The term apsis refers to an extreme point in the orbit of an object. It denotes either the respective distance of the bodies; the word comes via Latin from Greek, there denoting a whole orbit, is cognate with apse. Except for the theoretical possibility of one common circular orbit for two bodies of equal mass at diametral positions, there are two apsides for any elliptic orbit, named with the prefixes peri- and ap-/apo-, added in reference to the body being orbited. All periodic orbits are, according to Newton's Laws of motion, ellipses: either the two individual ellipses of both bodies, with the center of mass of this two-body system at the one common focus of the ellipses, or the orbital ellipses, with one body taken as fixed at one focus, the other body orbiting this focus. All these ellipses share a straight line, the line of apsides, that contains their major axes, the foci, the vertices, thus the periapsis and the apoapsis; the major axis of the orbital ellipse is the distance of the apsides, when taken as points on the orbit, or their sum, when taken as distances.
The major axes of the individual ellipses around the barycenter the contributions to the major axis of the orbital ellipses are inverse proportional to the masses of the bodies, i.e. a bigger mass implies a smaller axis/contribution. Only when one mass is sufficiently larger than the other, the individual ellipse of the smaller body around the barycenter comprises the individual ellipse of the larger body as shown in the second figure. For remarkable asymmetry, the barycenter of the two bodies may lie well within the bigger body, e.g. the Earth–Moon barycenter is about 75% of the way from Earth's center to its surface. If the smaller mass is negligible compared to the larger the orbital parameters are independent of the smaller mass. For general orbits, the terms periapsis and apoapsis are used. Pericenter and apocenter are equivalent alternatives, referring explicitly to the respective points on the orbits, whereas periapsis and apoapsis may refer to the smallest and largest distances of the orbiter and its host.
For a body orbiting the Sun, the point of least distance is the perihelion, the point of greatest distance is the aphelion. The terms become apastron when discussing orbits around other stars. For any satellite of Earth, including the Moon, the point of least distance is the perigee and greatest distance the apogee, from Ancient Greek Γῆ, "land" or "earth". For objects in lunar orbit, the point of least distance is sometimes called the pericynthion and the greatest distance the apocynthion. Perilune and apolune are used. In orbital mechanics, the apsides technically refer to the distance measured between the barycenters of the central body and orbiting body. However, in the case of a spacecraft, the terms are used to refer to the orbital altitude of the spacecraft above the surface of the central body; these formulae characterize the pericenter and apocenter of an orbit: Pericenter Maximum speed, v per = μ a, at minimum distance, r per = a. Apocenter Minimum speed, v ap = μ a, at maximum distance, r ap = a.
While, in accordance with Kepler's laws of planetary motion and the conservation of energy, these two quantities are constant for a given orbit: Specific relative angular momentum h = μ a Specific orbital energy ε = − μ 2 a where: a is the semi-major axis: a = r per + r ap 2 μ is the standard gravitational parameter e is the eccentricity, defined as e = r ap − r per r ap + r per = 1 − 2 r ap r per + 1 Note t
Alison Brown is an American banjo player, guitarist and producer. She has won and has been nominated for several Grammy awards and is compared to another banjo prodigy, Béla Fleck, for her unique style of playing. In her music, she blends jazz, rock, blues as well as other styles of music. Born in Hartford, Brown learned to play guitar at eight and banjo at ten; when she was twelve, she met fiddler Stuart Duncan. In the summer of 1978, Brown traveled across the country with Duncan and his father, playing at festivals and contests, she won first place at the Canadian National Banjo Championship, which helped her land a one-night gig at the Grand Ole Opry. She is married to bass player Garry West, she has a daughter, Hannah West, a son, Brendan West. In 1980, Brown went to Harvard University, where she studied literature. After graduating from Harvard, she earned an MBA from UCLA. In 1982, while still at Harvard, Brown helped to reunite the Northern Lights band after a 5-year hiatus, she became a band member until 1984, when she moved back to California.
Brown worked for two years with Smith Barney in San Francisco, took a break to pursue her music interests. In 1987, Alison Krauss asked Brown to join Union Station. Brown spent three years with Krauss. In 1990, she moved to Tennessee, was named International Bluegrass Music Association Banjo Player of the Year in 1991; the 1990 album I've Got That Old Feeling, which Brown played banjo on, won a Grammy award. In 1992, Brown became the band leader for Michelle Shocked; this experience led Brown to merge bluegrass with jazz and folk idioms, in a manner similar to those of Béla Fleck and David Grisman. In the early 1990s, Brown and her husband, bass player Garry West, started their own record label, Small World Music; this company led to the launch of Compass Records in 1995, an internationally recognized label, which has such artists as Victor Wooten, Colin Hay, Catie Curtis, Lúnasa, Martin Hayes, Jeff Coffin, Russ Barenberg, Darol Anger and others. In 2001, in collaboration with Béla Fleck, Brown won the Grammy Award for Best Country Instrumental Performance for her song "Leaving Cottondale" from her album Fair Weather.
She participated in Alison Krauss's Grammy-winning album I've Got That Old Feeling, received a Grammy nomination for her own recording, Simple Pleasures. Stolen Moments, in Brown's estimation, is her most musically successful record to date. "For the first time, I feel like I've created a true hybrid sound that suggests its influences – bluegrass, celtic music – but when taken as a whole isn't any one of these things." – Brown's words about the album on the group's official webpage. In 2007, Brown was honored, her last album, The Company You Keep follows this trend of mixing different acoustic genres resulting in fresh-sounding new hybrids. Brown continues touring with her quartet internationally; as a famous Harvard University alumna, she was invited to play at the inauguration of Harvard's president Drew Faust. in 2007. She has cultivated an impressive repertoire as a record producer, helming projects for artists like Dale Ann Bradley, Peter Rowan, Quiles & Cloud, the Grammy-nominated album from Claire Lynch, NORTH BY SOUTH.
Pre-Sequel with Stuart Duncan Simple Pleasures Twilight Motel Look Left Quartet Best of the Vanguard Years Vanguard Visionaries Out of the Blue Fair Weather Replay Stolen Moments Evergreen The Company You Keep The Song Of The Banjo Official website Label page
Thomas David Jones
Thomas David Jones is a former United States astronaut. He was selected to the astronaut corps in 1990 and completed four space shuttle flights before retiring in 2001, he flew on STS-59 and STS-68 in 1994, STS-80 in 1996 and STS-98 in 2001. His total mission time was 53 days 48 minutes, he works as a planetary scientist, space operations consultant, astronaut speaker, author. Jones was born January 1955, in Baltimore, Maryland, he graduated from Kenwood High School, Maryland, in 1973. Jones is a Distinguished Eagle Scout. A Distinguished Graduate of the USAF Academy, Jones served on active duty as an Air Force officer for 6 years. After pilot training in Oklahoma, he flew strategic bombers at Texas; as pilot and aircraft commander of a B-52 D Stratofortress, he led a combat crew of six, accumulating over 2,000 hours of jet experience before resigning as a captain in 1983. From 1983 to 1988 Jones worked toward a Ph. D. at the University of Arizona in Tucson. His research interests included the remote sensing of asteroids, meteorite spectroscopy, applications of space resources.
From 1989 to 1990, he was a program management engineer in Washington, D. C. at the CIA's Office of Engineering. In 1990 he joined Science Applications International Corporation in Washington, D. C. as a senior scientist. Jones performed advanced program planning for NASA's Solar System Exploration Division, investigating future robotic missions to Mars and the outer solar system. After a year of training following his selection by NASA in January 1990, Jones became an astronaut in July 1991. In 1994 he flew as a mission specialist on successive flights of space shuttle Endeavour. First, in April 1994, he ran science operations on the "night shift" during STS-59, the first flight of the Space Radar Laboratory. In October 1994, he was the payload commander on the SRL-2 mission, STS-68. Jones next flew in late 1996 on Columbia. Mission STS-80 deployed and retrieved 2 science satellites, ORFEUS/SPAS and the Wake Shield Facility. While helping set a Shuttle endurance record of nearly 18 days in orbit, Jones used Columbia's robot arm to release the Wake Shield satellite and grapple it from orbit.
His latest space flight was aboard Atlantis on STS-98, in February 2001. Jones and his crew delivered the U. S. Destiny Laboratory Module to the International Space Station, he helped install the Lab in a series of 3 space walks lasting over 19 hours; the successful addition of Destiny gave the first Expedition Crew the largest space outpost in history and marked the start of onboard scientific research at the ISS. A veteran of four space flights, Jones has logged over 52 days in space, including 3 space walks totaling over 19 hours. Since leaving NASA in 2001, Jones has worked as a planetary scientist and consultant in space operations, he is a senior research scientist at the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, engaged in planning robotic and astronaut expeditions to deep space and the near-Earth asteroids. He is an author and speaker, with four adult, non-fiction works to his credit; the Wall Street Journal included his "Sky Walking: An Astronaut's Memoir" in its list of "Five Best" books on space.
From 2006-2009 he served on the NASA Advisory Council. He is a board member of the Association of the Astronauts Memorial Foundation. Jones became an advisor at Planetary Resources, Inc. in 2012. He appears as a science/space commentator on radio and television. Jones's awards include the NASA Space Flight Medal, NASA Distinguished Service Medal, NASA Exceptional Service Award, NASA Exceptional Public Service Medal, NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, his military decorations include the Air Force Commendation Medal. He was a distinguished graduate and the outstanding graduate in Basic Sciences at the United States Air Force Academy. King's College in Wilkes-Barre, Penn. awarded him an honorary doctoral degree in 2007. The Main Belt asteroid. Jones's book Sky Walking: An Astronaut's Memoir, was named one of the top five books on the subject of space by the Wall Street Journal. Jones was inducted into the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame on April 21, 2018. Planetology: Unlocking the Secrets of the Solar System by Tom Jones and Ellen Stofan, National Geographic, 2008.
Hell Hawks! The Untold Story of the American Fliers Who Savaged Hitler's Wehrmacht by Thomas D. Jones and Robert F. Dorr. ISBN 0-7603-2918-4. Zenith Press, May 2008. Sky Walking: An Astronaut's Memoir ISBN 0-06-085152-X. Smithsonian-Collins, 2006; the Complete Idiot's Guide to NASA by Thomas D. Jones and Michael Benson - 2002 - ISBN 0-02-864282-1 Mission: Earth - Voyage to the Home Planet by Tom Jones and June English. ISBN 0-590-48571-7. Scholastic, April 1996; the Scholastic Encyclopedia of the U. S. at War by Thomas D. Jones and June English. ISBN 0-590-63421-6. Scholastic, 1998, 2003. Diane L. Evans. "Earth From Sky: Radar Systems Carried Aloft by the Space Shuttle Endeavour Provide a New Perspective of the Earth's Environment". Scientific American. 271: 44–49. Bibcode:1994SciAm.271d..44W. Doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1094-44. Web Site: Astronaut Tom Jones Spacefacts biography of Thomas D. Jones NASA bio Astronauts and the BSA "Reaching the Heavens: An Astronaut's Spiritual Journey" by Thomas Jones
STS-97 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station flown by Space Shuttle Endeavour. The crew installed the first set of solar arrays to the ISS, prepared a docking port for arrival of the Destiny Laboratory Module, delivered supplies for the station's crew. Tanner and Noriega – EVA 1 EVA 1 Start: 3 December 2000 – 18:35 UTC EVA 1 End: 4 December 2000 – 02:08 UTC Duration: 7 hours, 33 minutes Tanner and Noriega – EVA 2 EVA 2 Start: 5 December 2000 – 17:21 UTC EVA 2 End: 5 December 2000 – 23:58 UTC Duration: 6 hours, 37 minutes Tanner and Noriega – EVA 3 EVA 3 Start: 7 December 2000 – 16:13 UTC EVA 3 End: 7 December 2000 – 21:23 UTC Duration: 5 hours, 10 minutes During the 11-day mission, the primary objective was completed, to deliver and connect the first set of U. S.-provided solar arrays to the International Space Station. The astronauts completed three spacewalks, during which they prepared a docking port for arrival of the Destiny Laboratory Module, installed Floating Potential Probes to measure electrical potential surrounding the station, installed a camera cable outside the Unity Module, transferred supplies and refuse between Endeavour and the station.
On Flight Day 3, Commander Brent Jett linked Endeavour to the ISS while 230 statute miles above northeast Kazakhstan. The successful checkout of the Extravehicular Mobility Units, the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue units, the Canadarm, the Orbiter Space Vision System and the Orbiter Docking System were all completed nominally; the ODS centerline camera was installed with no misalignment noted. From inside Endeavour, Canadian Mission Specialist Marc Garneau used the Canadarm to remove the P6 truss from the payload bay, maneuvering it into an overnight park position to warm its components. Mission Specialists Joseph Tanner and Carlos Noriega moved through Endeavour's docking tunnel and opened the hatch to the ISS docking port to leave supplies and computer hardware on the doorstep of the Station. On flight day 4, the Expedition 1 Commander William Shepherd, Pilot Yuri Gidzenko and Flight Engineer Sergei Krikalev – entered the Unity Module for the first time and retrieved the items left for them.
At 09:36 EST on 8 December 2000 the crew paid the first visit to the Expedition 1 crew residing in the space station. Until the shuttle and the station had kept one hatch closed to maintain respective atmospheric pressures, allowing the shuttle crew to conduct their spacewalks and mission goals. After a welcome ceremony and briefing, the eight spacefarers conducted structural tests of the station and its solar arrays, transferred equipment and refuse back and forth between the spacecraft, checked out the television camera cable installed by Tanner and Noriega for the upcoming mission. On 9 December 2000 the two crews completed final transfers of supplies to the station and other items being returned to Earth; the Endeavour crew bade farewell to the Expedition 1 crew at 10:51 EST and closed the hatches between the spacecraft. After being docked together for 6 days, 23 hours and 13 minutes, Endeavour undocked from the station at 14:13 EST. Piloted by Michael Bloomfield, it made an hour-long, tail-first circle of the station.
The undocking took place 235 statute miles above the border of China. The final separation burn. STS-97 was the 15th flight of the 101st Space Shuttle mission. NASA began a tradition of playing music to astronauts during the Gemini program, first used to wake up a flight crew during Apollo 15; each track is specially chosen by their families, has a special meaning to an individual member of the crew, or is applicable to their daily activities. List of human spaceflights List of International Space Station spacewalks List of Space Shuttle missions List of spacewalks and moonwalks 1965–1999 Outline of space science This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA mission summary STS-97 Video Highlights
John Haley "Zoot" Sims was an American jazz saxophonist, playing tenor but alto saxophone. He first gained attention in the "Four Brothers" sax section of Woody Herman's big band, afterward enjoying a long solo career in partnership with fellow saxmen Gerry Mulligan and Al Cohn, the trombonist Bob Brookmeyer. Sims was born in 1925 in California to vaudeville performers Kate Haley and John Sims, his father was a vaudeville hoofer, Sims prided himself on remembering many of the steps his father taught him. Growing up in a performing family, he learned to play drums and clarinet at an early age, his brother was the trombonist Ray Sims. Following in the footsteps of Lester Young, Sims developed into an innovative tenor saxophonist. Throughout his career, he played with big bands, starting with those of Kenny Baker and Bobby Sherwood after dropping out of high school after one year, he played with Benny Goodman's band in 1943 and replaced his idol Ben Webster in Sid Catlett's Quartet in 1944. Sims served as a corporal in the United States Army Air Force from 1944 to 1946 returned to music in the bands of Artie Shaw, Stan Kenton, Buddy Rich.
He was one of Woody Herman's "Four Brothers". He led his own combos and toured with his friend Gerry Mulligan's sextet, with Mulligan's Concert Jazz Band. Sims rejoined Goodman in 1962 for a tour of the Soviet Union. In the 1950s and'60s, Sims had a long, successful partnership as co-leader of a quintet with Al Cohn, which recorded under the name "Al and Zoot"; the group was a favorite at New York City's Half Note Club. Always fond of the higher register of the tenor sax, he played alto and late in his career added soprano saxophone to his performances, while recording a series of albums for the Pablo Records label of the impresario Norman Granz, he played on some of Jack Kerouac's recordings. Sims acquired the nickname "Zoot" early in his career while he was in the Kenny Baker band in California; the name was appropriated for a saxophone-playing Muppet on The Muppet Show. Sims played a 30-second solo on the song "Poetry Man", written by singer Phoebe Snow on her debut eponymous album in 1975..
He played on Laura Nyro's "Lonely Women," on her album "Eli and the Thirteenth Confession." Zoot Sims died of cancer on March 23, 1985 in New York City, is buried in Oak Hill Cemetery, in Nyack, New York. 1949: The Brothers, with Stan Getz and Al Cohn 1950-1954: Zootcase 2 LPs, released 1975 1950: Quartet In Paris 1950-1951: Zoot Sims Quartets two LPs 1953: Zoot Sims All Stars with Kai Winding, Al Cohn George Wallington Percy Heath, Art Blakey 1954: Zoot Sims Quintet with Stu Williamson - reissued as most of Good Old Zoot 12-inch LP 1955: Nashville with Dick Nash 1956: The Modern Art of Jazz by Zoot Sims 1956: From A to... Z with Al Cohn 1956: Tonite's Music Today with Bob Brookmeyer 1956: Whooeeee with Bob Brookmeyer 1956: Zoot Sims – with Henri Renaud and Jon Eardley Americans Swinging In Paris CD 1956: Zoot! with Nick Travis 1956: Tenor Conclave with John Coltrane, Al Cohn, Hank Mobley, Red Garland, Paul Chambers, Art Taylor 1956: Jutta Hipp with Zoot Sims with Jutta Hipp 1956: Goes to Jazzville with Jerry Lloyd, John Williams, Knoby Tohah, Bill Anthony 1956: Live at Falcon Lair with Joe Castro released 2004 1956-1957: Bohemia After Dark released 1994 1957: Zoot Sims Plays Alto and Baritone That Old Feeling, double-issue CD of two 1956 albums 1957: Hoagy Carmichael Sessions and More with Al Cohn, Nick Travis and Milt Hinton - complete session plus 1961 live date with Mose Allison released in 2005 1957: The Four Brothers...
Together Again! with Serge Chaloff and Herbie Steward 1957: Al and Zoot 1957: Locking Horns with Joe Newman 1958: Stretching Out with Bob Brookmeyer 1959: The Swingers! with Lambert, Hendricks & Ross 1959: Jazz Alive! A Night at the Half Note with Al Cohn and Phil Woods 1959: A Gasser! with Annie Ross 1959-1960: Either Way with Al Cohn, Cecil Colier, Bill Crow, Mose Allison - released 1961 1960: You'n' Me with Al Cohn 1960: Down Home with Dave McKenna and George Tucker 1961: Either Way with Al Cohn 1961: Choice with Bob Brookmeyer, Gerry Mulligan, Jim Hall 1962: New Beat Bossa Nova 1962: New Beat Bossa Nova Vol. 2 1962: Zoot at Ronnie Scott's 1962: Solo for Zoot 1964: Two Jims and Zoot with Jimmy Raney and Jim Hall - released as Outra Vez 1965: Inter-Action with Sonny Stitt 1965: Suitably Zoot 1965: Al and Zoot in London with Al Cohn 1965: At the Half Note Again with Al Cohn, Richie Kamuca, Roger Kellaway, Mel Lewis 1966: Waiting Game 1967: The Greatest Jazz Concert in the World 1968: Easy as Pie: Live at the Left Bank with Al Cohn - released in 2001 1973: Body and Soul with Jaki Byard and George Duvivier 1973: Zoot Suite, with Jimmy Rowles, George Mraz, Mousey Alexander released 2007 1973: Joe & Zoot with Joe Venuti and Bucky Pizzarelli 1974: Zoot Sims' Party 1974: Nirvana with Bucky Pizzarelli and special guest Buddy Rich 1974: Strike Up the Band with Bobby Hackett and Bucky Pizzarelli 1974: Dave McKenna Quartet Featuring Zoot
Unity (ISS module)
The Unity connecting module known as Node 1, was the first U. S.-built component of the International Space Station. It is cylindrical in shape, with six berthing locations facilitating connections to other modules. Unity measures 4.57 metres in diameter, is 5.47 metres long, made of steel, was built for NASA by Boeing in a manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Unity was the first of the three connecting modules. Unity was carried into orbit as the primary cargo of the Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88, the first Space Shuttle mission dedicated to assembly of the station. On December 6, 1998, the STS-88 crew mated the aft berthing port of Unity with the forward hatch of the orbiting Zarya module; this was the first connection made between two station modules. Unity has four radial Common Berthing Mechanism ports. In addition to connecting to the Zarya module, Unity connects to the U. S. Destiny Laboratory Module, the Z1 truss, the PMA-3, the Quest Joint Airlock.
During STS-120 the Harmony module was temporarily berthed to the port-side hatch of Unity. Tranquility, with its multi-windowed cupola, was attached to Unity's port side during the STS-130 mission, PMM Leonardo was added to the nadir hatch during STS-133. In addition, the Leonardo and Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules were each berthed to Unity on multiple missions. NadirForwardDestiny, 2001–PresentAftZarya, 1998–PresentStarboardQuest, 2001-PresentPortTranquility, 2010-PresentZenithZ1 truss, 2000-Present Essential space station resources such as fluids, environmental control and life support systems and data systems are routed through Unity to supply work and living areas of the station. More than 50,000 mechanical items, 216 lines to carry fluids and gases, 121 internal and external electrical cables using six miles of wire were installed in the Unity node, it is made of stainless steel. During the space station construction, a crew member placed two speed limit signs on the hatch in 2003, noting the orbital velocity in mph and km/h.
Prior to its launch aboard Endeavour, conical Pressurized Mating Adapters were attached to the aft and forward berthing mechanisms of Unity. Unity and the two mating adapters together weighed about 25,600 pounds; the adapters allow the docking systems used by the Space Shuttle and by Russian modules to attach to the node's hatches and berthing mechanisms. PMA-1 now permanently attaches Unity to Zarya. Attached to the exterior of PMA-1 are computers, or multiplexer-demultiplexers, which provided early command and control of Unity. Unity is outfitted with an early communications system that allows data and low data rate video with Mission Control Houston, to supplement Russian communications systems during the early station assembly activities. PMA-3 was attached to Unity's nadir berthing mechanism by the crew of STS-92; the two remaining station connecting modules, or nodes, were built in Italy by Alenia Aerospazio, as part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency. Harmony and Tranquility are longer than Unity, measuring 6.4 meters long in total.
In addition to their six berthing ports, each can hold eight International Standard Payload Racks. Unity, in comparison, holds just four ISPRs. ESA built Nodes 2 and 3 as partial payment for the launch aboard the Shuttle of the Columbus laboratory module, other ESA equipment. NASA Facts: Unity Connecting Module: cornerstone for a Home in Orbit NASA, January 1999 Expedition 15 - Tour of the Unity Node filmed in July 2007 by Clayton Anderson