Solomon called Jedidiah, according to the Hebrew Bible, Old Testament and Hadiths, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE given in alignment with the dates of David's reign, he is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, Muslims refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David; the Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he and his father had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to the God of Israel, he is portrayed as great in wisdom and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but as a king who sinned.
His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and turning away from Yahweh, they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In years, in non-biblical circles, Solomon came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name; the life of Solomon is described in the second Book of Samuel, by 1 Chronicles and 1 Kings. His two names mean "peaceful" and "friend of God", both appropriate to the story of his rule; the conventional dates of Solomon's reign are derived from biblical chronology and are set from c. 970 to 931 BCE. Regarding the Davidic dynasty, to which King Solomon belongs, its chronology can be checked against datable Babylonian and Assyrian records at a few points, these correspondences have allowed archaeologists to date its kings in a modern framework.
According to the most used chronology, based on that by Old Testament professor Edwin R. Thiele, the death of Solomon and the division of his kingdom would have occurred in the spring of 931 BCE. Solomon was born in Jerusalem, the second born child of David and his wife Bathsheba, widow of Uriah the Hittite; the first child, a son conceived adulterously during Uriah's lifetime, had died as a punishment on account of the death of Uriah by David's order. Solomon had three named full brothers born to Bathsheba: Nathan and Shobab, besides six known older half-brothers born of as many mothers; the biblical narrative shows that Solomon served as a peace offering between God and David, due to his adulterous relationship with Bathsheba. In an effort to hide this sin, for example, he sent the woman's husband to battle, hoping that he would be killed there. After he died, David was able to marry his wife; as punishment, the first child, conceived during the adulterous relationship, died. Solomon was born.
It is this reason. Some historians cited that Nathan the Prophet brought up Solomon as his father was busy governing the realm; this could be attributed to the notion that the prophet held great influence over David because he knew of his adultery, considered a grievous offense under the Mosaic Law. It was only during Absalom's rebellion. According to the First Book of Kings, when David was old, "he could not get warm". "So they sought a beautiful young woman throughout all the territory of Israel, found Abishag the Shunamite, brought her to the king. The young woman was beautiful, she was of service to the king and attended to him, but the king knew her not."While David was in this state, court factions were maneuvering for power. David's heir apparent, acted to have himself declared king, but was outmaneuvered by Bathsheba and the prophet Nathan, who convinced David to proclaim Solomon king according to his earlier promise, despite Solomon being younger than his brothers. Solomon, as instructed by David, began his reign with an extensive purge, including his father's chief general, among others, further consolidated his position by appointing friends throughout the administration, including in religious positions as well as in civic and military posts.
It is said. Solomon expanded his military strength the cavalry and chariot arms, he founded numerous colonies, some of which doubled as military outposts. Trade relationships were a focus of his administration. In particular he continued his father's profitable relationship with the Phoenician king Hiram I of Tyre. Solomon is considered the most wealthy of the Israelite kings named in the Bible. Solomon was the biblical king most famous for his wisdom. In 1 Kings he sacrificed to God, God appeared to him in a dream asking what Solomon wanted from God. Solomon asked for wisdom. Pleased, God answered Solomon's prayer, promising him great wisdom because he did
Yemen known as the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Yemen is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres; the coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands. Yemen's constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sana'a, but the city has been under Houthi rebel control since February 2015. Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans, a trading state that flourished for over a thousand years and included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 275 CE, the region came under the rule of the Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Christianity arrived in the fourth century. Islam spread in the seventh century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the early Islamic conquests.
Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous; the country was divided between the British empires in the early twentieth century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in North Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967 when it became an independent state and a Marxist-Leninist state; the two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990. Yemen is the poorest country in the Middle East. Under the rule of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, Yemen was described by critics as a kleptocracy. According to the 2009 International Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, Yemen ranked 164 out of 182 countries surveyed. In the absence of strong state institutions, elite politics in Yemen constituted a de facto form of collaborative governance, where competing tribal, regional and political interests agreed to hold themselves in check through tacit acceptance of the balance it produced.
The informal political settlement was held together by a power-sharing deal among three men: President Saleh, who controlled the state. The Saudi payments have been intended to facilitate the tribes' autonomy from the Yemeni government and to give the Saudi government a mechanism with which to weigh in on Yemen's political decision-making, it is a member of the United Nations, Arab League, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation, G-77, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab Satellite Communications Organization, Arab Monetary Fund and the World Federation of Trade Unions. Since 2011, Yemen has been in a state of political crisis starting with street protests against poverty, unemployment and president Saleh's plan to amend Yemen's constitution and eliminate the presidential term limit, in effect making him president for life. President Saleh stepped down and the powers of the presidency were transferred to Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, formally elected president on 21 February 2012 in a one-man election.
The total absence of central government during this transitional process engendered the escalation of the several clashes on-going in the country, like the armed conflict between the Houthi rebels of Ansar Allah militia and the al-Islah forces, as well as the al-Qaeda insurgency. In September 2014, the Houthis took over Sana'a with the help of the ousted president Saleh declaring themselves in control of the country after a coup d'état; this resulted in a new civil war and a Saudi Arabian-led military intervention aimed at restoring Hadi's government. At least 56,000 civilians and combatants have been killed in armed violence in Yemen since January 2016; the conflict has resulted in a famine, affecting 17 million people. The lack of safe drinking water, caused by depleted aquifers and the destruction of the country's water infrastructure, has caused the world's worst outbreak of cholera, with the number of suspected cases exceeding 994,751. Over 2,226 people have died since the outbreak began to spread at the end of April 2017.
In 2016 the United Nations reported that Yemen is the country with the most people in need of humanitarian aid in the world with 21.2 million. The term Yamnat was mentioned in Old South Arabian inscriptions on the title of one of the kings of the second Himyarite kingdom known as Shammar Yahrʽish II; the term was referring to the southwestern coastline of the Arabian peninsula and the southern coastline between Aden and Hadramout. The historical Yemen includes much greater territory than that of the current republic of Yemen, it stretches from the northern'Asir Region in southwestern Saudi Arabia to Dhofar Governorate in southern Oman. One etymology derives Yemen from ymnt, meaning "South", plays on the notion of the land to the right. Other sources claim that Yemen is related to yamn or yumn, meaning "felicity" or "blessed", as much of the country is fertile; the Romans called it Arabia Felix, as opposed to Arabia Deserta. Latin and Greek writers used the name "India" to re
Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia
Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia included indigenous polytheistic beliefs, as well as Christianity and Iranian religions of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism. Arabian polytheism, the dominant form of religion in pre-Islamic Arabia, was based on veneration of deities and spirits. Worship was directed to various gods and goddesses, including Hubal and the goddesses al-Lāt, al-‘Uzzā and Manāt, at local shrines and temples such as the Kaaba in Mecca. Deities were venerated and invoked through a variety of rituals, including pilgrimages and divination, as well as ritual sacrifice. Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah in Meccan religion. Many of the physical descriptions of the pre-Islamic gods are traced to idols near the Kaaba, said to have contained up to 360 of them. Other religions were represented to lesser degrees; the influence of the adjacent Roman and Sasanian Empires resulted in Christian communities in the northwest and south of Arabia. Christianity secured some conversions, in the remainder of the peninsula.
With the exception of Nestorianism in the northeast and the Persian Gulf, the dominant form of Christianity was Miaphysitism. The peninsula had been a destination for Jewish migration since Roman times, which had resulted in a diaspora community supplemented by local converts. Additionally, the influence of the Sasanian Empire resulted in Iranian religions being present in the peninsula. Zoroastrianism existed in the east and south, while there is evidence of Manichaeism or Mazdakism being practiced in Mecca; until about the fourth century all inhabitants of Arabia practiced polytheistic religions. Although significant Jewish and Christian minorities developed, polytheism remained the dominant belief system in pre-Islamic Arabia; the contemporary sources of information regarding the pre-Islamic Arabian religion and pantheon include a small number of inscriptions and carvings, pre-Islamic poetry, external sources such as Jewish and Greek accounts, as well as the Muslim tradition, such as the Qur'an and Islamic writings.
Information is limited. One early attestation of Arabian polytheism was in Esarhaddon’s Annals, mentioning Atarsamain, Nukhay and Atarquruma. Herodotus, writing in his Histories, reported that the Arabs worshipped Alilat. Strabo stated the Arabs worshipped Zeus. Origen stated they worshipped Urania. Muslim sources regarding Arabian polytheism include the eight-century Book of Idols by Hisham ibn al-Kalbi, which F. E. Peters argued to be the most substantial treatment of the religious practices of pre-Islamic Arabia, as well as the writings of the Yemeni historian al-Hasan al-Hamdani on south Arabian religious beliefs. According to the Book of Idols, descendants of the son of Abraham who had settled in Mecca migrated to other lands, they carried holy stones from the Kaaba with them, erected them, circumambulated them like the Kaaba. This, according to al-Kalbi led to the rise of idol worship. Based on this, it may be probable that Arabs venerated stones adopting idol-worship under foreign influences.
The relationship between a god and a stone as his representation can be seen from the third-century work called the Syriac Homily of Pseudo-Meliton where he describes the pagan faiths of Syriac-speakers in northern Mesopotamia, who were Arabs. The pre-Islamic Arabian religions were polytheistic, with many of the deities' names known. Formal pantheons are more noticeable at the level of kingdoms, of variable sizes, ranging from simple city-states to collections of tribes. Tribes, clans and families had their own cults too. Christian Julien Robin suggests that this structure of the divine world reflected the society of the time. A large number of deities did not have proper names and were referred to by titles indicating a quality, a family relationship, or a locale preceded by "he who" or "she who"; the religious beliefs and practices of the nomadic Bedouin were distinct from those of the settled tribes of towns such as Mecca. Nomadic religious belief systems and practices are believed to have included fetishism and veneration of the dead but were connected principally with immediate concerns and problems and did not consider larger philosophical questions such as the afterlife.
Settled urban Arabs, on the other hand, are thought to have believed in a more complex pantheon of deities. While the Meccans and the other settled inhabitants of the Hejaz worshiped their gods at permanent shrines in towns and oases, the Bedouin practiced their religion on the move. In south Arabia, mndh’t were anonymous guardian spirits of the community and the ancestor spirits of the family, they were known as ‘the sun of their ancestors’. In north Arabia, ginnaye were known from Palmyrene inscriptions as “the good and rewarding gods” and were related to the jinn of west and central Arabia. Unlike jinn, ginnaye could not hurt nor possess humans and were much more similar to the Roman genius. According to common Arabian belief, pre-Islamic philosophers, poets were inspired by the jinn. However, jinn were feared and thought to be responsible for causing various diseases and mental illnesses. Aside from benevolent gods and spirits, there existed malevolent beings; these beings were not attested in the epigraphic record, but were alluded to in pre-Islamic Arabic poetry, their legends were collected by Muslim authors.
Mentioned are ghouls. Etymologically, the word “ghoul” was derived from the Arabic ghul, from ghala, “to seize”, related to the Sumerian galla, they are said to have a hideous appearance, with feet lik
Safa and Marwa
And are two small hills now located in the Great Mosque of Mecca in Saudi Arabia named the Masjid Al-Haram. Muslims travel back and forth between them seven times, during the ritual pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah. were mound in Central Mecca, surrounded by the homes of the people of Mecca, including Dar al-Arqam. The practice itself was founded by polytheistic pre-islamic Arabs who believed that As-Safa and Al-Marwah were two lovers petrified by the gods for committing adultery as attested in different ahadith; the custom of circumbulating As-Safa and al-Marwah was included into the Islamic pilgrimage rituals alongside other pre-islamic practices. The Great Mosque houses the Ka ` the focal point of prayer for all Muslims. Safa—from which the ritual walking or Sa'i begins—and Marwa are located 100 m and 350 m from the Ka'bah respectively; the distance between Safa and Marwa is 450 m, so that seven trips back and forth amount to 3.2 km. The two points and the path between them are now inside a long gallery that forms part of the mosque.
The two hills are still in Mecca and remind pilgrims of the story of Hagar who ran up and down these hills in search for water / help whilst baby Ismaeel lay thirsty on the desert floor. At this moment miraculously the zamzam water sprung out by the feet of baby Ismaeel much to the relief of his mother. Both mother and son were discovered by a travelling bedouin community who were amazed to find water in this location as well as a mother and child. Realizing this discovery of water to be a miracle they decided to settle by the water and alongside Hagar and Ismaeel became early settlers of Makkah. In Islamic tradition, Abraham was commanded by God to leave his wife Hagar and their infant son, alone in the desert between Safa and Marwa; when their provisions were exhausted, Hagar went in search of water. To make her search easier and faster, she went alone, she first climbed Safa, to look over the surrounding area. When she saw nothing, she went to the other hill, Marwah, to look around. While Hagar was on either hillside, she was able to know he was safe.
However, when she was in the valley between the hills she was unable to see her son, would thus run whilst in the valley and walk at a normal pace when on the hillsides. Hagar traveled back and forth between the hills seven times in the scorching heat before returning to her son; when she arrived, she heard a voice. It turns out, she looked for water by his wing until the water appeared, she took a drink of water in her sheds, drank and breastfed her son. That position was known as the Zamzam Well. Performing the Sa'i serves to commemorate Hagar's search for water for her son and God's mercy in answering prayers; the walkway is covered by a gallery and is divided into four one-way lanes, of which the inner two are reserved for the elderly and disabled. Tawaf
Ancient South Arabian script
The Ancient South Arabian script branched from the Proto-Sinaitic script in about the 9th century BC. It was used for writing the Old South Arabian languages of the Sabaic, Hadramautic, Hasaitic, Ge'ez in Dʿmt; the earliest inscriptions in the script date to the 9th century BC in the Northern Red Sea Region, Eritrea. There are no letters for vowels, its mature form was reached around 500 BC, its use continued until the 6th century AD, including Ancient North Arabian inscriptions in variants of the alphabet, when it was displaced by the Arabic alphabet. In Ethiopia and Eritrea it evolved into the Ge'ez script, with added symbols throughout the centuries, has been used to write Amharic and Tigre, as well as other languages, it is written from right to left but can be written from left to right. When written from left to right the characters are flipped horizontally; the spacing or separation between words is done with a vertical bar mark. Letters in words are not connected together, it does not implement any diacritical marks, differing in this respect from the modern Arabic alphabet.
Six signs are used for numbers: The sign for 50 was evidently created by removing the lower triangle from the sign for 100. The sign for 1 doubles as a word separator; the other four signs double as both numbers. Each of these four signs is the first letter of the name of the corresponding numeral. An additional sign is used to bracket numbers. For example, These signs are used in an additive system similar to Roman numerals to represent any number. Two examples: 17 is written as 1 + 1 + 5 + 10: 99 is written as 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 5 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 50: Thousands are written two different ways: Smaller values are written using just the 1000 sign. For example, 8,000 is written as 1000 × 8: Larger values are written by promoting the signs for 10, 50, 100 to 10,000, 50,000, 100,000 respectively: 31,000 is written as 1000 + 10,000 × 3: 40,000 is written as 10,000 × 4: 253,000 is written as 2 × 100.000 + 50.000 + 3 × 1000: Perhaps because of ambiguity, numerals, at least in monumental inscriptions, are always clarified with the numbers written out in words.
Zabūr known as "South Arabian minuscules" is the name of the cursive form of the South Arabian script, used by the Sabaeans in addition to their monumental script, or Musnad. Zabur was a writing system in ancient Yemen along with Musnad; the difference between the two is that Musnad documented historical events, meanwhile Zabur Writings were used for religious scripts or to record daily transactions among ancient Yemenis. Zabur Writings could be found on palimpsest form written on palm-leaf stalks; the South Arabian alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode block, called Old South Arabian, is U+10A60–U+10A7F. Note that U+10A7D OLD SOUTH ARABIAN NUMBER ONE represents both the numeral one and a word divider. Photos from National Museum of Yemen: Photos from Yemen Military Museum: Ancient North Arabian script Arabist and archeologist Eduard Glaser Geographer Carl Rathjens Stein, Peter. "The Ancient South Arabian Minuscule Inscriptions on Wood: A New Genre of Pre-Islamic Epigraphy".
Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap "Ex Oriente Lux". 39: 181–199. Stein, Peter. Die altsüdarabischen Minuskelinschriften auf Holzstäbchen aus der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek in München. Beeston, A. F. L.. "Arabian Sibilants". Journal of Semitic Studies. 7: 222–233. Doi:10.1093/jss/7.2.222. Francaviglia Romeo, Vincenzo. Il trono della regina di Saba, Roma. pp. 149–155.. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Omniglot's entry on South Arabian
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
Sheba is a kingdom mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and the Quran. Sheba features in Jewish and Christian Ethiopian Christian, traditions, it was the home of the biblical "Queen of Sheba", left unnamed in the Bible, but receives the names Makeda in Ethiopian and Bilqīs in Arabic tradition. The predominant scholarly view is that the biblical narrative about the kingdom of Sheba was based on the ancient civilization of Saba in South Arabia, in contradiction to several local traditions from different countries. Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman write that "the Sabaean kingdom began to flourish only from the eighth century BCE onward" and that the story of Solomon and Sheba is "an anachronistic seventh-century set piece meant to legitimize the participation of Judah in the lucrative Arabian trade." The British Museum states that there is no archaeological evidence for such a queen but that the kingdom described as hers was Saba, "the oldest and most important of the South Arabian kingdoms".
Kenneth Kitchen dates the kingdom to between 1200 BCE until 275 CE with its Ma ` rib. The kingdom fell after a long but sporadic civil war between several Yemenite dynasties claiming kingship, resulting in the rise of the late Himyarite Kingdom; the two names Sheba and Seba are mentioned several times in the Bible with different genealogy. For instance, in the Generations of Noah Seba, along with Dedan, is listed as a descendant of Noah's son Ham. On in the Book of Genesis and Dedan are listed as names of sons of Jokshan, son of Abraham. Another Sheba is listed in the Table of Nations as a son of Joktan, another descendant of Noah's son Shem. There are several possible reasons for this confusion. One theory is that the Sabaean established many colonies to control the trade routes and the variety of their caravan stations confused the ancient Israelites, as their ethnology was based on geographical and political grounds and not racial. Another theory suggests that the Sabaeans hailed from the southern Levant and established their kingdom on the ruins of the Minaeans.
It can not be confirmed. The most famous claim to fame for the biblical land of Sheba was the story of the Queen of Sheba, who travelled to Jerusalem to question King Solomon, arriving in a large caravan with precious stones and gold; the apocryphal Christian Arabic text Kitāb al-Magall, considered part of Clementine literature, the Syriac Cave of Treasures, mention a tradition that after being founded by the children of Saba, there was a succession of 60 female rulers up until the time of Solomon. Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, describes a place called Saba as a walled, royal city of Ethiopia that Cambyses II renamed as Meroë, he writes that "it was both encompassed by the Nile quite round, the other rivers and Astaboras", offering protection from both foreign armies and river floods. According to Josephus it was the conquering of Saba that brought great fame to a young Egyptian prince exposing his personal background as a slave child named Moses. In the Quran, Sheba is mentioned in surat an-Naml in a section that speaks of the visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon.
The Quran mentions this ancient community along with other communities. In the Quran, the story follows the Bible and other Jewish sources. Solomon commanded the Queen of Sheba whereupon she appeared before him. Before the queen had arrived, Solomon had moved her throne to his place with the help of one of his men who had knowledge from the scripture, she recognized the throne, disguised, accepted the faith of Solomon. Muslim commentators such as al-Tabari, al-Zamakhshari, al-Baydawi supplement the story at various points; the Queen's name is given as Bilqis derived from Greek παλλακίς or the Hebraised pilegesh, "concubine". According to some he married the Queen, while other traditions assert that he gave her in marriage to a tubba of Hamdan. According to the Islamic tradition as represented by al-Hamdani, the queen of Sheba was the daughter of Ilsharah Yahdib, the Himyarite king of Najran. Although the Quran and its commentators have preserved the earliest literary reflection of the complete Bilqis legend, there is little doubt among scholars that the narrative is derived from a Jewish Midrash.
Bible stories of the Queen of Sheba and the ships of Ophir served as a basis for legends about the Israelites traveling in the Queen of Sheba's entourage when she returned to her country to bring up her child by Solomon. There is a Muslim tradition that the first Jews arrived in Yemen at the time of King Solomon, following the politico-economic alliance between him and the Queen of Sheba. However, that tradition is suspected to be an apologetic fabrication of Jews in Yemen transferred to Islam, just like many other traditions. Muslim scholars, including Ibn Kathir, related that the people of Sheba were Arabs from South Arabia. In Ethiopian tradition, the Sheba, Joktan's son is considered their primary ancestor, while Sabtah and Sabtechah, sons of Cush, are considered the ancestors of the Cushites. Traditional Yemenite genealogies mention Saba, son of Qahtan. In the medieval Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, Sheba was located in Ethiopia; some scholars therefore point to a