STS-135 was the 135th and final mission of the American Space Shuttle program. It used the orbiter Atlantis and hardware processed for the STS-335 contingency mission, not flown. STS-135 launched on 8 July 2011, landed on 21 July 2011, following a one-day mission extension; the four-person crew was the smallest of any shuttle mission since STS-6 in April 1983. The mission's primary cargo was the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and a Lightweight Multi-Purpose Carrier, which were delivered to the International Space Station; the flight of Raffaello marked the only time that Atlantis carried an MPLM. Although the mission was authorized, it had no appropriation in the NASA budget, raising questions about whether the mission would fly. On 20 January 2011, program managers changed STS-335 to STS-135 on the flight manifest; this allowed for training and other mission specific preparations. On 13 February 2011, program managers told their workforce that STS-135 would fly regardless of the funding situation via a continuing resolution.
Until this point, there had been no official references to the STS-135 mission in NASA documentation for the general public. During an address at the Marshall Space Flight Center on 16 November 2010, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said that the agency needed to fly STS-135 to the station in 2011 due to possible delays in the development of commercial rockets and spacecraft designed to transport cargo to the ISS. "We are hoping to fly a third shuttle mission in June 2011, what everybody calls the launch-on-need mission...and that's needed to the risk for the development time for commercial cargo," Bolden said. The mission was included in NASA's 2011 authorization, signed into law on 11 October 2010, but funding remained dependent on a subsequent appropriations bill. United Space Alliance signed a contract extension for the mission, along with STS-134; the federal budget approved in April 2011 called for $5.5 billion for NASA's space operations division, including the shuttle and space station programs.
According to NASA, the budget running through 30 September 2011 ended all concerns about funding the STS-135 mission. STS-135 was the final crewed orbital launch and landing from U. S. soil until early 2020, when SpaceX or Boeing is scheduled to conduct its Crewed Flight Test, due to delays in the commercial crew program. NASA announced the STS-335/135 crew on 14 September 2010. Only four astronauts were assigned to this mission, versus the normal six or seven, because there were no other shuttles available for a rescue following the retirement of Discovery and Endeavour. If the shuttle was damaged in orbit, the crew would have moved into the International Space Station and returned in Russian Soyuz capsules, one at a time, over the course of a year. All STS-135 crew members were custom-fitted for a Russian Sokol space suit and molded Soyuz seat liner for this possibility; the reduced crew size allowed the mission to maximize the payload carried to the ISS. It was the only time that a Shuttle crew of four flew to the ISS.
The last shuttle mission to fly with just four crew members occurred 28 years earlier: STS-6 on 4 April 1983 aboard Space Shuttle Challenger. With support from both the House of Representatives and the Senate, the fate of STS-135 depended on whether lawmakers could agree to fund converting the mission from launch-on-need to an actual flight. On 15 July 2010, a Senate committee passed the 2010 NASA reauthorization bill, authored by Senator Bill Nelson, to direct NASA to fly an extra Space Shuttle mission pending a review of safety concerns; the bill still needed the approval of the full Senate. A draft NASA reauthorization bill considered by the House Science & Technology Committee did not provide for an extra shuttle mission. On 22 July 2010, during a meeting of the House Science Committee, U. S. Rep. Suzanne Kosmas amended the House version of the bill to add an additional shuttle mission to the manifest. On 5 August 2010, the Senate passed its version of the NASA reauthorization bill, just before lawmakers left for the traditional August recess.
On 20 August 2010, NASA managers approved STS-135 mission planning targeting a 28 June 2011 launch. On 29 September 2010, the House of Representatives approved the Senate-passed bill on a 304–118 vote; the bill, approved by the U. S. Congress, went to President Barack Obama for his signature. On 11 October 2010, Obama signed the legislation into law, allowing NASA to move forward with STS-135, though without specific funding; the average cost of a shuttle mission was about $450 million. On 20 January 2011, STS-135's designation was changed from STS-335. On 14 February 2011, NASA managers announced that STS-135 would fly regardless of the funding situation in Congress. Mass:Total liftoff weight: 4,521,143 pounds Orbiter liftoff weight: 266,090 pounds Orbiter landing weight: 226,375 pounds Payload weight: 28,418 pounds Perigee: TBD Apogee: TBD Inclination: 51.6° Period: 91 minutes The mission marked: 166th NASA crewed space flight 135th shuttle mission since STS-1 33rd flight of Atlantis 3rd shuttle flight in 2011 37th shuttle mission to the ISS 110th post-Challenger disaster shuttle mission 22nd post-Columbia disaster shuttle mission 100th day launch 133rd landing overall, 78th at KSC, 26th night landing, 20th night landing at KSC STS-135 delivered supplies and equipment to provision the space station through 2012, following the end of NASA's Space Shuttle program.
Since the ISS program was extended to 2024, the station is resupplied by the
Doshmina is an Upazila of Patuakhali District in the Division of Barisal, Bangladesh. Dashmina is located at 22.2833°N 90.5903°E / 22.2833. It has 19,863 households and a total area of 351.74 km². Within 6 unions of Dashmina including the Sadar at the centre, two of them are in the north of Dashmina Sadar namely Bashbaria and Bahrampur union. Bashbaria is situated on the bank of the river Tetulia. North Border of both Bahrampur and Bashbaria union ends up with starting of Baufal upazila. Rono Gopaldi and Betagi Shankipur union is situated on the north western part of Dashmina Sadar and the Alipura union covers the southern part of this historic Upazila which ends up with starting of Galachipa upazila. According to the 1991 Bangladesh census, Dashmina had a population of 106,539. Males constituted 49.5% of the population, females 50.5%. The population aged 18 or older was 52,137. Dashmina had an average literacy rate of 29.5%, compared to the national average of 32.4%. Dashmina has 7 Unions/Wards, 51 Mauzas/Mahallas, 55 villages.
The names of the Unions are Dashmina, Banshbaria, Rono Gopaldi, Betagi Shankipur & Chor Borhan. The Upazila Headquarters is situated in Dashmina Sadar, it is situated on the Bank of the river Tetulia. At present it holds three colleges, three Boys' high schools, two girls' schools, an Alia Madrasa and a number of government and non government primary schools. Abdur Rashid Talukdar DegreeCollege Alipura College Doli Akbar Mohila College Dashmina Govt. Model High School Gachhani Secondary School Begum Arefatunnessa Girls High School Dashmina Model Primary school Banglabazar Girls High School Hazirhat Nimmo maddhomikBiddyalaoy Dashmina Senior Fazil Madrasha BM Labrotary School Bahrampur High School Rashel Store Upazilas of Bangladesh Districts of Bangladesh Divisions of Bangladesh
The following is a list of the governors and governors-general of New Zealand. As the personal representative of the New Zealand monarch, the governor-general performs many of the functions vested in the Crown, such as summoning and dissolving parliament, granting or withholding the Royal Assent, making state visits and receiving ambassadors; these functions are performed on the advice of the head of the prime minister. Since the office was established in 1841, 37 individuals have served as governor, governor-in-chief, or governor-general; the list does not include lieutenant-governors of the provinces of New Ulster and New Munster that existed between 1848 and 1853. The table does not include administrators of the government, who fulfil vice-regal duties between the terms of governors-general, or at other times when the governor-general is overseas or otherwise unable to carry out the role; the role of administrator is undertaken by the chief justice. Beaglehole, Diana. "Porritt, Arthur Espie".
Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Retrieved 22 April 2013. "Governor-General of New Zealand: Former Governors-General". Gov-gen.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 22 February 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013. James, Colin. "The huge challenge ahead of the Maori Queen's successor". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. McLean, Gavin. "The Governors, New Zealand Governors and Governors-General". Otago University Press. ISBN 978-1-877372-25-4. "Republic'inevitable'–Clark". The Evening Post. 4 March 2002. "Patriated – the Governor-General". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2013. Official Website of the Governor-General of New Zealand A history of the Governor-General in New Zealand Rulers.org: Extensive list of Governors-General of New Zealand