The White Elster is a 257-kilometre long river in central Europe, right tributary of the Saale. Its source is in the westernmost part of the Czech Republic, near Aš. After a few kilometres, it flows into eastern Germany. In Germany, it flows through the states of Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt; the White Elster flows through the cities of Plauen, Gera, Zeitz and Leipzig. It flows into the river Saale in Halle. Although "Elster" is German for "magpie", the origin of the name has nothing to do with the bird, it is of Slavic origin: alstrawa. The White Elster never meets the Black Elster; the rivers have the names "white" and "black" to distinguish between them. The White Elster proved disastrous to the French troops when they retreated from Leipzig in October 1813, as a part of the Napoleonic Wars. Józef Poniatowski, Marshal of France, drowned in the river on 19 October 1813. Black Elster Elster glaciation
Barby is a town in the Salzlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated on the left bank near the confluence with the Saale, approx. 25 km southeast of Magdeburg. Since an administrative reform of 1 January 2010 it comprises the former municipalities of the Verwaltungsgemeinschaft Elbe-Saale, except for Gnadau, that joined Barby in September 2010; the burgward of Barby was first mentioned in a 961 deed by German king Otto I. Since the 12th century, the area was enfeoffed to the Counts of Barby descending from nearby Arnstein, who achieved Imperial immediacy in 1497. Upon the extinction of the line in 1659, the County of Barby fell to the Duchy of Saxe-Weissenfels, ruled by a cadet branch of the electoral Saxon House of Wettin; when Duke Georg Albrecht of Saxe-Weissenfels died without issue in 1739, Barby fell to the Electorate of Saxony. The Elector rented Barby to Count von Zinzendorf in repayment for a loan and Barby was for several decades the headquarters of the worldwide work of the Moravian Church as well as of its theological seminary.
The Barby Ferry, a cable ferry across the Elbe, links Barby with Zerbst-Walternienburg. Barby is twinned with: Schöppenstedt, Germany Aukštadvaris, Lithuania Pruchnik, Poland Jakob Friedrich Fries, philosopher Friedrich Schleiermacher and philosopher Max Sering, economist Walter Conrad and politician
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
University of Jena
Friedrich Schiller University Jena is a public research university located in Jena, Germany. The university is counted among the ten oldest universities in Germany, it is affiliated with six Nobel Prize winners, most in 2000 when Jena graduate Herbert Kroemer won the Nobel Prize for physics. It was renamed after the poet Friedrich Schiller, teaching as professor of philosophy when Jena attracted some of the most influential minds at the turn of the 19th century. With Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, G. W. F. Hegel, F. W. J. Schelling and Friedrich von Schlegel on its teaching staff, the university has been at the centre of the emergence of German idealism and early Romanticism; as of 2014, the university has around 19,000 students enrolled and 375 professors. Its current president, Walter Rosenthal, was elected in 2014 for a six-year term. Elector John Frederick of Saxony first thought of a plan to establish a university at Jena upon Saale in 1547 while he was being held captive by emperor Charles V.
The plan was put into motion by his three sons and, after having obtained a charter from the Emperor Ferdinand I, the university was established on 2 February 1558. The university, jointly maintained by the Saxon Duchies who derived from partitioning of John Frederick's duchy, was thus named Ducal Pan-Saxon University or Salana. Prior to the 20th century, University enrollment peaked in the 18th century; the university's reputation peaked under the auspices of Duke Charles Augustus, Goethe's patron, when Gottlieb Fichte, G. W. F. Hegel, Friedrich Schelling, Friedrich von Schlegel and Friedrich Schiller were on its teaching staff. Founded as a home for the new religious opinions of the sixteenth century, it has since been one of the most politically radical universities in Germany. Jena was noted among other German universities at the time for allowing students to duel and to have a passion for Freiheit, which were popularly regarded as the necessary characteristics of German student life; the University of Jena has preserved a historical detention room or Karzer with famous caricatures by Swiss painter Martin Disteli.
In the latter 19th century, the department of zoology taught evolutionary theory, with Carl Gegenbaur, Ernst Haeckel and others publishing detailed theories at the time of Darwin's "Origin of Species". The fame of Ernst Haeckel eclipsed Darwin in some European countries, as the term "Haeckelism" was more common than Darwinism. In 1905, Jena had 1,100 students enrolled and its teaching staff numbered 112. Amongst its numerous auxiliaries were the library, with 200,000 volumes. After the end of the Saxon duchies in 1918, their merger with further principalities into the Free State of Thuringia in 1920, the university was renamed as the Thuringian State University in 1921. In 1934 the university was renamed again, receiving its present name of Friedrich Schiller University. During the 20th century, the cooperation between Zeiss corporation and the university brought new prosperity and attention to Jena, resulting in a dramatic increase in funding and enrollment. During the Third Reich, staunch Nazis moved into leading positions at the university.
The racial researcher and SS-Hauptscharführer Karl Astel was appointed professor in 1933, bypassing traditional qualifications and process. In 1933, many professors had to leave the university as a consequence of the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service. Student fraternities - in particular the Burschenschaften - were dissolved and incorporated into the Nazi student federation; the Nazi student federation enjoyed before the transfer of power and won great support among the student body elections in January 1933, achieving 49.3% of the vote, which represents the second best result. Between the Jena connections and the NS students wide-ranging human and ideological connections were recorded; when the Allied air raids to Jena in February and March struck in 1945, the University Library, the University main building and several clinics in the Bachstraße received total or significant physical damage. Destroyed were the Botanical Garden, the psychological and the physiological institute and three chemical Institutes.
An important event for the National Socialist period was the investigation of the pediatrician Yusuf Ibrahim. A Senate Commission noted the participation of the physician to the "euthanasia" murders of physically or mentally disabled children. In the 20th century the university was promoted through cooperation with Carl Zeiss and became thereby a mass university. In 1905 the university had 1,100 students and 112 university teachers, so this figure has since been twenty-fold; the Thuringian State University is the only comprehensive university of the Free State. Since 1995, there is a university association with the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg and the University of Leipzig; the aim is firstly to give the students the opportunity to visit with few problems at the partner universities and events in order to broaden the range of subjects and topics. E. g. has joined a cooperation in teaching in the field of bioinformatics. In addition, the cooperation provides the university management the opportunity to share experiences with their regular meetings and initiate common projects.
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Merseburg is a town in the south of the German state of Saxony-Anhalt on the river Saale, approx. 14 km south of Halle and 30 km west of Leipzig. It is the capital of the Saalekreis district, it had a diocese founded by Archbishop Adalbert of Magdeburg. The University of Merseburg is located within the town. Merseburg has around 33,000 inhabitants. Merseburg is part of the Central German Metropolitan Region. Czech: Merseburk, Meziboř French: Mersebourg German: Merseburg Latin: Merseburga Polish: Międzybórz Sorbian languages: Mjezybor Venenien was incorporated into Merseburg on 1 January 1949; the parish Kötzschen followed on 1 July 1950. Since 30 May 1994, Meuschau is part of Merseburg. Trebnitz followed later. Beuna was annexed on 1 January 2009. Geusa is a part of Merseburg since 1 January 2010. Merseburg was first mentioned in 850. King Henry the Fowler built a royal palace at Merseburg. Thietmar, appointed in 973, became the first bishop of the newly created bishopric of Prague in Bohemia. Prague had been part of the archbishopric of Mainz for a hundred years before that.
From 968 until the Protestant Reformation, Merseburg was the seat of the Bishop of Merseburg, in addition to being for a time the residence of the margraves of Meissen, it was a favorite residence of the German kings during the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries. Fifteen diets were held here during the Middle Ages, during which time its fairs enjoyed the importance, afterwards transferred to those of Leipzig. Merseburg was the site of a failed assassination attempt on Polish ruler Bolesław I Chrobry in 1002; the town suffered during the German Peasants' War and during the Thirty Years' War. From 1657 to 1738 Merseburg was the residence of the Dukes of Saxe-Merseburg, after which it fell to the Electorate of Saxony. In 1815 following the Napoleonic Wars, the town became part of the Prussian Province of Saxony. Merseburg is where the Merseburg Incantations were rediscovered in 1841. Written down in Old High German, they are hitherto the only preserved German documents with a heathen theme. One of them is a charm to release warriors caught during battle, the other is a charm to heal a horse's sprained foot.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Merseburg was transformed into an industrial town due to the pioneering work done by Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius, who laid down the scientific fundamentals of the catalytic high-pressure ammonia synthesis from 1909 to 1913. Enterprises, blazed a trail in the course of the transformational process. A chemical park emerged at nearby Leuna, one of the most modern sites of its kind in Europe with high ecological standards. Merseburg was badly damaged in World War II. In 23 air raids 6,200 dwellings were or destroyed; the historic town centre was completely destroyed. Part of Saxony-Anhalt after the war, it was administered within the Bezirk Halle in East Germany, it became part of Saxony-Anhalt again after reunification of Germany. Like many towns in the former East Germany, Merseburg has had a general decline in population since German Reunification despite annexing and merging with a number of smaller nearby villages. Population of Merseburg: Data source from 1990: Statistical Office of Saxony Anhalt 1 29 October 2 31 August 3 3 October 4 14 July 2008 Among the notable buildings of Merseburg are the Merseburg Cathedral of St John the Baptist and the episcopal palace.
The cathedral-and-palace ensemble features a palace garden. Other attractions include the Merseburg House of Trades with a cultural stage and the German Museum of Chemistry, Merseburg; the Merseburg Palace Festival with the Historical Pageant, the International Palace-Moat Concerts, Merseburg Organ Days and the Puppet Show Festival Week are events celebrated every year. Merseburg station is located on the Halle–Bebra railway. Leipzig/Halle Airport is just 25 kilometers away. Merseburg is connected with the Halle tramway network. A tram ride from Halle's city centre to Merseburg takes about 50 minutes. Merseburg is twinned with: Châtillon, France Genzano di Roma, Italy Bottrop, Germany Thietmar of Merseburg and chronist Johannes Knolleisen, theological professor Ernst Haeckel, philosopher, physician Lucian Müller, classical scholar Klaus Tennstedt, conductor Elisabeth Schumann, singer Karl Adolph von Basedow, physician Jawed Karim, YouTube co-founder Szymon Bogumił Zug and designer of gardens Uwe Nolte, artist This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Merseburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 173–174. Official website
Thuringia the Free State of Thuringia, is a state of Germany. Thuringia is located in central Germany covering an area of 16,171 square kilometres and a population of 2.15 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest German state by area and the fifth smallest by population. Erfurt is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Jena and Weimar. Thuringia is surrounded by the states of Bavaria, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony. Most of Thuringia is within the watershed of the Saale, a left tributary of the Elbe, has been known as "the green heart of Germany" from the late 19th century due to the dense forest covering the land. Thuringia is home to the Rennsteig, Germany's most well-known hiking trail, the winter resort of Oberhof, making it a well-known winter sports destination with half of Germany's 136 Winter Olympic gold medals won through 2014 having been won by Thuringian athletes. Thuringia is home to prominent German intellectuals and creative artists, including Johann Sebastian Bach, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, is location of the University of Jena, the Ilmenau University of Technology, the University of Erfurt, the Bauhaus University of Weimar.
Thuringia was established in 1920 as a state of the Weimar Republic from a merger of the Ernestine duchies, except for Saxe-Coburg, but can trace its origins to the Frankish Duchy of Thuringia established around 631 AD by King Dagobert I. After World War II, Thuringia came under the Soviet occupation zone in Allied-occupied Germany, its borders altered to become contiguous. Thuringia became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms, its territory divided into the districts of Erfurt and Gera. Thuringia was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, with different borders, became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states; the name Thuringia or Thüringen derives from the Germanic tribe Thuringii, who emerged during the Migration Period. Their origin is unknown. An older theory claims that they were successors of the Hermunduri, but research rejected the idea. Other historians argue that the Thuringians were allies of the Huns, came to central Europe together with them, lived before in what is Galicia today.
Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus first mentioned the Thuringii around 400. The Thuringian Realm existed until after 531, the Landgraviate of Thuringia was the largest state in the region, persisting between 1131 and 1247. Afterwards the state known as Thuringia ceased to exist. After the Treaty of Leipzig, Thuringia had its own dynasty again, the Ernestine Wettins, their various lands formed the Free State of Thuringia, founded in 1920, together with some other small principalities. The Prussian territories around Erfurt, Mühlhausen and Nordhausen joined Thuringia in 1945; the coat of arms of Thuringia shows the lion of the Ludowingian Landgraves of 12th-century origin. The eight stars around it represent the eight former states; the flag of Thuringia is a white-red bicolor, derived from the white and red stripes of the Ludowingian lion. The coat of arms and flag of Hesse are quite similar to the Thuringian ones, because they are derived from the Ludowingian symbols. Symbols of Thuringia in popular culture are the Bratwurst and the Forest, because a large amount of the territory is forested.
Named after the Thuringii tribe who occupied it around AD 300, Thuringia came under Frankish domination in the 6th century. Thuringia became a landgraviate in 1130 AD. After the extinction of the reigning Ludowingian line of counts and landgraves in 1247 and the War of the Thuringian Succession, the western half became independent under the name of "Hesse", never to become a part of Thuringia again. Most of the remaining Thuringia came under the rule of the Wettin dynasty of the nearby Margraviate of Meissen, the nucleus of the Electorate and Kingdom of Saxony. With the division of the house of Wettin in 1485, Thuringia went to the senior Ernestine branch of the family, which subsequently subdivided the area into a number of smaller states, according to the Saxon tradition of dividing inheritance amongst male heirs; these were the "Saxon duchies", among others, of the states of Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Eisenach, Saxe-Jena, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Gotha. Thuringia accepted the Protestant Reformation, Roman Catholicism was suppressed as early as 1520.
In Mühlhausen and elsewhere, the Anabaptists found many adherents. Thomas Müntzer, a leader of some non-peaceful groups of this sect, was active in this city. Within the borders of modern Thuringia the Roman Catholic faith only survived in the Eichsfeld district, ruled by the Archbishop of Mainz, to a small degree in Erfurt and its immediate vicinity; the modern German black-red-gold tricolour flag's first appearance anywhere in a German-ethnicity sovereign state, within what today comprises Germany, occurred in 1778 as the state flag of the Principality of Reuss-Greiz, a principality whose lands were located within m
Bad Dürrenberg is a spa town in the Saalekreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated on approx. 8 km southeast of Merseburg. It is known for the largest one in Germany; the town of Bad Dürrenberg is located on the river Saale between the cities of Leipzig and Weißenfels. In the south of the town, the Ellerbach flows into the right side of the Saale; the neighboring districts are Leuna to the north, Markranstädt in to the east, Lützen to the south and, to the west, Weißenfels. The following table shows the population of the town itself and those of the surrounding villages which were in the Bad Dürrenberg administrative area but are now part of the town; each year on the last weekend of June the town has a festival held over a period of three days, known as Brunnenfest. Historical population. Values since 2010 include neighboring villages which were annexed by the town. 1 3 October Kurt Eckart, May–June 1945 Karl Herfurth, July 1945 – 1946 Paul Drese, 1946-1947 Fritz Singer, 1948-1952 Kurt Boose, from 1951 Gerry Chisel, from 1952 acting / Edmund Jatz Martha Wessler, 1953-1976 Liselotte Wehowski, 1976-1986 Frank Klappach, 1986-1988 Karin Zeisler, 1988-1990 Thomas Heilmann, 1990-2001 Jürgen Elste, 2001-2008 Árpád Nemes, 2008-2015 Christoph Schulze, since 2015 Ibrahim Böhme, politician Lars-Broder Keil and author Andreas Ihle, world champion and Olympic champion in canoe racing Novalis, early Romantics and lawyer Johann Trommsdorff and chemist Karl von Fritsch, a paleontologist and geologist, president of the Leopoldina Ernst Fraenkel, political scientist and lawyer Karin Haftenberger, competed in the 1968 Summer Olympics Melle, Lower Saxony Caudebec-lès-Elbeuf, France Ciechocinek, Poland Encs, Hungary Churches