The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the
Ẓafār or Dhafar Ðafār is an ancient Himyarite site situated in Yemen, some 130 km south-south-east of today's capital, Sana'a, c. 10 kilometres southeast of Yarim. Given mention in several ancient texts, there is little doubt about the pronunciation of the name. Despite the opinion of local patriots in Oman, this site in the Yemen is far older than its namesake there, it lies in the Yemenite highlands at some 2800 m. Zafar was the capital of the Himyarites, which at its peak ruled most of the Arabian Peninsula; the Himyar are not a tribe, but rather a tribal confederacy. For 250 years the confederacy and its allies combined territory extended past Riyadh to the north and the Euphrates to the north-east. Zafar was the Himyarite capital in Southern Arabia prior to the Aksumite conquest. From an archaeological perspective, the settlement's beginnings are not well known; the main sources consist of Old South Arabian musnad inscriptions dated as early as the 1st century BCE. It is mentioned by Pliny in his Natural History, in the anonymous Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, as well as in the Geographia of Claudius Ptolemaeus.
At some point the medieval times the coordinates of the Ptolemy map were incorrectly copied or emended so that subsequent maps place the site Sephar metropolis in Oman, not in the Yemen. The Zafar in Yemen is more than 1000 years older than that place-name in Oman, assuming from the evidence in known texts. Written sources regarding Zafar are heterogeneous in informational value; the most important source is epigraphic Old South Arabian. Christian texts shed light on the war between the Himyar and the Aksumites; the Vita of Gregentios is a pious forgery created by Byzantine monks, which mentions a bishop who had his see in Zafar. It contains linguistic usage of the 12th century CE. According to Arab geographer and historian, Al-Hamdani, Zafar was known by the name Ḥaql Yaḥḍib. Individual finds belong to the Himyarite early period. Rare earlier finds were brought to the site from elsewhere. Most of the ruins and finds, appear to belong to the empire period. A few post-war Ge'ez inscriptions have survived at the site.
From the late/post period identifiable finds are few indeed at Zafar. After this there is little to suggest an occupation until recent times; the excavated finds are important because the texts shed little light on the material culture and art of this age. Moreover the chronology of the main coin series has been attacked. An established big town, Sana'a and its fortress Ghumdan, replaced Zafar as capital between 537 and 548; the textual basis is thin regarding this topic. At the same time the archaeological record in Zafar and the surrounding region breaks off. No textual tradition articulates its destruction. Only an Aksumite church was recorded as being destroyed in 523; this church built by the Christian missionary Theophilos the Indian, was destroyed by Dhu Nawas following the Himyarite conversion to Judaism. It was restored after Aksum's successful invasion on Himyar in 524. There is evidence that Zafar and settlement in general in the Yemenite highlands declined drastically in the 5th and 6th centuries.
Ideally, the viability of the city correlates declines drastically just after a relief of a crowned man was erected in what the excavator terms the Stone Building Site. The date of this relief and its inscription difficult, both to the mid 5th century; the occurrence in Zafar of ribbed amphorae manufactured in Aqaba/Ayla evidently in order to transport wine, shows the area just north of Aqaba to have been a fruitful agricultural area. On the other hand, D. Fleitmann has studied speliotherms from al-Hootha cave in central Oman and has gathered information for megadroughts around 530; these may have afflicted the entire Peninsula. We need a greater resolution in the dating of dry and wet events in order to understand the climatic differences between Aqaba and the entire region in point of time. A rectangular mapped surface area comprises 120 hectares, but the settlement is of smaller than this. Zafar is the second largest mapped archaeological site in Arabia after Marib. Ancient settlement occurs inside and outside the ancient city defences.
These have been estimated at 4000 metres long. The main fortress today is still referred to as the "Husn Raydan". A text by the medieval Yemenite author al-Hamdani mentions the names of city gates, most of which are named after the town to which they face; the main architectural ruins at Zafar include tombs and on the south-western flank of the Husn Raydan a 30 x 30 m square stone court, as preserved probably a temple, to judge from the accumulation of cattle bones which it contained. It is located north of a subterranean chambers and tombs. To the north are a row of storage chambers; the Husn Raydan and al-Gusr 300 m to the north were once one fortification inside the city walls. Raydan South was fortified and the ruined fortifications are best preserved here. Musnad texts mention five royal palaces at Zafar: Hargab, Kawkaban and Raydan, the state palace. Smaller ones, such as Yakrub find mention. Nearby Himyarite period settlements include Maṣna‘at Māriya and the Ǧabal al-‘Awd settlement, 25 air km to the south-east.
The city was home to polytheist and Christian communities. Jews dominated politically until 525; the ring-stone of Yishak bar Hanina is the earliest p
Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia
Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia included indigenous polytheistic beliefs, as well as Christianity and Iranian religions of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism. Arabian polytheism, the dominant form of religion in pre-Islamic Arabia, was based on veneration of deities and spirits. Worship was directed to various gods and goddesses, including Hubal and the goddesses al-Lāt, al-‘Uzzā and Manāt, at local shrines and temples such as the Kaaba in Mecca. Deities were venerated and invoked through a variety of rituals, including pilgrimages and divination, as well as ritual sacrifice. Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah in Meccan religion. Many of the physical descriptions of the pre-Islamic gods are traced to idols near the Kaaba, said to have contained up to 360 of them. Other religions were represented to lesser degrees; the influence of the adjacent Roman and Sasanian Empires resulted in Christian communities in the northwest and south of Arabia. Christianity secured some conversions, in the remainder of the peninsula.
With the exception of Nestorianism in the northeast and the Persian Gulf, the dominant form of Christianity was Miaphysitism. The peninsula had been a destination for Jewish migration since Roman times, which had resulted in a diaspora community supplemented by local converts. Additionally, the influence of the Sasanian Empire resulted in Iranian religions being present in the peninsula. Zoroastrianism existed in the east and south, while there is evidence of Manichaeism or Mazdakism being practiced in Mecca; until about the fourth century all inhabitants of Arabia practiced polytheistic religions. Although significant Jewish and Christian minorities developed, polytheism remained the dominant belief system in pre-Islamic Arabia; the contemporary sources of information regarding the pre-Islamic Arabian religion and pantheon include a small number of inscriptions and carvings, pre-Islamic poetry, external sources such as Jewish and Greek accounts, as well as the Muslim tradition, such as the Qur'an and Islamic writings.
Information is limited. One early attestation of Arabian polytheism was in Esarhaddon’s Annals, mentioning Atarsamain, Nukhay and Atarquruma. Herodotus, writing in his Histories, reported that the Arabs worshipped Alilat. Strabo stated the Arabs worshipped Zeus. Origen stated they worshipped Urania. Muslim sources regarding Arabian polytheism include the eight-century Book of Idols by Hisham ibn al-Kalbi, which F. E. Peters argued to be the most substantial treatment of the religious practices of pre-Islamic Arabia, as well as the writings of the Yemeni historian al-Hasan al-Hamdani on south Arabian religious beliefs. According to the Book of Idols, descendants of the son of Abraham who had settled in Mecca migrated to other lands, they carried holy stones from the Kaaba with them, erected them, circumambulated them like the Kaaba. This, according to al-Kalbi led to the rise of idol worship. Based on this, it may be probable that Arabs venerated stones adopting idol-worship under foreign influences.
The relationship between a god and a stone as his representation can be seen from the third-century work called the Syriac Homily of Pseudo-Meliton where he describes the pagan faiths of Syriac-speakers in northern Mesopotamia, who were Arabs. The pre-Islamic Arabian religions were polytheistic, with many of the deities' names known. Formal pantheons are more noticeable at the level of kingdoms, of variable sizes, ranging from simple city-states to collections of tribes. Tribes, clans and families had their own cults too. Christian Julien Robin suggests that this structure of the divine world reflected the society of the time. A large number of deities did not have proper names and were referred to by titles indicating a quality, a family relationship, or a locale preceded by "he who" or "she who"; the religious beliefs and practices of the nomadic Bedouin were distinct from those of the settled tribes of towns such as Mecca. Nomadic religious belief systems and practices are believed to have included fetishism and veneration of the dead but were connected principally with immediate concerns and problems and did not consider larger philosophical questions such as the afterlife.
Settled urban Arabs, on the other hand, are thought to have believed in a more complex pantheon of deities. While the Meccans and the other settled inhabitants of the Hejaz worshiped their gods at permanent shrines in towns and oases, the Bedouin practiced their religion on the move. In south Arabia, mndh’t were anonymous guardian spirits of the community and the ancestor spirits of the family, they were known as ‘the sun of their ancestors’. In north Arabia, ginnaye were known from Palmyrene inscriptions as “the good and rewarding gods” and were related to the jinn of west and central Arabia. Unlike jinn, ginnaye could not hurt nor possess humans and were much more similar to the Roman genius. According to common Arabian belief, pre-Islamic philosophers, poets were inspired by the jinn. However, jinn were feared and thought to be responsible for causing various diseases and mental illnesses. Aside from benevolent gods and spirits, there existed malevolent beings; these beings were not attested in the epigraphic record, but were alluded to in pre-Islamic Arabic poetry, their legends were collected by Muslim authors.
Mentioned are ghouls. Etymologically, the word “ghoul” was derived from the Arabic ghul, from ghala, “to seize”, related to the Sumerian galla, they are said to have a hideous appearance, with feet lik
Safa and Marwa
And are two small hills now located in the Great Mosque of Mecca in Saudi Arabia named the Masjid Al-Haram. Muslims travel back and forth between them seven times, during the ritual pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah. were mound in Central Mecca, surrounded by the homes of the people of Mecca, including Dar al-Arqam. The practice itself was founded by polytheistic pre-islamic Arabs who believed that As-Safa and Al-Marwah were two lovers petrified by the gods for committing adultery as attested in different ahadith; the custom of circumbulating As-Safa and al-Marwah was included into the Islamic pilgrimage rituals alongside other pre-islamic practices. The Great Mosque houses the Ka ` the focal point of prayer for all Muslims. Safa—from which the ritual walking or Sa'i begins—and Marwa are located 100 m and 350 m from the Ka'bah respectively; the distance between Safa and Marwa is 450 m, so that seven trips back and forth amount to 3.2 km. The two points and the path between them are now inside a long gallery that forms part of the mosque.
The two hills are still in Mecca and remind pilgrims of the story of Hagar who ran up and down these hills in search for water / help whilst baby Ismaeel lay thirsty on the desert floor. At this moment miraculously the zamzam water sprung out by the feet of baby Ismaeel much to the relief of his mother. Both mother and son were discovered by a travelling bedouin community who were amazed to find water in this location as well as a mother and child. Realizing this discovery of water to be a miracle they decided to settle by the water and alongside Hagar and Ismaeel became early settlers of Makkah. In Islamic tradition, Abraham was commanded by God to leave his wife Hagar and their infant son, alone in the desert between Safa and Marwa; when their provisions were exhausted, Hagar went in search of water. To make her search easier and faster, she went alone, she first climbed Safa, to look over the surrounding area. When she saw nothing, she went to the other hill, Marwah, to look around. While Hagar was on either hillside, she was able to know he was safe.
However, when she was in the valley between the hills she was unable to see her son, would thus run whilst in the valley and walk at a normal pace when on the hillsides. Hagar traveled back and forth between the hills seven times in the scorching heat before returning to her son; when she arrived, she heard a voice. It turns out, she looked for water by his wing until the water appeared, she took a drink of water in her sheds, drank and breastfed her son. That position was known as the Zamzam Well. Performing the Sa'i serves to commemorate Hagar's search for water for her son and God's mercy in answering prayers; the walkway is covered by a gallery and is divided into four one-way lanes, of which the inner two are reserved for the elderly and disabled. Tawaf
Frankincense is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae Boswellia sacra, B. carterii, B. frereana, B. serrata, B. papyrifera. The word is from Old French franc encens. There are five main species of Boswellia. Resin from each of the five is available in various grades; the resin is hand-sorted for quality. The English word frankincense derives from the Old French expression franc encens, meaning "high-quality incense"; the word franc in Old French meant "noble" or "pure". A popular folk etymology suggests a connection with the Franks, who reintroduced the spice to Western Europe during the Middle Ages, but the word itself comes from the expression. Frankincense is tapped from the scraggly but hardy trees by striping and letting the exuded resin bleed out and harden; the hardened streaks of resin are called tears. Several species and varieties of frankincense trees each produce a different type of resin. Differences in soil and climate create more diversity of the resin within the same species.
Boswellia sacra trees are considered unusual for their ability to grow in environments so unforgiving that they sometimes grow out of solid rock. The initial means of attachment to the rock is unknown, but is accomplished by a bulbous disk-like swelling of the trunk; this growth prevents violent storms from detaching the tree. This feature is absent in trees that grow in rocky soil or gravel; the trees start producing resin at about eight to 10 years old. Tapping is done two to three times a year with the final taps producing the best tears due to their higher aromatic terpene and diterpene content. Speaking, the more opaque resins are the best quality. Fine resin is produced in Somalia. Recent studies indicate that frankincense tree populations are declining due to over-exploitation. Tapped trees produce seeds that germinate at only 16% while seeds of trees that had not been tapped germinate at more than 80%. In addition, burning and attacks by the longhorn beetle have reduced the tree population.
Conversion of frankincense woodlands to agriculture is a major threat. These are some of the chemical compounds present in frankincense: acid resin, soluble in alcohol and having the formula C20H32O4 gum 30–36% 3-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid alpha-boswellic acid 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid incensole acetate, C21H34O3 phellandrene -cis- and -trans-olibanic acidsSee the following references for a comprehensive overview of the chemical compounds in different frankincense species. Frankincense has been traded on the Arabian Peninsula for more than 6,000 years. Frankincense was one of the consecrated incenses described in the Torah and Talmud used in ketoret ceremonies, an important component of the services in the Temple in Jerusalem, it was offered on a specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Temples. It is mentioned in the Book of Exodus 30:34, which calls it לבונה, similar to לבן, lavan,'white', it was one of the ingredients in the perfume of the sanctuary, was used as an accompaniment of the meal-offering.
It was mentioned as a commodity in trade from Sheba. When burnt it emitted a fragrant odor, the incense was a symbol of the Divine name and an emblem of prayer, it was associated with myrrh. A specially "pure" kind, lebhonah zakkah, was presented with the showbread. Frankincense received numerous mentions in the New Testament. Together with gold and myrrh, it was made an offering to the infant Jesus. Frankincense was reintroduced to Europe by Frankish Crusaders, although its name refers to its quality, not to the Franks themselves. Though it is better known as "frankincense" to westerners, the resin is known as olibanum, or in Arabic al-lubān, a reference to the milky sap tapped from the Boswellia tree; the Greek historian Herodotus was familiar with frankincense and knew it was harvested from trees in southern Arabia. He reported that the gum was dangerous to harvest because of venomous snakes that lived in the trees, he goes on to describe the method used by the Arabs to get around this problem, that being the burning of the gum of the styrax tree whose smoke would drive the snakes away.
Theophrastus mentions the resin. Southern Arabia was a major exporter of frankincense in antiquity, with some of it being traded as far as China; the 13th-century Chinese writer and customs inspector Zhao Rugua wrote on the origin of frankincense, of its being traded to China: "Ruxiang or xunluxiang comes from the three Dashi countries of Murbat and Dhofar, from the depths of the remotest mountains. The tree which yields this drug may be compared to the pine tree, its trunk is notched with a hatchet, upon which the resin flows out, when hardened, turns into incense, gathered and made into lumps. It is transported on elephants to the Das
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
Sheba is a kingdom mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and the Quran. Sheba features in Jewish and Christian Ethiopian Christian, traditions, it was the home of the biblical "Queen of Sheba", left unnamed in the Bible, but receives the names Makeda in Ethiopian and Bilqīs in Arabic tradition. The predominant scholarly view is that the biblical narrative about the kingdom of Sheba was based on the ancient civilization of Saba in South Arabia, in contradiction to several local traditions from different countries. Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman write that "the Sabaean kingdom began to flourish only from the eighth century BCE onward" and that the story of Solomon and Sheba is "an anachronistic seventh-century set piece meant to legitimize the participation of Judah in the lucrative Arabian trade." The British Museum states that there is no archaeological evidence for such a queen but that the kingdom described as hers was Saba, "the oldest and most important of the South Arabian kingdoms".
Kenneth Kitchen dates the kingdom to between 1200 BCE until 275 CE with its Ma ` rib. The kingdom fell after a long but sporadic civil war between several Yemenite dynasties claiming kingship, resulting in the rise of the late Himyarite Kingdom; the two names Sheba and Seba are mentioned several times in the Bible with different genealogy. For instance, in the Generations of Noah Seba, along with Dedan, is listed as a descendant of Noah's son Ham. On in the Book of Genesis and Dedan are listed as names of sons of Jokshan, son of Abraham. Another Sheba is listed in the Table of Nations as a son of Joktan, another descendant of Noah's son Shem. There are several possible reasons for this confusion. One theory is that the Sabaean established many colonies to control the trade routes and the variety of their caravan stations confused the ancient Israelites, as their ethnology was based on geographical and political grounds and not racial. Another theory suggests that the Sabaeans hailed from the southern Levant and established their kingdom on the ruins of the Minaeans.
It can not be confirmed. The most famous claim to fame for the biblical land of Sheba was the story of the Queen of Sheba, who travelled to Jerusalem to question King Solomon, arriving in a large caravan with precious stones and gold; the apocryphal Christian Arabic text Kitāb al-Magall, considered part of Clementine literature, the Syriac Cave of Treasures, mention a tradition that after being founded by the children of Saba, there was a succession of 60 female rulers up until the time of Solomon. Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, describes a place called Saba as a walled, royal city of Ethiopia that Cambyses II renamed as Meroë, he writes that "it was both encompassed by the Nile quite round, the other rivers and Astaboras", offering protection from both foreign armies and river floods. According to Josephus it was the conquering of Saba that brought great fame to a young Egyptian prince exposing his personal background as a slave child named Moses. In the Quran, Sheba is mentioned in surat an-Naml in a section that speaks of the visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon.
The Quran mentions this ancient community along with other communities. In the Quran, the story follows the Bible and other Jewish sources. Solomon commanded the Queen of Sheba whereupon she appeared before him. Before the queen had arrived, Solomon had moved her throne to his place with the help of one of his men who had knowledge from the scripture, she recognized the throne, disguised, accepted the faith of Solomon. Muslim commentators such as al-Tabari, al-Zamakhshari, al-Baydawi supplement the story at various points; the Queen's name is given as Bilqis derived from Greek παλλακίς or the Hebraised pilegesh, "concubine". According to some he married the Queen, while other traditions assert that he gave her in marriage to a tubba of Hamdan. According to the Islamic tradition as represented by al-Hamdani, the queen of Sheba was the daughter of Ilsharah Yahdib, the Himyarite king of Najran. Although the Quran and its commentators have preserved the earliest literary reflection of the complete Bilqis legend, there is little doubt among scholars that the narrative is derived from a Jewish Midrash.
Bible stories of the Queen of Sheba and the ships of Ophir served as a basis for legends about the Israelites traveling in the Queen of Sheba's entourage when she returned to her country to bring up her child by Solomon. There is a Muslim tradition that the first Jews arrived in Yemen at the time of King Solomon, following the politico-economic alliance between him and the Queen of Sheba. However, that tradition is suspected to be an apologetic fabrication of Jews in Yemen transferred to Islam, just like many other traditions. Muslim scholars, including Ibn Kathir, related that the people of Sheba were Arabs from South Arabia. In Ethiopian tradition, the Sheba, Joktan's son is considered their primary ancestor, while Sabtah and Sabtechah, sons of Cush, are considered the ancestors of the Cushites. Traditional Yemenite genealogies mention Saba, son of Qahtan. In the medieval Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, Sheba was located in Ethiopia; some scholars therefore point to a