On Her Majesty's Secret Service (film)
On Her Majesty's Secret Service is a 1969 British spy film and the sixth in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions. It is based on the 1963 novel of the same name by Ian Fleming. Following Sean Connery's decision to retire from the role after You Only Live Twice, Eon Productions selected an unknown actor and model, George Lazenby, to play the part of James Bond. During the making of the film, Lazenby announced. In the film, Bond faces Blofeld, planning to hold the world ransom by the threat of sterilising the world's food supply through a group of brainwashed "angels of death". Along the way Bond meets, falls in love with, marries Contessa Teresa di Vicenzo, it is the only Bond film to have been directed by Peter R. Hunt, who had served as a film editor and second unit director on previous films in the series. Hunt, along with producers Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman, decided to produce a more realistic film that would follow the novel closely, it was shot in Switzerland and Portugal from October 1968 to May 1969.
Although its cinema release was not as lucrative as its predecessor You Only Live Twice, On Her Majesty's Secret Service was still one of the top performing films of the year. Critical reviews upon release were mixed, but the film's reputation has improved over time. In Portugal, James Bond – agent 007, sometimes referred to as'007' – saves a woman on the beach from committing suicide by drowning, meets her again in a casino; the woman, Contessa Teresa "Tracy" di Vicenzo, invites Bond to her hotel room to thank him, but when Bond arrives he is attacked by an unidentified man. After subduing the man, Bond returns to his own room and finds Tracy there, who claims she didn't know the attacker was there; the next morning, Bond is kidnapped by several men, including the one he fought with, who take him to meet Marc-Ange Draco, the head of the European crime syndicate Unione Corse. Draco reveals that Tracy is his only daughter and tells Bond of her troubled past, offering Bond one million pounds if he will marry her.
Bond refuses, but agrees to continue romancing Tracy if Draco reveals the whereabouts of Ernst Stavro Blofeld, the head of SPECTRE. Bond returns to London, after a brief argument with M at the British Secret Service headquarters, where Bond tries to resign, heads for Draco's birthday party in Portugal. There and Tracy begin a whirlwind romance, Draco directs the agent to a law firm in Bern, Switzerland. Bond investigates the office of Swiss lawyer Gumbold, learns that Blofeld is corresponding with London College of Arms' genealogist Sir Hilary Bray, attempting to claim the title'Count Balthazar de Bleuchamp'. Posing as Bray, Bond goes to meet Blofeld, who has established a clinical allergy-research institute atop Piz Gloria in the Swiss Alps. Bond meets twelve young women, the "Angels of Death", who are patients at the institute's clinic cured of their allergies. At night Bond goes to the room of Ruby, to seduce her. At midnight Bond sees that the 12 ladies go into a sleep-induced hypnotic state while Blofeld gives them audio instructions for when they return home.
In fact, the women are being brainwashed to distribute bacteriological warfare agents throughout the world. Bond tries to trick Blofeld into leaving Switzerland so that MI6 can arrest him without violating Swiss sovereignty. Blofeld refuses and Bond is caught by henchwoman Irma Bunt. Blofeld reveals that he identified Bond after his attempt to lure him out of Switzerland, tells his henchmen to take the agent away. Bond makes his escape by skiing down Piz Gloria while Blofeld and his men give chase. Arriving at the village of Lauterbrunnen, Bond finds Tracy and they escape Bunt and her men after a car chase. A blizzard forces them to a remote barn, where Bond professes his love to Tracy and proposes marriage to her, which she accepts; the next morning, as the flight resumes, Blofeld sets off an avalanche. Back in London at M's office, Bond is informed that Blofeld intends to hold the world at ransom by threatening to destroy its agriculture using his brainwashed women, demanding amnesty for all past crimes, that he be recognised as the current Count de Bleuchamp.
M tells 007 that the ransom forbids him to mount a rescue mission. Bond enlists Draco and his forces to attack Blofeld's headquarters, while rescuing Tracy from Blofeld's captivity; the facility is destroyed, Blofeld escapes the destruction alone in a bobsleigh, with Bond pursuing him. The chase ends when Blofeld injures his neck. Bond and Tracy marry in Portugal drive away in Bond's Aston Martin; when Bond pulls over to the roadside to remove flowers from the car and Bunt commit a drive-by shooting of the couple's car. George Lazenby as James Bond – MI6 agent, codename 007. Diana Rigg as Countess Tracy di Vicenzo – A vulnerable countess and Marc-Ange Draco's daughter, who captures Bond's heart. Like Honor Blackman in Goldfinger before her, Rigg had come to the notice of Eon Productions through her work on The Avengers, where she played Emma Peel from 1965–68. Telly Savalas as Ernst Stavro Blofeld aka Comte Balthazar de Bleuchamp – Bond's nemesis, leader of SPECTRE and in hiding. Savalas had appeared in The Dirty Dozen in 1967, leading to Broccoli suggesting him to director Peter Hunt, for the role, in place of Donald Pleasence, who had appeared in You Only Live Twice.
Both Broccoli and Hunt felt Pleasence was unsuited to the more physical side of the Blofeld role in On Her Majesty's Secret Service. Gabriele Ferzetti as Marc-Ange Draco
A toboggan is a simple sled, a traditional form of transport used by the Innu and Cree of northern Canada. In modern times, it is used on snow to carry one or more people down a hill or other slope for recreation. Designs vary from traditional models to modern engineered composites. A toboggan differs from sleighs in that it has no runners or skis on the underside; the bottom of a toboggan rides directly on the snow. Some parks include designated toboggan hills where ordinary sleds are not allowed and which may include toboggan runs similar to bobsleigh courses. Toboggans can vary depending on the geographical region; such examples are Tangalooma where Toboggans are made from Masonite boards and used for travelling down steep sand dunes at speeds up to 40km per hour. The traditional toboggan is made of bound, parallel wood slats, all bent up and backwards at the front to form a recumbent'J' shape. A thin rope is run across the edge of end of the curved front to provide rudimentary steering; the frontmost rider sits on the flat bed.
Modern recreational toboggans are manufactured from wood or plastic or aluminum. Larger, more rugged models are made for commercial or rescue use; the Mountaineer method is the only one adapted for the interior parts of the country: their sleds are made of two thin boards of birch. Each individual, able to walk, is furnished with one of these. On them they stow all their goods, their infants; the two ends of a leather thong are tied to the corners of the sled. The men go first; the toboggan is a recurring prop in the Hobbes comic. Comic author Bill Watterson uses it as "a simple device to add some physical comedy to the strip, most use it when Calvin gets longwinded or philosophical."In Home Alone Kevin McCallister rides a toboggan down the stairs after his family “disappears”. Bobsled Luge Pulk, a Scandinavian low, flat load-carrying sled. Skeleton Sled Toboggan Bum slider "Toboggan". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
The Alpine region of Switzerland, conventionally referred to as the Swiss Alps, represents a major natural feature of the country and is, along with the Swiss Plateau and the Swiss portion of the Jura Mountains, one of its three main physiographic regions. The Swiss Alps extend over both the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps, encompassing an area sometimes called Central Alps. While the northern ranges from the Bernese Alps to the Appenzell Alps are in Switzerland, the southern ranges from the Mont Blanc massif to the Bernina massif are shared with other countries such as France, Italy and Liechtenstein; the Swiss Alps comprise all the highest mountains of the Alps, such as Dufourspitze, the Dom, the Liskamm, the Weisshorn and the Matterhorn. The other following major summits can be found in this list of mountains of Switzerland. Since the Middle Ages, transit across the Alps played an important role in history; the region north of St Gotthard Pass became the nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the early 14th century.
The Alps cover 65% of Switzerland's total 41,285 square kilometres surface area, making it one of the most alpine countries. Despite the fact that Switzerland covers only 14% of the Alps total 192,753 square kilometres area, 48 out of 82 alpine four-thousanders are located in the Swiss Alps and all of the remaining 34 are within 20 kilometres of the country's border; the glaciers of the Swiss Alps cover an area of 1,220 square kilometres — 3% of the Swiss territory, representing 44% of the total glaciated area in the Alps i.e. 2,800 square kilometres. The Swiss Alps are situated south of the Swiss north of the national border; the limit between the Alps and the plateau runs from Vevey on the shores of Lake Geneva to Rorschach on the shores of Lake Constance, passing close to the cities of Thun and Lucerne. The not well defined regions in Switzerland that lie on the margin of the Alps those on the north side, are called the Swiss Prealps; the Swiss Prealps are made of limestone and they do not exceed 2,500 metres.
The Alpine cantons are Valais, Graubünden, Glarus, Ticino, St. Gallen, Obwalden, Schwyz, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Fribourg and Zug; the countries with which Switzerland shares mountain ranges of the Alps are: France, Italy and Liechtenstein. The Alps are divided into two main parts, the Western Alps and Eastern Alps, whose division is along the Rhine from Lake Constance to the Splügen Pass; the western ranges occupy the greatest part of Switzerland while the more numerous eastern ranges are much smaller and are all situated in the canton of Graubünden. The latter are part of the Central Eastern Alps, except the Ortler Alps which belong to the Southern Limestone Alps; the Pennine and Bernina Range are the highest ranges of the country, they contain 38, 9 and 1 summit over 4000 metres. The lowest range is the Appenzell Alps culminating at 2,500 metres. Western Alps Eastern Alps The north side of the Swiss Alps is drained by the Rhône, Rhine and Inn while the south side is drained by the Ticino.
The rivers on the north empty into the Mediterranean and Black Sea, on the south the Po empty in the Adriatic Sea. The major triple watersheds in the Alps are located within the country, they are: Piz Lunghin, Witenwasserenstock and Monte Forcola. Between the Witenwasserenstock and Piz Lunghin runs the European Watershed separating the basin of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea; the European watershed lies in fact only on the main chain. Switzerland possesses 6% of Europe's fresh water, is sometimes referred to as the "water tower of Europe". Since the highest dams are located in Alpine regions, many large mountain lakes are artificial and are used as hydroelectric reservoirs; some large artificial lakes can be found above 2,300 m, but natural lakes larger than 1 km2 are below 1,000 m. The melting of low-altitude glaciers can generate new lakes, such as the 0.25 km2 large Triftsee which formed between 2002–2003. The following table gives the surface area above 2000 m and 3000 m and the respective percentage on the total area of each canton whose high point is above 2000 metres.
The composition of the great tectonic units reflects the history of the formation of the Alps. The rocks from the Helvetic zone on the north and the Austroalpine nappes – Southern Alps on the south come from the European and African continent respectively; the rocks of the Penninic nappes belong to the former area of the Briançonnais microcontinent and the Tethys Ocean. The closure of the latter by subduction under the African plate preceded the collision between the two plates and the so-called alpine orogeny; the major thrust fault of the Tectonic Arena Sardona in the eastern Glarus Alps gives a visible illustration of mountain-building processes and was therefore declared a UNESCO World Heritage. Another fine example gives the Alpstein area with several visible upfolds of Helvetic zone material. With some exceptions, the Alps north of Rhône and Rhine are part of the Helvetic Zone and those on the south side are part of the Penninic nappes; the Austroalpine zone concerns only the Eastern Alps, with the n
Hang gliding is an air sport or recreational activity in which a pilot flies a light, non-motorised foot-launched heavier-than-air aircraft called a hang glider. Most modern hang gliders are made of an aluminium alloy or composite frame covered with synthetic sailcloth to form a wing; the pilot is in a harness suspended from the airframe, controls the aircraft by shifting body weight in opposition to a control frame. Early hang gliders had a low lift-to-drag ratio, so pilots were restricted to gliding down small hills. By the 1980s this ratio improved, since pilots can soar for hours, gain thousands of feet of altitude in thermal updrafts, perform aerobatics, glide cross-country for hundreds of kilometers; the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale and national airspace governing organisations control some regulatory aspects of hang gliding. Obtaining the safety benefits of being instructed is recommended. By the end of the sixth century A. D. the Chinese had managed to build kites large and aerodynamic enough to sustain the weight of an average-sized person.
It was only a matter of time before someone decided to remove the kite strings and see what happened. Most early glider designs did not ensure safe flight. Starting in the 1880s technical and scientific advancements were made that led to the first practical gliders, such as those developed in the United States by John Joseph Montgomery. Otto Lilienthal built controllable gliders in the 1890s, his rigorously documented work influenced designers, making Lilienthal one of the most influential early aviation pioneers. His aircraft is similar to a modern hang glider. Hang gliding saw a stiffened flexible wing hang glider in 1904, when Jan Lavezzari flew a double lateen sail hang glider off Berck Beach, France. In 1910 in Breslau, the triangle control frame with hang glider pilot hung behind the triangle in a hang glider, was evident in a gliding club's activity; the biplane hang glider was widely publicized in public magazines with plans for building. In April 1909, a how-to article by Carl S. Bates proved to be a seminal hang glider article that affected builders of contemporary times, as several builders would have their first hang glider made by following the plan in his article.
Volmer Jensen with a biplane hang glider in 1940 called VJ-11 allowed safe three-axis control of a foot-launched hang glider. On November 23, 1948, Francis Rogallo and Gertrude Rogallo applied for a kite patent for a flexible kited wing with approved claims for its stiffenings and gliding uses; the various stiffening formats and the wing's simplicity of design and ease of construction, along with its capability of slow flight and its gentle landing characteristics, did not go unnoticed by hang glider enthusiasts. In 1960–1962 Barry Hill Palmer adapted the flexible wing concept to make foot-launched hang gliders with four different control arrangements. In 1963 Mike Burns adapted the flexible wing to build a towable kite-hang glider. In 1963, John W. Dickenson adapted the flexible wing airfoil concept to make another water-ski kite glider. Since the Rogallo wing has been the most used airfoil of hang gliders. There are two types of sail materials used in hang glider sails: woven polyester fabrics, composite laminated fabrics made of some combinations.
Woven polyester sailcloth is a tight weave of small diameter polyester fibers, stabilized by the hot-press impregnation of a polyester resin. The resin impregnation is required to provide resistance to stretch; this resistance is important in maintaining the aerodynamic shape of the sail. Woven polyester provides the best combination of light weight and durability in a sail with the best overall handling qualities. Laminated sail materials using polyester film achieve superior performance by using a lower stretch material, better at maintaining sail shape but is still light in weight; the disadvantages of polyester film fabrics is that the reduced elasticity under load results in stiffer and less responsive handling, polyester laminated fabrics are not as durable or long lasting as the woven fabrics. In most hang gliders, the pilot is ensconced in a harness suspended from the airframe, exercises control by shifting body weight in opposition to a stationary control frame known as triangle control frame, control bar or base bar.
This bar is pulled to allow for greater speed. Either end of the control bar is attached to an upright pipe, where both extend and are connected to the main body of the glider; this creates the shape of a triangle or'A-frame'. In many of these configurations additional wheels or other equipment can be suspended from the bottom bar or rod ends. Images showing a triangle control frame on Otto Lilienthal's 1892 hang glider shows that the technology of such frames has existed since the early design of gliders, but he did not mention it in his patents. A control frame for body weight shift was shown in Octave Chanute's designs, it was a major part of the now commo
A four-thousander is a mountain summit, at least 4,000 metres above sea level. Because the highest peaks in Europe fall into this category, the summits of four-thousanders are popular in Europe with climbers and mountaineers as climbing goals. Although climbing these peaks does not require an expedition to be mounted, unlike the highest peaks in other continents and experience of high altitude climbing is a pre-requisite for attempting these peaks. → See: List of Alpine four-thousanders Four-thousanders are the highest mountains and summits in Europe and are all found in the Alps. There is no agreement over where the boundary is between Europe and Asia, why there is a dispute over which continent the over 5,000 metres high Caucasus range is in. In the Alps the highest four-thousander is Mont Blanc at 4,810 metres, the lowest, at 4,000 metres is the eastern summit of Les Droites; the exact number of Alpine four-thousanders is unclear, because there are no agreed criteria for mountains and subpeaks.
The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation, UIAA, has declared 82 peaks as four-thousanders and 46 as four-thousander subpeaks, which are spread across three countries. In all 55 peaks lie within one country, over 27 straddle a border but none is located at a tripoint. By the UIAA's definition, Switzerland has 48 four-thousanders, Italy has 35 and France 26; the four-thousanders are found in the Western Alps, in the ranges of the Bernese Alps, Dauphiné Alps Graian Alps and Pennine Alps. The only four-thousander in the Eastern Alps is Piz Bernina in the Bernina Group. In Africa mountain ranges there are four-thousanders in the High Atlas, in the Ethiopian Highlands, in the foothills of the Adamaoua Mountains, in the Virunga Volcanoes and in the shape of the 4,565 m high Mount Meru in Tanzania. In Africa there is a total of 38 four-thousanders. In the Rocky Mountains there is a large number of four-thousanders in the state of Colorado and Wyoming. In addition the Sierra Nevada rises well above 4,000 m.
On Hawaii the volcano of Mauna Kea lies 4,214 m above sea level and has an overall height of 9,705 m above the seabed. The US-American equivalent of the four-thousanders are the fourteeners, which include all mountains that are higher than 14,000 feet; the highest mountain in Antarctica is Mount Vinson, thought to be a five thousander for a long time. In addition there are other peaks over 4,000 metres high, such as Mount Kirkpatrick in the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. In Asia and South America four-thousanders play a secondary role because there the highest mountains average between seven and eight thousand metres high or around 6,500 metres high respectively. Two-thousander Three-thousander Eight-thousander 4000ers of the Alps UIAA Catalogue of four-thousanders in the Alps
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Ice climbing is the activity of ascending inclined ice formations. Ice climbing refers to roped and protected climbing of features such as icefalls, frozen waterfalls, cliffs and rock slabs covered with ice refrozen from flows of water. For the purposes of climbing, ice can be broadly divided into alpine ice and water ice. Alpine ice is found in a mountain environment requires an approach to reach, is climbed in an attempt to summit a mountain. Water ice is found on a cliff or other outcropping beneath water flows. Alpine ice is frozen precipitation. Most alpine ice is one component of a longer route and less technical, having more in common with standard glacier travel, while water ice is selected for its technical challenge. Technical grade is, independent of ice type and both types of ice vary in consistency according to weather conditions. Ice can be soft, brittle or tough. Mixed climbing is ascent involving both ice rock climbing. A climber chooses equipment according to the texture of the ice.
For example, on flat ice any good hiking or mountaineering boot will suffice, but for serious ice climbing double plastic mountaineering boots or their stiff leather equivalent are used, which must be crampon compatible and stiff enough to support the climber and maintain ankle support. On short, low angled slopes, one can use an ice axe to chop steps. For longer and steeper slopes or glacier travel, crampons are mandatory for a safe climb. Vertical ice climbing is done with crampons and ice axes; this technique is known as front pointing. The strength of the ice is surprising. If a climber is leading, they will need to place ice screws as protection on the way up. Most mountaineers would only consider the last scenario true ice climbing; some important techniques and practices common in rock climbing that are employed in ice climbing include knowledge of rope systems, tying in, leading and lowering. Beginners should learn these techniques before attempting to ice climb, it is recommended that one acquire knowledge from experts and experienced ice climbers.
There are three primary rope systems used in ice climbing: double rope and twin rope. The single rope system, suited for straight climbing routes, is the most used rock climbing system in the world. Used in climbing is the double rope system, a more flexible system than the single rope system. Lastly, the twin rope system, which uses two twin ropes in a single rope system, is used for longer multi-pitch routes. Double and twin rope technique is used more in ice climbing because these systems are more redundant, an important consideration given the number of sharp edges the ice climber carries with him. Impact force on ice is an issue, with double ropes gaining popularity over twins. Tying in entails attaching the rope to the climbing harness; this technique is a must when leading a climb or belaying. A used tie-in knot is the Figure-of-eight follow through, but the Bowline and Thumb knot is preferred, since it is easier to untie when frozen; this technique should be done properly to ensure your safety.
In this climbing technique, either running belays or fixed belays are used. A running belay on ice is similar to a running belay on rock as well as snow; the leader of the climb puts protection and clips the rope through it. The next climber puts away the protection. There should be at least two points of protection between the next climber. Fixed belays, on the other hand, require a belayer, belay anchor, points of protection. A belay anchor is attached to a cliff in supporting a toprope. In using either a running- or fixed belay, it is necessary that you have enough knowledge on boot/ice-screw belay techniques. Leading refers to the act of leading a climb and thus, requires a leader and a follower; this ice climbing technique entails putting protection while ascending. In doing so, leading is done in sections; the leader places. At the top, the leader builds a belay anchor with. While the second climbs, he/she removes the protection placed by the leader; when the second climber finishes, they both proceed to the second pitch.
Called rappelling, abseiling uses a fixed rope to descend. In distinction to being lowered, abseiling allows the climber to control his or her own speed and rate of descent; this technique may be used not only after a climb, but when trying new climbing routes and when the climb can only be accessed from the top. Careful execution is important. Climbers can use an auto block for extra protection while abseiling. Lowering is one of the most common methods of getting down. A belayer at the base of the vertical wall ensures; this climbing technique is used. This is used when you want to go down faster; these are the different techniques used in climbing activities. Keep in mind, that it is crucial to learn these skills from expert climbers bef