurch, it is named after the patron of the local church. Locally, the settlement is known as Šentomperga; the name of the settlement was changed from Sveta Valburga to Valburga in 1952. The name was changed on the basis of the 1948 Law on Names of Settlements and Designations of Squares and Buildings as part of efforts by Slovenia's postwar communist government to remove religious elements from toponyms. In the past the German name was Sankt Walburga; the local church is dedicated to Saint Walpurga. It stands at the northern end of the village and was first mentioned in written sources in the 14th century; the current building is a Baroque structure with a main altar dating from the mid-18th century. The side altars and the pulpit are late Baroque; the paintings of the Mount of Olives and the Way of the Cross displayed inside are by Leopold Layer, based on models by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.

There is a large manor in the settlement, known as Lazzarini Manor, Smlednik Manor, or Valburga Manor. It was built in the 17th century; the main hall is painted with high-quality frescoes with mythological themes in the illusionist style. The painting in the chapel vault is believed to be by Anton Cebej. After the Second World War, the manor was nationalized; the manor is not open to the public. Media related to Valburga at Wikimedia Commons Valburga on Geopedia