Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FWD, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle. Historically, this designation was used regardless of whether the engine was behind the front axle line. Most pre-World War II front engine cars would qualify as front-mid engine, using the front-mid designation and this layout is the most traditional form, and remains a popular, practical design. The engine which takes up a deal of space is packaged in a location passengers. The main deficit is weight distribution — the heaviest component is at one end of the vehicle, car handling is not ideal, but usually predictable. Like the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout and rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout layouts, it places the engine over the drive wheels, improving traction in many applications. As the steered wheels are the wheels, FWD cars are generally considered superior to RWD cars in conditions where there is low traction such as snow, mud.
When hill climbing in low traction conditions RR is considered the best two-wheel-drive layout, the cornering ability of a FWD vehicle is generally better, because the engine is placed over the steered wheels. However, as the wheels have the additional demands of steering, if a vehicle accelerates quickly, less grip is available for cornering. Electronic traction control can avoid wheel-spin but largely negates the benefit of extra power and this was a reason for the adoption of the four-wheel-drive quattro system in the high performance Jensen FF and Audi Quattro road cars. Early cars using the FWD layout include the 1929 Cord L-29,1931 DKW F1, the 1948 Citroën 2CV,1949 Saab 92, in the 1980s, the traction and packaging advantages of this layout caused many compact and mid-sized vehicle makers to adopt it in the US. Most European and Japanese manufacturers switched to front wheel drive for the majority of their cars in the 1960s and 1970s, the last to change being VW, Ford of Europe, Toyota was the last Japanese company to switch in the early 1980s. BMW, focussed on luxury vehicles, however retained the layout in even their smaller cars.
There are four different arrangements for this layout, depending on the location of the engine. The earliest such arrangement was not technically FWD, but rather mid-engine, the engine was mounted longitudinally behind the wheels, with the transmission ahead of the engine and differential at the very front of the car. With the engine so far back, the distribution of such cars as the Cord L-29 was not ideal. The 1934 Citroën Traction Avant solved the weight issue by placing the transmission at the front of the car with the differential between it and the engine. Combined with the low slung unibody design, this resulted in handling which was remarkable for the era
A straight-three engine, known as an inline-triple, or inline-three, is a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine with three cylinders arranged in a straight line or plane, side by side. Straight-three engines generally employ a crank angle of 120° and this gives perfect first and second order balance on reciprocating mass, but an end-to-end rocking motion is induced because there is no symmetry in the piston velocities about the middle piston. The use of a balance shaft reduces this undesirable effect, an inline three-cylinder engine with 180° crankshaft can be found in early examples of the Laverda Jota motorcycle made by Italian manufacturer Laverda. In these engines, the outer rise and fall together like a 360° straight-two engine. The inner cylinder is offset 180° from the outer cylinders, in these engines, cylinder number one fires, 180° cylinder number two fires, and 180° cylinder number three fires. There is no power stroke on the final 180° of rotation and this unusual crank angle came to be due to lack of proper tooling at the factory, which made vertical twin engines that utilized a 180° crankshaft.
After 1982, this engine had the regular 120° crank angle, the smallest inline-three, four-stroke automobile engine was the 543 cubic centimetres Suzuki F5A, which was first used in the 1979 Suzuki Alto/Fronte. Smart currently produces a diminutive 799 cubic centimetres diesel engine. Most inline-three engines fall below 1.2 litres, with a 1,198 cubic centimetres Volkswagen Group unit seen as the largest inline-three petrol engine. A1,779 cubic centimetres diesel engine was produced by VM Motori for the 1984 Alfa Romeo 331.8 TD, detroit Diesel Series 71 and Series 53 engines were available in 3 cylinder form for trucks and farm tractors. Basic versions of the Suzuki Swift used a 993 cc inline-three-cylinder engine, the same engine was used in the Suzuki Wagon R+, with multi-point injection. The Opel models previously used a 973 cc engine, which was featured on the second generation of the Opel Corsa. Some Daihatsu cars use straight-three engines, the Charade and the Mira/Cuore uses this engine type.
Three-cylinder 1. 0-litre diesel and turbodiesel engines were offered in Daihatsu Charades. Korean cars Daewoo Tico, based on the 1988 Suzuki Alto, the Volkswagen Group is known for using three-cylinder petrol and diesel engines, in the Audi A2, Volkswagen Polo, Volkswagen Fox, Volkswagen Lupo, SEAT Ibiza, SEAT Córdoba and Škoda Fabia. It was used in the 3L versions of the Audi A2, another three-cylinder engine is the 1.2 TDI diesel launched with the fifth generation of Volkswagen Polo, that uses common rail injection. Subaru used an engine in the Subaru Justy, and the export version of the Subaru Sambar, called the Subaru Sumo. Mitsubishi has made use of three-cylinder engines, which have been used in the Smart ForTwo, since 2004 on the Mitsubishi Colt
The Saab 96 is an automobile manufactured and marketed by Saab from 1960 to January 1980, replacing the 93. The 96 featured aerodynamic two-door bodywork, four passenger seating and at first a two-stroke, three-cylinder engine, compared with its predecessor, the Saab 93, the 96 featured greater and more easily accessible storage space and larger rear window. Both front and rear windows were enlarged slightly for 1968 models, in 1969, the Saab 99 and Saab continued to manufacture and market the 96 until model year 1980. The Saab 96 had a longitudinally mounted engine layout, as first designed, it had a 841 cc,38 hp three-cylinder Saab two-stroke engine. By 1965 this was increased to 40 hp, an optional 57 hp version of the engine, with triple carburetors and oil injection, was used in the Sport and Monte Carlo models. The additional power was obtained from a cylinder head and filled crankshaft counterweights offering higher overall compression ratio. The Saab 96 of 1964 was tweaked to 42 hp, the same carburetor had been used in the Monte Carlo and Sport models.
A common throttle shaft minimized carburetor synchronization problems, in 1967, Saab began marketing the 96V4, with the Ford Taunus V4 engine, a four-stroke 1498 cc V4 engine, originally developed for the 1962 Ford Taunus 15M. Saabs project to source a four-stroke engine was dubbed Operation Kajsa, the two-stroke option was offered until 1968. However Rolf Melldes view that Saab needed to switch to an engine was stopped higher up by CEO Tryggve Holm. Mellde went behind the back of Holm and made contact with Marc Wallenberg, son of Marcus Wallenberg, the coup succeeded and testing could begin. The tested engines were Volvo B18, Ford V4, Triumph 1300, Lancia V4 engine, Volkswagen, the B18 was the most reliable, but the Ford V4 was not far behind and was significantly easier to fit into the engine bay of the 96. The testing was done in secrecy, Rolf Mellde took a leave of absence and said he was going to run his fathers paint shop. In reality he went to Desenzano in northern Italy with a 96V4 prototype for testing, with five months to go before production only seven persons knew about the new engine.
To maintain secrecy they rented a house west of Kristinehamn, to keep purchases of V4 specific parts secret they started the company Maskinverktyg AB. In the last week of July, just before the holidays, information about the new engine was released to further people. To keep secrecy,40 of the staff were told to report to work to fix a problem with the disc brakes. Just prior to the introduction, a journalist noticed a lorry loaded with 96s with V4 stickers on the front bumpers
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, often cited as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. Researchers worked on computers and inertial guidance during World War II, post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile along the bank of the Charles River basin. The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the sciences and engineering, and more recently in biology, linguistics. Air Force and 6 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT, the school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, and the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the eleventh-largest economy in the world. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a Conservatory of Art and Science, but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars, two days after the charter was issued, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MITs first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865, in 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called Boston Tech, the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker. Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science.
The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership, during these Boston Tech years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliots repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard Colleges Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard, in its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually the MIT Corporation approved an agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme, the neoclassical New Technology campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious Mr. Smith, starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of production and processing
The Triumph Spitfire is a small English two-seat sports car, introduced at the London Motor Show in 1962. The vehicle was based on a design produced for Standard-Triumph in 1957 by Italian designer Giovanni Michelotti, the Spitfire was provided with a manual soft-top for weather protection, the design improving to a folding hood for models. Triumph had one advantage, where the Austin A30 range was of unitary construction and it was Triumphs intention to cut that chassis down and clothe it in a sports body, saving the costs of developing a completely new chassis / body unit. Italian designer Michelotti—who had already penned the Herald—was commissioned for the new project, wind-up windows were provided, as well as a single-piece front end which tilted forwards to offer unrivalled access to the engine. Leyland officials, taking stock of their new acquisition, found Michelottis prototype hiding under a dust sheet in a corner of the factory, the Spitfire was named to honor the World War II fighter plane of the same name.
The production car changed little from the prototype, although the rear bumper was dropped in favour of two part-bumpers curving round each corner, with overriders. Mechanicals were basically stock Herald with the addition of front disc brakes. The engine was an 1,147 cc four-cylinder with a pushrod OHV cylinder head, from the Herald came the rack and pinion steering and coil-and-wishbone front suspension, and at the rear a single transverse-leaf swing axle arrangement. This ended up being the most controversial part of the car, it was known to tuck in and cause violent over steer if pushed too hard, in the sportier Spitfire it led to severe criticism. Known fixes for this include things like camber compensators, or simply achieving more negative camber to the wheels can help the handling become more manageable. The Spitfire was a small sports car and as such had rather basic trim by todays standards, including rubber mats. It was nonetheless considered fairly comfortable by standards, as it had roll-down windows and exterior door locks.
These early cars were referred to both as Triumph Spitfire Mark I and Spitfire 4, not to be confused with the Spitfire Mark IV, the Spitfire 4 name indicated the possibility of the appearance of a six-cylinder version. In UK specification the in-line four produced 63 bhp at 5750 rpm and this gave a top speed of 92 mph, and would achieve 0 to 60 mph in 16.4 seconds. For 1964 an overdrive option was added to the manual gearbox to give more relaxed cruising. Wire wheels and a hard top were available, an all monocoque construction derivative of the Spitfire with, pop-up headlamps, named the Triumph Fury was proposed with a single prototype being built. In March 1965 the Spitfire Mark II was launched, the exterior trim was modified with a new grille and badges. The interior trim was improved with redesigned seats and by covering most of the surfaces with rubber cloth
Ford Taunus V4 engine
The Taunus V4 was a 60° V4 piston engine with one balance shaft, introduced by Ford Motor Company in Germany in 1962. The German V4 was built in the Cologne plant and powered the Ford Taunus and German versions of the Consul and Transit. In common with other V4 and V6 engines, but unlike longer V engines with more cylinders, the V4 engine was used in industrial applications, electrical generators, and in agricultural machinery and snowcats. In automobiles, the Taunus V4 was replaced by the Ford OHC/Pinto engine, initially the V4 engine was designed by Ford for a new entry compact car intended for the US market to be called the Ford Cardinal, which eventually evolved into the Taunus 12m P4. Ford abandoned the Cardinal project and instead built the Ford Falcon for North America, Ford sought other uses for the V4 engine which was initially tested in the Saab 96. Ford bought several Saab 96s for testing and eventually sold the cars back to Saab with the V4 engines in them. Saab tested the V4s at their Trollhattan test track which stimulated Saab to acquire the V4 engine for their 95,96, the V4 engine eliminated the need to mix oil with fuel for the two-cyle Saab Shrike engine and provided better low end torque.
Saab dealers offered the first owner a Lifetime Warranty for the V4 for US$50. Applications, Ford Taunus Ford Consul Ford Transit Ford Capri Saab 95 Saab 96 Saab Sonett Matra 530 Ford Mustang I The 1.2 L version features an 80.0 mm bore and 58.86 mm stroke. Output was 40 hp and 80 N·m or 45 hp and 82 N·m, applications,1962 -1966 Ford Taunus 12M P41967 -1968 Ford Taunus 12M P6 The 1.3 L version had an 84.00 mm bore and 58.86 mm stroke. Output was 50 hp and 95 N·m or 53 hp and 98 N·m, applications,1966 -1970 Ford Taunus 12M P61969 -1972 Ford Capri Ford Transit 600 The 1.5 L V4 had a 90.0 mm bore and 58.86 mm stroke. It produced 55 hp and 107 N·m,60 hp and 114 N·m or 65 hp and 117 N·m at 2500 rpm.7 L V4 had a 90.0 mm bore and 66.8 mm stroke. It produced 65 hp and 129 N·m,70 hp and 137 N·m or 75 hp and 130 N·m, since the Saab 96 was used for rallying it was tuned. SAAB tuned the engine to 240 hp
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, electronics. A prototype is used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one, in some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea. The word prototype derives from the Greek πρωτότυπον prototypon, primitive form, neutral of πρωτότυπος prototypos, primitive, from πρῶτος protos, first and τύπος typos, a Working Prototype represents all or nearly all of the functionality of the final product. A Visual Prototype represents the size and appearance, but not the functionality, a User Experience Prototype represents enough of the appearance and function of the product that it can be used for user research.
A Functional Prototype captures both function and appearance of the design, though it may be created with different techniques. A Paper Prototype is a printed or hand-drawn representation of the interface of a software product. In some cases, the final production materials may still be undergoing development themselves, process - Mass-production processes are often unsuitable for making a small number of parts, so prototypes may be made using different fabrication processes than the final product. Differences in fabrication process may lead to differences in the appearance of the prototype as compared to the final product, verification - The final product may be subject to a number of quality assurance tests to verify conformance with drawings or specifications. These tests may involve custom inspection fixtures, statistical sampling methods, prototypes are generally made with much closer individual inspection and the assumption that some adjustment or rework will be part of the fabrication process.
Prototypes may be exempted from some requirements that apply to the final product. Engineers and prototype specialists will attempt to minimize the impact of these differences on the role for the prototype. Engineers and prototyping specialists seek to understand the limitations of prototypes to exactly simulate the characteristics of their intended design and it is important to realize that by their very definition, prototypes will represent some compromise from the final production design. Due to differences in materials and design fidelity, it is possible that a prototype may fail to perform acceptably whereas the design may have been sound. In general, it can be expected that individual prototype costs will be greater than the final production costs due to inefficiencies in materials. Prototypes are used to revise the design for the purposes of reducing costs through optimization and it is possible to use prototype testing to reduce the risk that a design may not perform as intended, however prototypes generally cannot eliminate all risk.
As an alternative, rapid prototyping or rapid application development techniques are used for the prototypes, which implement part
Saab Automobile AB /ˈsɑːb/ was a manufacturer of automobiles that was founded in Sweden in 1945 when its parent company, SAAB AB, began a project to design a small automobile. The first production model, the Saab 92, was launched in 1949, in 1968 the parent company merged with Scania-Vabis, and ten years the Saab 900 was launched, in time becoming Saabs best-selling model. In the mid-1980s the new Saab 9000 model appeared, in 1989, the automobile division of Saab-Scania was restructured into an independent company, Saab Automobile AB. In 2010 GM sold Saab Automobile AB to the Dutch automobile manufacturer Spyker Cars N. V, on 13 June 2012, it was announced that a newly formed company called National Electric Vehicle Sweden had bought Saab Automobiles bankrupt estate. According to Saab United, the first NEVS Saab 9-3 drove off its line on 19 September 2013. NEVS lost its license to manufacture automobiles under the Saab name in the summer of 2014, Saab AB, Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget, a Swedish aerospace and defence company, was created in 1937 in Linköping.
The company had established in 1937 for the express purpose of building aircraft for the Swedish Air Force to protect the countrys neutrality as Europe moved closer to World War II. As the war drew towards a close and the market for fighter planes seemed to weaken, an automobile design project was started in 1945 with the internal name X9248. The design project became known as Project 92, the 92 being next in production sequence after the Saab 91. In 1948, a site in Trollhättan was converted to allow automobile assembly and the project moved there, along with the car manufacturing headquarters. The company made four prototypes named Ursaab or original Saab, numbered 92001 through to 92004, before designing the production model, the Saab 92 went into production in December 1949, selling 20,000 cars through the mid-1950s. The 92 was thoroughly redesigned and re-engineered in 1955, and was renamed the Saab 93, the cars engine gained a cylinder, going from two to three and its front fascia became the first to sport the first incarnation of Saabs trademark trapezoidal radiator grill.
A wagon variant, the Saab 95, was added in 1959, the decade saw Saabs first performance car, the Saab 94, the first of the Saab Sonetts. 1960 saw the major revision to the 92s platform in the Saab 96. The 96 was an important model for Saab, it was the first Saab to be exported out of Sweden. It proved very popular, selling nearly 550,000 examples, even more important to the companys fortunes was 1968s Saab 99. The 99 was the first all-new Saab in 19 years, and unlike its predecessors, the 99 had many innovations and features that would come to define Saabs for decades, wraparound windscreen, self-repairing bumpers, headlamp washers and side-impact door beams. The design by Sixten Sason was no less revolutionary than the underlying technology, in 1969, Saab AB merged with the Swedish commercial vehicle manufacturer Scania-Vabis AB to form Saab-Scania AB, under the Wallenberg family umbrella
A roadster, sometimes referred to as a spider or spyder, is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. Initially an American term for a car with no weather protection. The roadster is a style of racing car driven in United States Auto Club Championship Racing, including the Indianapolis 500 and this type of racing car was superseded by mid-engined cars. In the nineteenth century, the word denoted a horse suitable for traveling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include bicycles and tricycles. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as and it may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck. Additional seating in the deck was known as a rumble seat or a dickey seat. The main seat for the driver and passenger was usually further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car, Roadsters usually had a hooded dashboard. The earliest roadster automobiles had only basic bodies without doors, windshields, by the 1920s they were appointed similarly to touring cars, with doors, simple folding tops, and side curtains.
When roadsters of this era were equipped with seats, the seats folded into the body when not in use. They are popular with collectors, often valued over other open styles, the term roadster as applied to automobiles is American in origin, before World War II, the British equivalent was a two-seat tourer. By the 1970s, the roadster was applied to open two-seat cars of sporting appearance or character. Roadsters had become almost as well-equipped as convertibles, including side windows that retract into the doors, Roadsters of that time included the Alfa Romeo Spider, MGB, and Triumph TR4. A roadster is still defined as a car with two seats, with some roadsters having power tops or retractable hardtops. A few manufacturers and fabricators still offer roadsters that meet the older definitions and these include Morgan, with the windowless Roadster, with the doorless Seven, and Ariel, with the bodyless Atom. The American hot rod is based on pre–World War II roadsters, late run Model Ts and 1932 Fords were the most popular starting points.
The term roadster applies to front-engined AAA/USAC Championship cars, associated with the Indianapolis 500, the roadster engine and drive shaft are offset from the centerline of the car. This allows the driver to sit lower in the chassis and facilitates a weight offset which is beneficial on oval tracks, one story of why this type of racing car is referred to as a roadster is that a team was preparing a new car for the Indianapolis 500
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to heat, which is used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use energy to create forces. The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines. In this manner, an engine in its original form was merely a water pump. Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines, examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts.
Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets, the term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion and engine came to be used largely interchangeably in casual discourse. However, the two words have different meanings, rocketry uses the term rocket motor, even though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by a combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, by the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times