The term apsis refers to an extreme point in the orbit of an object. It denotes either the respective distance of the bodies; the word comes via Latin from Greek, there denoting a whole orbit, is cognate with apse. Except for the theoretical possibility of one common circular orbit for two bodies of equal mass at diametral positions, there are two apsides for any elliptic orbit, named with the prefixes peri- and ap-/apo-, added in reference to the body being orbited. All periodic orbits are, according to Newton's Laws of motion, ellipses: either the two individual ellipses of both bodies, with the center of mass of this two-body system at the one common focus of the ellipses, or the orbital ellipses, with one body taken as fixed at one focus, the other body orbiting this focus. All these ellipses share a straight line, the line of apsides, that contains their major axes, the foci, the vertices, thus the periapsis and the apoapsis; the major axis of the orbital ellipse is the distance of the apsides, when taken as points on the orbit, or their sum, when taken as distances.
The major axes of the individual ellipses around the barycenter the contributions to the major axis of the orbital ellipses are inverse proportional to the masses of the bodies, i.e. a bigger mass implies a smaller axis/contribution. Only when one mass is sufficiently larger than the other, the individual ellipse of the smaller body around the barycenter comprises the individual ellipse of the larger body as shown in the second figure. For remarkable asymmetry, the barycenter of the two bodies may lie well within the bigger body, e.g. the Earth–Moon barycenter is about 75% of the way from Earth's center to its surface. If the smaller mass is negligible compared to the larger the orbital parameters are independent of the smaller mass. For general orbits, the terms periapsis and apoapsis are used. Pericenter and apocenter are equivalent alternatives, referring explicitly to the respective points on the orbits, whereas periapsis and apoapsis may refer to the smallest and largest distances of the orbiter and its host.
For a body orbiting the Sun, the point of least distance is the perihelion, the point of greatest distance is the aphelion. The terms become apastron when discussing orbits around other stars. For any satellite of Earth, including the Moon, the point of least distance is the perigee and greatest distance the apogee, from Ancient Greek Γῆ, "land" or "earth". For objects in lunar orbit, the point of least distance is sometimes called the pericynthion and the greatest distance the apocynthion. Perilune and apolune are used. In orbital mechanics, the apsides technically refer to the distance measured between the barycenters of the central body and orbiting body. However, in the case of a spacecraft, the terms are used to refer to the orbital altitude of the spacecraft above the surface of the central body; these formulae characterize the pericenter and apocenter of an orbit: Pericenter Maximum speed, v per = μ a, at minimum distance, r per = a. Apocenter Minimum speed, v ap = μ a, at maximum distance, r ap = a.
While, in accordance with Kepler's laws of planetary motion and the conservation of energy, these two quantities are constant for a given orbit: Specific relative angular momentum h = μ a Specific orbital energy ε = − μ 2 a where: a is the semi-major axis: a = r per + r ap 2 μ is the standard gravitational parameter e is the eccentricity, defined as e = r ap − r per r ap + r per = 1 − 2 r ap r per + 1 Note t
Astrotech Corporation Spacehab Inc. is a technology incubator headquartered in Austin, Texas. Astrotech uses technology sourced internally and from research institutions, government laboratories, universities to fund and sell start-up companies. Astrotech Corporation's subsidiaries provide commercial products and services to NASA, the U. S. Department of Defense, national space agencies, global commercial customers. Astrotech Corporation was established in 1984. Prior to 2009, it was known as SPACEHAB, Inc. a company that provided space habitat microgravity experimentation equipment and services to NASA during the Space Shuttle era. As the Shuttle program came to an end, the company put more focus on its spacecraft processing business, Astrotech Space Operations, Inc. its mass spectrometer instrumentation business, 1st Detect, Inc. and its microgravity vaccine development company, Inc. In August 2014, the company sold Astrotech Space Operations. In February 2015, the company acquired defect correction software and Astral Images Corp. was created to commercialize government funded satellite imagery processing technology and research into automated image correction and enhancement.
Spacehab was founded in 1984 by Bob Citron with the help and support of CSP Associates from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The team from CSP Associates included founder David W. Lippy along with his partners Brad Meslin and Marc Oderman, it was one of CSP's consultants, Dr. David Williamson who conceived of the idea to increase the cargo space on the Shuttles as the primary focus of the Spacehab mission. Early venture capital was supplied by Al Zesiger of BEA Associates in New York City as well as Dr. Shelley Harrison from New York. CSP Associates and its venture contacts were responsible for raising most of the early seed monies to get the company off the ground and funded. Throughout its more than 20-year history, Spacehab has contracted over $1 billion dollars in total sales. Spacehab hardware consists of: Integrated Cargo Carrier, unpressurized External Stowage Platform, an ICC variant Logistics Single Module and Logistics Double Module Single Module and Research Double Module, pressurizedThe Spacehab hardware was designed to be nestled inside the cargo bay of the Space Shuttles and flew on a total of 22 Space Shuttle missions, including seven to the Russian space station Mir and eight to the International Space Station.
The Single Module flew on seven missions, the Research Double Module flew only on the ill-fated Columbia STS-107 mission, in which it was destroyed. The inaugural flight of Spacehab’s research double module, which launched January 2003 on STS-107, ended when the Space Shuttle Columbia broke up during re-entry. In January 2004, Spacehab filed a formal claim against NASA for the amount of $87.7 million for the loss caused by the Columbia accident. In February 2003 Spacehab received $17.7 million from the proceeds of its commercial insurance policy, in October 2004 NASA paid the company $8.2 million. In February 2007, Spacehab dropped all litigation against NASA. Spacehab’s ICC hardware has been further developed into the External Stowage Platform, which are permanently deployed on the ISS; the ESP-2 is attached to the International Space Station’s airlock, providing the only permanent, commercial "spare parts" facility for the ISS crew. ESP-3 was deployed during Space Shuttle mission STS-118, on August 8, 2007.
Legend: ESP - External Stowage Platform ICC - Integrated Cargo Carrier LDM - Logistics Double Module LSM - Logistics Single Module SM - Single Module RDM - Research Double Module The Company changed its name to Astrotech Corporation in 2009 to align the corporate name with the company's core business offering, Astrotech Space Operation. ASO provides all support necessary for government and commercial customers to process their satellite hardware for launch–including planning. Astrotech Corporation management sold ASO, its state-of-the-art satellite servicing operations, to Lockheed Martin in August 2014. 1st Detect, an Astrotech subsidiary, develops and sells powerful sensitive, accurate mass spectrometers that can be used in explosive and chemical warfare detection for the Department of Homeland Security and the military. 1st Detect's miniature mass spectrometer technology was sourced from Oak Ridge Laboratory’s chemical analyzer research. Astral Images sells film to digital image enhancement, defect removal and color correction software, post processing services, providing economically feasible conversion of television and feature 35mm and 16mm films to the new 4K ultra-high definition, high-dynamic range format necessary for the new generation of digital distribution.
Astral Images' core technology is sourced from decades of image research from the laboratories of IBM and Kodak combined with classified satellite technology from government laboratories. Sourced from NASA’s extensive microgravity research, Astrogenetix is applying a fast-track on-orbit discovery platform using the International Space Station to develop vaccines and other therapeutics. Prior to the 2014 Lockheed Martin acquisition, Astrotech provided both the government and commercial space markets with satellite processing services through its Astrotech Space Operations subsidiary located in Titusville, three miles from the Kennedy Space Center, it has more than 150,000 square feet of clean room processing space, services payloads, or satellites, for United Launch Alliance’s Atlas and Delta rocket families, Orbital Sciences’ Taurus and Pegasus, SpaceX's Fa
Mir was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and by Russia. Mir was the first modular space station and was assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996, it had a greater mass than any previous spacecraft. At the time it was the largest artificial satellite in orbit, succeeded by the International Space Station after Mir's orbit decayed; the station served as a microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, astronomy and spacecraft systems with a goal of developing technologies required for permanent occupation of space. Mir was the first continuously inhabited long-term research station in orbit and held the record for the longest continuous human presence in space at 3,644 days, until it was surpassed by the ISS on 23 October 2010, it holds the record for the longest single human spaceflight, with Valeri Polyakov spending 437 days and 18 hours on the station between 1994 and 1995. Mir was occupied for a total of twelve and a half years out of its fifteen-year lifespan, having the capacity to support a resident crew of three, or larger crews for short visits.
Following the success of the Salyut programme, Mir represented the next stage in the Soviet Union's space station programme. The first module of the station, known as the core module or base block, was launched in 1986 and followed by six further modules. Proton rockets were used to launch all of its components except for the docking module, installed by a US Space Shuttle mission STS-74 in 1995; when complete, the station consisted of seven pressurised modules and several unpressurised components. Power was provided by several photovoltaic arrays attached directly to the modules; the station was maintained at an orbit between 296 km and 421 km altitude and travelled at an average speed of 27,700 km/h, completing 15.7 orbits per day. The station was launched as part of the Soviet Union's manned spaceflight programme effort to maintain a long-term research outpost in space, following the collapse of the USSR, was operated by the new Russian Federal Space Agency; as a result, most of the station's occupants were Soviet.
Mir was deorbited in March 2001. The cost of the Mir programme was estimated by former RKA General Director Yuri Koptev in 2001 as $4.2 billion over its lifetime. Mir was authorised by a 17 February 1976 decree, to design an improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space stations. Four Salyut space stations had been launched since 1971, with three more being launched during Mir's development, it was planned. By August 1978, this had evolved to the final configuration of one aft port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station, it was planned that the ports would connect to 7.5-tonne modules derived from the Soyuz spacecraft. These modules would have used a Soyuz propulsion module, as in Soyuz and Progress, the descent and orbital modules would have been replaced with a long laboratory module. Following a February 1979 governmental resolution, the programme was consolidated with Vladimir Chelomei's manned Almaz military space station programme; the docking ports were reinforced to accommodate 20-tonne space station modules based on the TKS spacecraft.
NPO Energia was responsible for the overall space station, with work subcontracted to KB Salyut, due to ongoing work on the Energia rocket and Salyut 7, Soyuz-T, Progress spacecraft. KB Salyut began work in 1979, drawings were released in 1982 and 1983. New systems incorporated into the station included the Salyut 5B digital flight control computer and gyrodyne flywheels, Kurs automatic rendezvous system, Luch satellite communications system, Elektron oxygen generators, Vozdukh carbon dioxide scrubbers. By early 1984, work on Mir had halted while all resources were being put into the Buran programme in order to prepare the Buran spacecraft for flight testing. Funding resumed in early 1984 when Valentin Glushko was ordered by the Central Committee's Secretary for Space and Defence to orbit Mir by early 1986, in time for the 27th Communist Party Congress, it was clear that the planned processing flow could not be followed and still meet the 1986 launch date. It was decided on Cosmonaut's Day 1985 to ship the flight model of the base block to the Baikonur cosmodrome and conduct the systems testing and integration there.
The module arrived at the launch site on 6 May, with 1100 of 2500 cables requiring rework based on the results of tests to the ground test model at Khrunichev. In October, the base block was rolled outside its cleanroom to carry out communications tests; the first launch attempt on 16 February 1986 was scrubbed when the spacecraft communications failed, but the second launch attempt, on 19 February 1986 at 21:28:23 UTC, was successful, meeting the political deadline. The orbital assembly of Mir began on 19 February 1986 with the launch of the Proton-K rocket. Four of the six modules which were added followed the same sequence to be a
STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The mission launched on 2 December 1993 from Kennedy Space Center in Florida; the mission restored the spaceborne observatory's vision, marred by spherical aberration, with the installation of a new main camera and a corrective optics package. This correction occurred more than three and a half years after the Hubble was launched aboard STS-31 in April 1990; the flight brought instrument upgrades and new solar arrays to the telescope. With its heavy workload, the STS-61 mission was one of the most complex in the Shuttle's history, it lasted 11 days, crew members made five spacewalks, an all-time record. The re-positioning of Intelsat VI on STS-49 in May 1992 required only four; the flight plan allowed for two additional EVAs. The final two contingency EVAs were not made. In order to complete the mission without too much fatigue, the five extravehicular working sessions were shared between two pairs of different astronauts alternating their shifts.
During the flight, Hoffman spun a driedel for the holiday of Chanukah. Musgrave and Hoffman – EVA 1 EVA 1 Start: 5 December 1993 – 03:44 UTC EVA 1 End: 5 December 1993 – 11:38 UTC Duration: 7 hours, 54 minutes Thornton and Akers – EVA 2 EVA 2 Start: 6 December 1993 – 03:29 UTC EVA 2 End: 6 December 1993 – 10:05 UTC Duration: 6 hours, 36 minutes Musgrave and Hoffman – EVA 3 EVA 3 Start: 7 December 1993 – 03:35 UTC EVA 3 End: 7 December 1993 – 10:22 UTC Duration: 6 hours, 47 minutes Thornton and Akers – EVA 4 EVA 4 Start: 8 December 1993 – 03:13 UTC EVA 4 End: 8 December 1993 – 10:03 UTC Duration: 6 hours, 50 minutes Musgrave and Hoffman – EVA 5 EVA 5 Start: 9 December 1993 – 03:30 UTC EVA 5 End: 9 December 1993 – 10:51 UTC Duration: 7 hours, 21 minutes Endeavour was switched from Pad 39A to Pad 39B due to contamination of the Payload Changeout Room after a windstorm on 30 October; the internal HST payload package was not affected because it was sealed, the contamination appeared to have been caused by sandblasting grit from recent Pad A modifications.
On 18 November Endeavour experienced a failure of a transducer on the elevon hydraulic actuator. To replace the actuator would have required a rollback to the Orbiter Processing Facility because access to the actuator was only through the Main Landing Gear wheel well. Since there were 4 delta-P transducers and the Launch Commit Criteria required only 3 of 4, the transducer was depinned and would not be consulted during flight; the flight crew arrived at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility on 27 November and the payload bay doors were closed at 3:20pm on 28 November. The first launch attempt on 1 December 1993 was scrubbed due to weather constraint violations at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Just before the scrub the range was in a no-go situation due to an 800 ft long ship in the restricted sea zone. A 24‑hour scrub turnaround was put into effect with a launch window extending from 4:26am to 5:38am on 2 December 1993. Launch mass was 250,314 lbs. Payload mass was 17,662 lbs. After launch, the astronauts carried out a series of checks on the vehicle and went to sleep seven and a half hours after liftoff.
Endeavour performed a series of burns that allowed the shuttle to close in on the Hubble Space Telescope at a rate of 60 nautical miles per 95-minute orbit. The crew made a detailed inspection of the payload and checked out both the robot arm and the spacesuits. All of Endeavour's systems functioned well as the crew got a full day's sleep in preparation for the evening's rendezvous. At the end of Flight Day 2, Endeavour was 190 nautical miles behind closing. HST was sighted by astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman using binoculars, whereupon he noted that the right-hand solar array was bent at a 90 degree angle; these 12-meter solar arrays, provided by the European Space Agency, were scheduled to be replaced during the second spacewalk because they wobbled 16 times a day, thus disturbing Hubble's ability to maintain precise pointing. The closing speed remained the same until the next reaction control system firing, at 8:34 pm CST; this height-adjusting burn changed the shuttle's velocity by 4.6 feet per second, modified the high point of Endeavour's orbit, fine-tuned its course toward a point 40 miles behind HST.
The next burn, an orbital maneuvering system firing designated NC3, was scheduled for 9:22 pm and changed Endeavour's velocity by 12.4 feet per second. Endeavour's catch-up rate was adjusted to about 16 nautical miles per orbit and put it eight nautical miles behind HST two orbits later. A third burn of just 1.8 ft/s, called NPC and designed to fine-tune the spacecraft's ground track, was executed at 9:58 pm CST. The multi-axis RCS terminal initiation or "TI" burn, which placed Endeavour on an intercept course with HST and set up Commander Dick Covey's manual control of the final stages of the rendezvous, occurred at 12:35 am. Covey maneuvered Endeavour within 30 feet of the free-flying HST before Mission Specialist Claude Nicollier used Endeavour's robot arm to grapple the telescope at 3:48 am EST, when the orbiter was several hundred kilometers east of Australia over the South Pacific. Nicollier berthed the telescope in the shuttle's cargo bay at 4:26 am EST. Everything was on schedule for the first planned spacewalk scheduled for 11:52 pm EST.
After capture, additional visual inspections were performed using the camera mounted on
Charles Frank Bolden Jr. is a former NASA administrator, a retired United States Marine Corps Major General, a former astronaut. A 1968 graduate of the United States Naval Academy, he became a Marine test pilot. After his service as an astronaut, he became Deputy Commandant of Midshipmen at the Naval Academy. On May 23, 2009, President Barack Obama announced the nomination of Bolden as NASA administrator and Lori Garver as deputy NASA administrator. Bolden was confirmed by the Senate on July 15, 2009, he was the first African American. On January 12, 2017, Bolden announced his resignation from NASA during a town hall meeting at NASA Headquarters in Washington D. C, his last day would be January 19, Robert M. Lightfoot Jr. was announced as acting NASA Administrator. Bolden graduated from C. A. Johnson High School in Columbia, South Carolina, in 1964, he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Science from the United States Naval Academy in 1968, where he was a contemporary of future Marine officers Oliver North, Jim Webb and Michael Hagee and future Chief of Naval Operations Michael Mullen, earned a Master of Science degree in Systems Management from the University of Southern California in 1977.
He is a member of Omega Psi Phi fraternity. In high school, Bolden says that because he is black, he was turned down for an appointment to the United States Naval Academy by South Carolina's delegation in Congress, including Senator Strom Thurmond, at the time a segregationist. Bolden received his appointment with the help of initiatives by President Johnson and William L. Dawson, a U. S. representative from Chicago and would receive letters of congratulations from Thurmond at various career milestones. Bolden was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps following graduation from the United States Naval Academy in 1968, he was president of his class. He underwent flight training at Pensacola, Meridian and Kingsville, before being designated a Naval Aviator in May 1970, he flew more than 100 sorties into North and South Vietnam and Cambodia in the A-6A Intruder while assigned to VMA-533 at Royal Thai Air Base Nam Phong, from June 1972 to June 1973. Upon returning to the United States, Bolden began a two-year tour as a Marine Corps officer selection and recruiting officer in Los Angeles, followed by three years in various assignments at Marine Corps Air Station El Toro, California.
In June 1979, he graduated from the United States Naval Test Pilot School at Naval Air Station Patuxent River and was assigned to the Naval Air Test Center's Systems Engineering and Strike Aircraft Test Directorates. While there, he served as an ordnance test pilot and flew numerous test projects in the A-6E, EA-6B, A-7C/E airplanes, he logged more than 6,000 hours flying time. Bolden was selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in 1980, he was a member of the NASA Astronaut Corps until 1994 when he returned to assignments in the Marine Corps, first as the Deputy Commandant of Midshipmen at the Naval Academy, effective June 27, 1994. In July 1997, he was assigned as the Deputy Commanding General of I Marine Expeditionary Force. From February to June 1998, he served as Commanding General, I MEF in support of Operation Desert Thunder in Kuwait. In July 1998, he was promoted to his final rank of major general and assumed his duties as the Deputy Commander, United States Forces Japan, he served as the Commanding General, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, from August 9, 2000, until August 2002.
He retired from the military in August 2004. Selected by NASA in May 1980, Bolden became an astronaut in August 1981, his technical assignments included: Astronaut Office Safety Officer. A veteran of four space flights, he has logged over 680 hours in space. Bolden served as pilot on STS-61-C and STS-31, was the mission commander on STS-45, STS-60. Bolden was the first person to ride the Launch Complex 39 slidewire baskets which enable rapid escape from a Space Shuttle on the launch pad; the need for a human test was determined following a launch abort on STS-41-D where controllers were afraid to order the crew to use the untested escape system. A few years before his appointment by President Barack Obama to be administrator of NASA, Bolden auditioned, along with professional actors, for the role of virtual host for NASA's "Shuttle Launch Experience" educational attraction at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Merritt Island, Florida. On STS-61-C, Bolden piloted Space Shuttle Columbia.
During the six-day flight, crew members deployed the SATCOM Ku band satellite and conducted experiments in astrophysics and materials processing. The mission launched from Kennedy Space Center on January 12, 1986, orbited the Earth 96 times, ended with a successful night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California on January 18, 1986. Bolden piloted Space Shuttle Discovery during STS-31. Launched on April 24, 1990, from Kennedy Space Center, the crew spent the five-day mission deploying the Hubble Space Telescope and conducting a variety of mid-deck experiments, they used a variety of cameras, including both the IMAX in cabin and cargo bay cameras, for Earth observations from their rec
Outline of space science
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to space science: Space science encompasses all of the scientific disciplines that involve space exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer space, such as space medicine and astrobiology. The following outline is an overview of and topical guide to space science: Astronomy Outline of astronomy Fields of astronomy defined by approach Observational astronomy – Observatories on the ground as well as space observatories take measurements of celestial entities and phenomena Astrometry – studies the position and movements of celestial objects Amateur astronomy Theoretical astronomy – mathematical modelling of celestial entities and phenomena Fields of astronomy defined by scope Astrophysics – study of the physics of the universe. See Earth's location in the universe for an orientation. See Outline of space exploration Astronautics – science and engineering of spacefaring and spaceflight, a subset of Aerospace engineering Life in space Living organisms in space Humans in space Women in space Animals in space Dogs in space Soviet space dogs Monkeys and apes in space Microorganisms tested in outer space Plants in space Space habitation Architecture in space Space station Space Habitation Module Food in space Medicine in space Neuroscience in space Religion in space Christmas on the International Space Station Sex in space Survival in space Writing in space Human spaceflight Outline of aerospace Space Sciences Laboratory – University of California, Berkeley Space exploration – includes scientific investigations through manned spaceflight and space probes Space colonization Commercialization of space Space manufacturing Space tourism Space warfare Alien invasion Asteroid-impact avoidance Space law Remote sensing Planetarium – A synthetic observatory, used for education and presentations Centennial Challenges NASA prize contests Exploration of Mars Human spaceflight Space exploration Space architecture Space colonization Space industry Space industry of Russia Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes Batteries in space Control engineering Corrosion in space Industry in space Nuclear power in space Observatories in space Orbital mechanics Robotics Space environment – study of conditions that affect the operation of spacecraft Space logistics Space technology Space-based radar Space-based solar power Spacecraft design for launch vehicles and satellites Spacecraft propulsion Institute of Space Technology, PakistAn Space Sciences @ NASA Space Sciences @ ESA INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Space Sciences Institute Space Science & Technology, an Iranian nongovernmental group who writes scientific articles about Space Science & Technology
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities known as Roscosmos, is a state corporation responsible for the wide range and types of space flights and cosmonautics programs for the Russian Federation. Being a part of the Federal Space Agency, the corporation evolved and consolidated itself to the national state corporation on 28 December 2015 through a presidential decree. Before, since 1992, Roscosmos was a part of the Russian Space Agency; the headquarters of Roscosmos are located in Moscow, while the main Mission Control space center site is in the nearby city of Korolev as well as the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center located in Star City of Moscow Oblast. The launch facilities used are Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Vostochny Cosmodrome being built in the Russian Far East in Amur Oblast; the current director since May 2018 is Dmitry Rogozin. In 2015 the Russian government merged Roscosmos with the United Rocket and Space Corporation, the re-nationalized Russian space industry, to create the Roscosmos State Corporation.
The Soviet space program did not have central executive agencies. Instead, its organizational architecture was multi-centered; the creation of a central agency after the separation of Russia from the Soviet Union was therefore a new development. The Russian Space Agency was formed on February 1992, by a decree of President Yeltsin. Yuri Koptev, who had worked with designing Mars landers at NPO Lavochkin, became the agency's first director. In the early years, the agency suffered from lack of authority as the powerful design bureaus fought to protect their own spheres of operation and to survive. For example, the decision to keep Mir in operation beyond 1999 was not taken by the agency. Another example is that the decision to develop the new Angara rocket was rather a function of Khrunichev's ability to attract resources than a conscious long-term decision by the agency; the 1990s saw serious financial problems because of decreased cash flow, which encouraged Roscosmos to improvise and seek other ways to keep space programs running.
This resulted in Roscosmos' leading role in commercial satellite launches and space tourism. Scientific missions, such as interplanetary probes or astronomy missions during these years played a small role, although Roscosmos has connections with Russian aerospace forces, its budget is not part of the defense budget of the country Roscosmos managed to operate the space station Mir well past its planned lifespan, contributed to the International Space Station, continued to fly additional Soyuz and Progress missions. In March 2004, director Yuri Koptev was replaced by Anatoly Perminov, who had served as the first commander of the Space Forces; the Russian economy boomed throughout 2005 from high prices for exports, such as oil and gas, the outlook for future funding in 2006 appeared more favorable. This resulted in the Russian Duma approving a budget of 305 billion rubles for the Space Agency from 2006 January to 2015, with overall space expenditures in Russia total about 425 billion rubles for the same time period.
The budget for 2006 was as high as 25 billion rubles, a 33% increase from the 2005 budget. Under the current 10-year budget approved, the budget of the Space Agency shall increase 5–10% per year, providing the space agency with a constant influx of money. In addition to the budget, Roscosmos plans to have over 130 billion rubles flowing into its budget by other means, such as industry investments and commercial space launches, it is around the time US-based. New science missions: Koronas Foton, Spektr R, Spektr RG, Spektr UV, Spektr M, Celsta and Terion Resumption of Bion missions with Bion-M New weather satellites Elektro L and Elektro P The federal space budget for the year 2009 was left unchanged despite the global economic crisis, standing at about 82 billion rubles. In 2011, the government spent 115 billion rubles in the national space programs; the proposed project core budget for 2013 to be around 128.3 billion rubles. The budget for the whole space program is 169.8 billion rubles.. By 2015, the amount of the budget can be increased to 199.2 billion rubles.
Priorities of the Russian space program include the new Angara rocket family and development of new communications and remote Earth sensing spacecraft. The GLONASS global navigation satellite system has for many years been one of the top priorities and has been given its own budget line in the federal space budget. In 2007, GLONASS received 9.9 billion rubles, under the terms of a directive signed by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin in 2008, an additional $2.6 billion will be allocated for its development. Due to International Space Station involvements, up to 50% of Russia's space budget is spent on the manned space program as of 2009; some observers have pointed