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Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas

Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās known as Saʿd ibn Malik, was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet. Saʿd was the seventh person to embrace Islam, which he did at the age of seventeen, he is known for his commandership in the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah and in the conquest of Persia in 636, his governorship over Persia, his diplomatic sojourns to China in 651. Saʿd was born in Mecca in 595, his father was Abu Waqqas Malik ibn Uhayb ibn Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah from the Banu Zuhrah clan of the Quraysh tribe. Uhayb ibn Abd Manaf was the paternal uncle of mother of Muhammad. Saʿd's mother was Hamnah bint Sufyan ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf, he was seventeen years old. He had many children, among whom his sons Umar and Aamir and his daughter A'isha are the most well-known, he was one of the first to accept Islam. Saʿd relates: This was referenced in the Quranic verse 31:14–15. In 614, the Muslims were on their way to the hills of Mecca to offer prayer with Muhammad, when a group of polytheists observed them.

They began to fight them. Sa`ad beat a polytheist and shed his blood becoming the first Muslim to shed blood in the name of Islam, he fought at the battle of Badr with his young brother ʿUmayr. Being only in his early teens, Umayr was denied access to battle, but after struggling and crying, he was given permission by Muhammed to fight in battle. Saʿd returned to Medina alone. At the battle of Uhud, Saʿd was chosen as an archer together with Saʿīb and others. Saʿd was among those who fought in defense of Muhammad after some Muslims had deserted their positions. Muhammad honoured him by declaring him one of the best archers of that time. During the battle, Muhammad gathered some arrows for him, he fell ill during the Farewell Pilgrimage, he had only a daughter during this period. Sa'ad said: O Messenger of Allah. I have wealth and I only have one daughter to inherit from me. Shall I give two thirds of my wealth as Sadaqah?" "No," replied the Prophet. "Then, a half?." asked Sa'ad and the Prophet again said'no.'

"Then, a third?' asked Sa'ad. "Yes," said the Prophet. "The third is much. Indeed to leave your heirs well-off is better than that you should leave them dependent on and to beg from people. If you spend anything seeking to gain thereby the pleasure of Allah, you will be rewarded for it if it is a morsel which you place in your wife's mouth. Sa` ad Ibn Abi Waqqas, was the one who built the city of Kufa in Iraq during the reign Umar ibn al-Khattab. Saʿd fought under ʿUmar's command against the Sassanid army at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah and Battle of Nahāvand, he was appointed governor of Kufa and Nejd during the caliphate of ʿUmar. Some narrations state that although ʿUmar deposed him from his post as governor, he recommended that the caliph who succeeded him reinstall Saʿd, since Umar had not deposed Saʿd due to any treachery, he was one of six people nominated by Umar ibn al-Khattab for the third caliphate. ʿUthman carried out appointed Saʿd as governor of Kufa. Saʿd has been traditionally credited by Chinese Muslims with introducing Islam to China in 650, during the reign of Emperor Gaozong of Tang.

A mosque in the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh has been found, said to be built by himself in 648, locally called after his name as Abu Akkas mosque. He outlived all ten blessed companions, died a wealthy man at the age of eighty, around the year 674. Saʿd is among the ten promised paradise. Sunni Muslims regard him as one of the ten. One Sunni source states: To urge him on, Muhammad said: "Shoot, Saʿd...may my mother and father be your ransom.". This was reported by Ali ibn Abi Talib, who said that he had not heard Muhammad promise such a ransom to anyone, except to Saʿd ibn Malik. Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 389. Saad Sunni view of the Sahaba Emperor Gaozong of Tang https://web.archive.org/web/20051031062214/http://www.alinaam.org.za/fazaail/umar.html https://web.archive.org/web/20160303191053/http://www.muslimaccess.com/sunnah/seerah/10a.htm

Education in Berlin

Education in Berlin covers the whole spectrum from nurseries, primary education, secondary education, higher education, adult education and research in Berlin. The German states are responsible for the educational system in Germany. In Berlin, like in Germany, preschool education is the domain of the Kindertagesstätte, divided into the Kinderkrippe for toddlers, the Kindergarten for children who are older than three years and before school. Children in their last Kindergarten year may be grouped into a Vorschule and given special pedagogic attention; the State of Berlin has a six-year primary education program. Before 2011 completing primary school, students progressed to one of the four types of secondary schools for up to six further years: Hauptschule, Gymnasium, or Gesamtschule. Since 2011/12, there are only two types of schools: The Sekundarschule: The Senate of Berlin decided that Hauptschulen and Gesamtschulen should be merged to become the new Sekundarschule; the Sekundarschule will serve students from a wide range of abilities.

Depending how well they did in school, students graduating from a Sekundarschule will receive the Hauptschulabschluss, the Realschulabschluss or the Abitur. Class size for the Sekundarschule will be 25 students; the Gymnasium. It was ruled, it was ruled that while they should be able to pick 65% to 70% of their students, the other places at the Gymnasien are to be allocated by lottery. Every child will be able to enter the lottery, no matter how she performed in primary school, it is hoped that this policy will increase the number of working class students attending a Gymnasium. Class size for the Gymnasium will be 32 students. Since the school year 2006/2007, the abitur in German and foreign languages has been marked centrally in Berlin, five examinations have to be taken instead of four. Students starting in grade 7 in that year or complete the abitur after twelve years. In 2007 Berlin had 878 schools that taught 340,658 children in 13,727 classes and 56,787 trainees in businesses and elsewhere.

The city has a six-year primary education program. After completing primary school, students progress to the Gymnasium. Berlin has a special bilingual school program embedded in the "Europaschule". At participating schools, children are taught the curriculum in German and in a foreign language, starting in primary school and continuing in high school. Throughout nearly all boroughs, nine major European languages can be chosen as foreign languages in 29 schools. Notable schools in Berlin include: Französisches Gymnasium Berlin, Gymnasium Canisius-Kolleg Berlin, Gymnasium Evangelisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster, Gymnasium John F. Kennedy School, Berlin and secondary school Oberschule am Elsengrund, Gymnasium Nelson Mandela School, secondary school International School Villa Amalienhof and secondary school The city has four universities and numerous private and technical colleges, offering students a wide range of disciplines. Around 175,000 students, among them 20% international students, attend the universities and professional or technical colleges.

Student enrollment has grown over the last 10 years. The three largest universities account for around 100,000 students; these are the Humboldt Universität zu Berlin with 35,000 students, the Freie Universität Berlin with around 35,000 students, the Technische Universität Berlin with 30,000 students. The Universität der Künste has about 4,000 students. Education in Germany List of modern universities in Europe

St. Joseph Church, Edinburgh of the Seven Seas

The St. Joseph Church is a religious building belonging to the Catholic Church in the town of Edinburgh of the Seven Seas on the island of Tristan da Cunha, one of those that make up the British overseas territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha in the Southern Atlantic Ocean; the temple follows the Roman or Latin rite and is part of the jurisdiction of the Mission sui juris of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha. This is one of 3 Catholic churches operating in that territory, the others being those located in Georgetown, on Ascension Island and Jamestown on the island of St Helena, it is one of the most remote Catholic churches in the world. Built in 1995-96, the present church replaced a smaller one built in 1983; the Catholic faith was brought to the island in 1908 by two Irish women and Agnes Smith. Dereck Rogers, Anne Green and James Glass, all lay preachers of the church, are grandsons of Agnes Smith. Roman Catholicism in Tristan da Cunha St. Joseph Church