A commander-in-chief, sometimes called supreme commander, is the person that exercises supreme command and control over an armed forces or a military branch. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership – a head of state or a head of government. A commander-in-chief role if held by an official, need not be or have been a commissioned officer or a veteran; such countries follow the principle of civilian control of the military. The formal role and title of a ruler commanding the armed forces derives from Imperator of the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, who possessed imperium powers. In English use, the term first applied to King Charles I of England in 1639, it continued to be used during the English Civil War. A nation's head of state holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. In a parliamentary system, the executive branch is dependent upon the will of the legislature.
Governors-general and colonial governors are often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces within their territory. A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as supreme commander, sometimes used as a specific term; the term is used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship, as a subordinate to a head of state. The term is used for officers who hold authority over an individual military branch, special branch or within a theatre of operations; this includes heads of states who: Are chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making, including command of the armed forces. Ceremonial heads of state with residual substantive reserve powers over the armed forces, acting under normal circumstances on the constitutional advice of chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making. According to the Constitution of Afghanistan, The President of Afghanistan is the Commander-in-chief of Afghan Armed Forces.
According to the Constitution of Albania, The President of the Republic of Albania is the Commander-in-chief of Albanian Armed Forces. The incumbent Commander-in-chief is President Ilir Meta. Under part II, chapter III, article 99, subsections 12, 13, 14 and 15, the Constitution of Argentina states that the President of the Argentine Nation is the "Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Nation", it states that the President is entitled to provide military posts in the granting of the jobs or grades of senior officers of the armed forces, by itself on the battlefield. The Ministry of Defense is the government department that assists and serves the President in the management of the armed forces. Under chapter II of section 68 titled Command of the naval and military forces, the Constitution of Australia states that: The command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor General as the Queen's representative. In practice, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the Australian Defence Force's command structure, the democratically accountable Australian Cabinet de facto controls the ADF.
The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the Australian Defence Organisation. Section 8 of the Defence Act 1903 states:The Minister shall have the general control and administration of the Defence Force, the powers vested in the Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Navy, the Chief of Army and the Chief of Air Force by virtue of section 9, the powers vested jointly in the Secretary and the Chief of the Defence Force by virtue of section 9A, shall be exercised subject to and in accordance with any directions of the Minister; the commander-in-chief is the president, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister. The only exception was the first commander-in-chief, General M. A. G. Osmani, during Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, commander of all Bangladesh Forces, reinstated to active duty by official BD government order, which after independence was gazetted in 1972, he relinquished all authority and duties to the President of Bangladesh.
Article 142 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 states that the Brazilian Armed Forces is under the supreme command of the President of the Republic. The President of Belarus is the Commander-in-Chief of the Belarusian Armed Forces; the Sultan of Brunei is the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. The powers of command-in-chief over the Canadian Armed Forces are vested in the Canadian monarch, are delegated to the Governor General of Canada, who uses the title Commander-in-Chief. In this capacity, the governor general is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest of the office and special cuff braid serving as rank insignia. By constitutional convention, the Crown's prerogative powers over the armed forces and constitutional powers as commander-in-chief are exercised on the advice of the prime minister and the rest of Cabinet, the governing ministry that commands the confidence of the House of Commons. According to the National Defence Act, t
Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements; the knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order", he did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred. The Order consists of the Sovereign, the Great Master, three Classes of members: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion Members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division. Prior to 1815, the order had Knight Companion, which no longer exists. Recipients of the Order are now senior military officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members.
The Order of the Bath is the fourth-most senior of the British Orders of Chivalry, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick. In the Middle Ages, knighthood was conferred with elaborate ceremonies; these involved the knight-to-be taking a bath during which he was instructed in the duties of knighthood by more senior knights. He was put to bed to dry. Clothed in a special robe, he was led with music to the chapel. At dawn he made confession and attended Mass retired to his bed to sleep until it was daylight, he was brought before the King, who after instructing two senior knights to buckle the spurs to the knight-elect's heels, fastened a belt around his waist struck him on the neck, thus making him a knight. It was this accolade, the essential act in creating a knight, a simpler ceremony developed, conferring knighthood by striking or touching the knight-to-be on the shoulder with a sword, or "dubbing" him, as is still done today.
In the early medieval period the difference seems to have been that the full ceremonies were used for men from more prominent families. From the coronation of Henry IV in 1399 the full ceremonies were restricted to major royal occasions such as coronations, investitures of the Prince of Wales or Royal dukes, royal weddings, the knights so created became known as Knights of the Bath. Knights Bachelor continued to be created with the simpler form of ceremony; the last occasion on which Knights of the Bath were created was the coronation of Charles II in 1661. From at least 1625, from the reign of James I, Knights of the Bath were using the motto Tria juncta in uno, wearing as a badge three crowns within a plain gold oval; these were both subsequently adopted by the Order of the Bath. Their symbolism however is not clear. The'three joined in one' may be a reference to the kingdoms of England and either France or Ireland, which were held by English and British monarchs; this would correspond to the three crowns in the badge.
Another explanation of the motto is. Nicolas quotes a source who claims that prior to James I the motto was Tria numina juncta in uno, but from the reign of James I the word numina was dropped and the motto understood to mean Tria juncta in uno; the prime mover in the establishment of the Order of the Bath was John Anstis, Garter King of Arms, England's highest heraldic officer. Sir Anthony Wagner, a recent holder of the office of Garter, wrote of Anstis's motivations: It was Martin Leake's opinion that the trouble and opposition Anstis met with in establishing himself as Garter so embittered him against the heralds that when at last in 1718 he succeeded, he made it his prime object to aggrandise himself and his office at their expense, it is clear at least that he set out to make himself indispensable to the Earl Marshal, not hard, their political principles being congruous and their friendship established, but to Sir Robert Walpole and the Whig ministry, which can by no means have been easy, considering his known attachment to the Pretender and the circumstances under which he came into office...
The main object of Anstis's next move, the revival or institution of the Order of the Bath was that which it in fact secured, of ingratiating him with the all-powerful Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. The use of honours in the early eighteenth century differed from the modern honours system in which hundreds, if not thousands, of people each year receive honours on the basis of deserving accomplishments; the only honours available at that time were hereditary peerages and baronetcies and the Order of the Garter, none of which were awarded in large numbers The political environment was significantly different from today: The Sovereign still exercised a power to be reckoned with in the eighteenth century. The Court remained the centre of the political w
National Assembly (Kuwait)
The National Assembly, is the unicameral legislature of Kuwait. The National Assembly meets in Kuwait City. Members are chosen through direct election. There are no official political parties in Kuwait, therefore candidates run as independents during elections; the National Assembly is made up of 50 elected members as well as up to 15 appointed government ministers who are ex officio members. On October 16, 2016, the Amir of Kuwait issued a decree dissolving the National Assembly citing security challenges, paving the way for early elections, which were held on November 26, 2016; the National Assembly is the legislature in Kuwait. The National Assembly has the power to remove government ministers from their post. MPs exercise their constitutional right to interpellate government members; the National Assembly's interpellation sessions of ministers are aired on Kuwaiti TV. MPs have the right to interpellate the prime minister, table a motion of non-cooperation with the government, in which case the cabinet must get replaced.
The National Assembly can have up to 50 MPs. Fifty deputies are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. Members of the cabinet sit in the parliament as deputies; the constitution limits the size of the cabinet to 16, at least one member of the cabinet must be an elected MP. The cabinet ministers have the same rights as the elected MPs, with the following two exceptions: they do not participate in the work of committees, they cannot vote when an interpolation leads to a no-confidence vote against one of the cabinet members; the National Assembly is the main legislative power in Kuwait. The Emir can veto laws but the National Assembly can override his veto by a two-third vote; the National Assembly has the constitutional right to approve and disapprove of an Emir's appointment. The National Assembly removed Saad al-Sabah from his post in 2006 because of Saad's inability to rule due to illness. Kuwait's National Assembly is the most independent parliament in the Arab world; the Constitutional Court has the authority to dissolve the house and must subsequently call for new elections within two months.
The Constitutional Court is believed to be one of the most judicially independent courts in the Arab world. The Emir has the authority to dissolve the house and must subsequently call for new elections within two months; the Constitutional Court can invalidate the Emir's decree dissolving the parliament. The parliament building was designed by Danish architect Jørn Utzon, who designed Sydney Opera House. While political parties are not recognized in Kuwait, a number of political factions exist; the house is composed of different political factions in addition to independents: The liberal, secular bloc: Ten members were elected in the 2013 elections, making them the largest political bloc in the current parliament. The Shaabi bloc: A coalition of populists and nationalist parties with a focus on middle-class issues; the Popular Action Bloc is their main political party. The Islamist bloc: Consisting of Sunni Islamist members; the Islamist bloc has 3 members elected in the 2013 national elections.
Politics of Kuwait Government of Kuwait Elections in Kuwait List of Speakers of Kuwait National Assembly Kuwait National Assembly No-Confidence Votes Kuwait National Assembly website
Emir of Kuwait
The Emir of the State of Kuwait is the monarch and head of state of Kuwait. It is the most powerful position in the country; the emirs of Kuwait are members of the Al-Sabah dynasty. Since 29 January 2006, Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah is the current emir. Succession to the throne of Kuwait is limited to the descendants of Mubarak Al-Sabah; the position of Emir is traditionally alternated between the two main branches of the Al-Sabah family, the Al-Ahmed and Al-Salem branches. The reigning emir must appoint an heir apparent within one year of his accession to the throne; the nomination needs approval by an absolute majority of members of the National Assembly, Kuwait's parliament. If the nominee fails to win approval from the National Assembly, the Emir submits the names of three eligible members of the family to the National Assembly, the National Assembly selects one to be the crown prince; the Prime Minister is appointed by the Emir. The National Assembly has the constitutional right to approve and disapprove of an Emir's appointment, therefore the National Assembly has the authority to remove an Emir from his post.
The National Assembly removed Saad al-Sabah from his post in 2006 because of Saad's inability to rule due to illness. Kuwait's National Assembly is the most independent parliament in the Arab world, it ranks in comparison to other parliaments in the Middle East as a whole. Politics of Kuwait List of Prime Ministers of Kuwait Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Defense Ministry of Interior Kuwait National Guard Amiri Diwan of Kuwait website
Kuwait City is the capital and largest city of Kuwait. Located at the heart of the country on the shore of the Persian Gulf, containing Kuwait's National Assembly, most governmental offices, the headquarters of most Kuwaiti corporations and banks, it is the indisputable political and economical centre of the emirate, it is considered a global city. Kuwait City's trade and transportation needs are served by Kuwait International Airport, Mina Al-Shuwaik and Mina Al Ahmadi. In 1613, the town of Kuwait was founded in modern-day Kuwait City. In 1716, the Bani Utubs settled in Kuwait. At the time of the arrival of the Utubs, Kuwait was inhabited by a few fishermen and functioned as a fishing village. In the eighteenth century, Kuwait prospered and became the principal commercial center for the transit of goods between India, Muscat and Arabia. By the mid 1700s, Kuwait had established itself as the major trading route from the Persian Gulf to Aleppo. During the Persian illegal siege of Basra in 1775–1779, Iraqi merchants took refuge in Kuwait and were instrumental in the expansion of Kuwait's boat-building and trading activities.
As a result, Kuwait's maritime commerce boomed. Between the years 1775 and 1779, the Indian trade routes with Baghdad, Aleppo and Constantinople were diverted to Kuwait; the East India Company was diverted to Kuwait in 1792. The East India Company secured the sea routes between Kuwait and the east coasts of Africa. After the Persian Magii withdrew from Basra in 1779, Kuwait continued to attract trade away from Basra. Kuwait was the center of boat building in the Persian Gulf region. During the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, ship vessels made in Kuwait carried the bulk of trade between the ports of India, East Africa and the Red Sea. Kuwaiti ship vessels were renowned throughout the Indian Ocean. Regional geopolitical turbulence helped foster economic prosperity in Kuwait in the second half of the 18th century. Kuwait became prosperous due to Basra's instability in the late 18th century. In the late 18th century, Kuwait functioned as a haven for Basra's merchants fleeing Ottoman government persecution.
According to Palgrave, Kuwaitis developed a reputation as the best sailors in the Persian Gulf. During the reign of Mubarak Al-Sabah, Kuwait was dubbed the "Marseilles of the Gulf" because its economic vitality attracted a large variety of people. In the first decades of the twentieth century, Kuwait had a well-established elite: wealthy trading families who were linked by marriage and shared economic interests; the elite were long-settled, urban and Shia families.the majority of which claim descent from the original 30 Bani Utubi families. The wealthiest families were trade merchants who acquired their wealth from long-distance commerce and pearling, they were a cosmopolitan elite, they traveled extensively to India and Europe. The elite educated their sons abroad more than other Gulf Arab elite. Western visitors noted that the Kuwaiti elite used European office systems and followed European culture with curiosity; the richest families were involved in general trade. The merchant families of Al-Ghanim and Al-Hamad were estimated to be worth millions before the 1940s.
In 1937, Freya Stark wrote about the extent of poverty in Kuwait at the time:Poverty has settled in Kuwait more since my last visit five years ago, both by sea, where the pearl trade continues to decline, by land, where the blockade established by Saudi Arabia now harms the merchants. Some prominent merchant families left Kuwait in the early 1930s due to the prevalence of economic hardship. At the time of the discovery of oil in 1937, most of Kuwait's inhabitants were impoverished. From 1946 to 1982, Kuwait experienced a period of prosperity driven by oil and its liberal atmosphere. In popular discourse, the years between 1946 and 1982 are referred to as the "Golden Era". In 1950, a major public-work programme began to enable Kuwaitis to enjoy a modern standard of living. By 1952, the country became the largest oil exporter in the Persian Gulf region; this massive growth attracted many foreign workers from Palestine and India. In June 1961, Kuwait became independent with the end of the British protectorate and the sheikh Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah became an Emir.
Under the terms of the newly drafted constitution, Kuwait held its first parliamentary elections in 1963. Kuwait was the first Persian Gulf country to establish a parliament. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait was the most developed country in the region. Kuwait was the pioneer in the Middle East in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports; the Kuwait Investment Authority is the world's first sovereign wealth fund. From the 1970s onward, Kuwait scored highest of all Arab countries on the Human Development Index. Kuwait University was established in 1966. Kuwait's theatre industry was well-known throughout the Arab world. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait's press was described as one of the freest in the world. Kuwait was the pioneer in the literary renaissance in the Arab region. In 1958, Al Arabi magazine was first published, the magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world. Many Arab writers moved to Kuwait for freedom of expression because Kuwait had greater freedom of expression than elsewhere in the Arab world.
Kuwait was a haven for journalists from all parts of the Middle East. The Iraqi poet Ahmed Matar left Iraq in the 1970s to take refuge in the more liberal environment of Kuwait. Kuwaiti society embraced Western attitudes throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Most Kuwaiti women did not wear the hijab in the 1970s. At Kuwait University, mini-skirts we
Gulf Cooperation Council
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf known as the Gulf Cooperation Council, is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq. Its member states are Bahrain, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates; the Charter of the Gulf Cooperation Council was signed on 25 May 1981, formally establishing the institution. All current member states are monarchies, including three constitutional monarchies, two absolute monarchies, one federal monarchy. There have been discussions regarding the future membership of Jordan and Yemen. A 2011 proposal to transform the GCC into a "Gulf Union" with tighter economic and military coordination has been advanced by Saudi Arabia, a move meant to counterbalance the Iranian influence in the region. Objections have been raised against the proposal by other countries. In 2014, Bahrain prime minister Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa said that current events in the region highlighted the importance of the proposal.
In order to reduce their future dependence on oil, the GCC states are pursuing unprecedented economic structural reform. The original 2,673,110-square-kilometre union comprised Bahrain, Oman, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates; the unified economic agreement between the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council was signed on 11 November 1981 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. These countries are referred to as "the GCC states" or "Gulf countries". In 2001, the GCC Supreme Council set the following goals: Customs union in January 2003 Common market by 2007 Common currency by 2010Oman announced in December 2006 that it would not be able to meet the 2010 target date for a common currency. Following the announcement that the central bank for the monetary union would be located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, not in the UAE, the UAE announced their withdrawal from the monetary union project in May 2009; the name Khaleeji has been proposed as a name for this currency. If realised, the GCC monetary union would be the second-largest supranational monetary union in the world, measured by GDP of the common-currency area.
Other stated objectives include: Formulating similar regulations in various fields such as religion, trade, tourism and administration. Fostering scientific and technical progress in industry, agriculture and animal resources. Establishing scientific research centers. Setting up joint ventures. Unified military Encouraging cooperation of the private sector. Strengthening ties between their people; this area has some of the fastest-growing economies in the world due to a boom in oil and natural gas revenues coupled with a building and investment boom backed by decades of saved petroleum revenues. In an effort to build a tax base and economic foundation before the reserves run out, the UAE's investment arms, including Abu Dhabi Investment Authority, retain over US$900 billion in assets. Other regional funds have several hundreds of billions of dollars of assets under management; the region is an emerging hotspot for events, including the 2006 Asian Games in Qatar. Doha submitted an unsuccessful application for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games.
Qatar was chosen to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, but it is possible that Qatar might lose the right to host the game because of its poor human rights record. Recovery plans have been criticized for crowding out the private sector, failing to set clear priorities for growth, failing to restore weak consumer and investor confidence, undermining long-term stability; the logo of the GCC consists of two concentric circles. On the upper part of the larger circle, the Bismillah phrase is written in Arabic, which means "In the name of God", on the lower part the Council's full name, in Arabic; the inner circle contains an embossed hexagonal shape that represents the Council's six member countries. The inside of the hexagon is filled by a map encompassing the Arabian Peninsula, on which the areas of the member countries are borderless and colored in brown. On the edge of the hexagon are colors representing the flags of the six member countries. A common market was launched on 1 January 2008 with plans to realise a integrated single market.
It eased the movement of services. However, implementation lagged behind after the 2009 financial crisis; the creation of a customs union began in 2003 and was completed and operational on 1 January 2015. In January 2015, the common market was further integrated, allowing full equality among GCC citizens to work in the government and private sectors, social insurance and retirement coverage, real estate ownership, capital movement, access to education and other social services in all member states. However, some barriers remained in the free movement of services; the coordination of taxation systems, accounting standards and civil legislation is in progress. The interoperability of professional qualifications, insurance certificates and identity documents is underway. In 2014, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia took major steps to ensure the creation of a single currency. Kuwait's finance minister said the four members are pushing ahead with the monetary union but said some "technical points" need to be cleared.
He added, "A common market and common central bank would position the GCC as one entity that would have great influence on the international financial syste
Coutts and Co. is a private bank and wealth manager, founded in 1692. It is the seventh oldest bank in the world. Today, Coutts forms part of RBS Group's wealth management division; the bank, to become Coutts & Co, was a goldsmith-banker's shop. It was formed in 1692 by John Campbell of Lundie, Scotland, he set up business in the Strand, under a sign of the Three Crowns, as was customary in the days before street numbers. Today, the Coutts logo still has the three crowns, its headquarters is still on the Strand. Campbell died in 1712; the dominant force was Campbell's son in law, George Middleton, who had become Campbell's partner in 1708. During Middleton's stewardship, the bank was buffeted by one crisis after another; the Jacobite rising of 1715 threatened the stability of the banking system, John Law, the Comptroller of France's finances, owed a great deal of money to the bank when the Mississippi Company bubble burst in 1720 and the English stock market collapsed in the same year. Stability for the bank did not return until 1735.
John's son, George Campbell was a partner, became the sole partner after the death of Middleton in 1747, after which the bank was renamed the "Bankers of 59 Strand". In 1755, John Campbell's granddaughter, married a merchant and banker, James Coutts. Polly was George Campbell's niece and George made James a partner; the bank became known as Campbell & Coutts, with James running the business and becoming sole partner following Polly's and George's deaths in 1760. George bequeathed most of his fortune, the bank, to James. In 1761 James took his brother Thomas Coutts into the business, now named James and Thomas Coutts. James and Thomas did not always get on and James drifted into politics, leaving the running of the bank to Thomas. James retired from the bank in 1775 due to ill health; the bank in the Strand became known as Thomas Coutts & Co. Thomas Coutts married twice, his first wife, a servant named Susannah Starkie, gave him three beautiful daughters nicknamed "The Three Graces" who married leading figures in British society: the Earl of Guilford, the Marquess of Bute and Sir Francis Burdett.
Thomas had four sons who died in infancy. When Susannah died, he remarried just four days after the funeral. Thomas Coutts was 80 years old, his new wife, Harriot Mellon, was 40 years younger and an actress, which stirred considerable comment. On Thomas' death in 1822 the bank was renamed "Coutts & Co." Thomas' widow, inherited £900,000 from Thomas along with a 50% share in the bank. Although she did not get on with her stepdaughters, she wanted to keep the bank in the Coutts family. Harriot died in 1837. In her will, the Coutts fortune was passed on to Thomas's granddaughter, Angela Burdett, the daughter of Sophia Coutts and Sir Francis Burdett; the will contained three conditions: firstly, Angela's 50% share in the bank must be held in trust. Upon receipt of her inheritance, Angela Burdett-Coutts became the wealthiest woman in Britain, she devoted her life to philanthropy, giving away an estimated amount of between £3 million and £4 million. Her charity ranged widely: she supported the Church of England and its Anglican offshoots overseas, as well as the arts, but the main thrust of her charity was directed toward improving the lives of the poor.
A sewing school in Spitalfields, cotton gins in what is now Nigeria and nets for the Irish fishing industry, ragged schools in the poorest sections of cities were but a few of her projects. Gladstone, the Prime Minister, Queen Victoria resolved to acknowledge her philanthropic spirit formally. In 1871, she was granted a peerage in her own right as Baroness Burdett-Coutts of Highgate and Brookfield in the County of Middlesex. In 1880, it became known that the baroness wished to marry her young American secretary William Ashmead-Bartlett, her junior by thirty-seven years; the partners of the bank were aghast at the prospect of such a marriage. Archibald Tait, the Archbishop of Canterbury, attempted to forestall such a marriage from occurring, while Queen Victoria herself, with whom the Baroness had dined, tried to prevent what she called the "mad marriage". In a letter, the Queen wrote to Lord Harrowby stating that it would grieve her much "if Lady Burdett-Coutts were to sacrifice her high reputation and her happiness by such an unsuitable marriage".
This letter was passed on to Lady Burdett-Coutts, who asked Lord Harrowby to reply that he had no knowledge of the subject alluded to—quite a snub to the Queen. One potential stumbling block to the marriage was her step-grandmother's will which forbade marriage to an alien; as Bartlett was an American, the marriage would cause her to be disinherited. If this eventuality occurred, her younger sister, Clara, as next in line, was set to inherit. Angela Burdett-Coutts managed to get Clara to waive her rights. Clara's son Francis was not, however, so dissuaded, consulted his lawyers thinking to forestall the marriage by standing on their rights. Bartlett himself, in the face of immense pressure from society, offered to release the Baroness from his offer of marriage. She, remained determined, refusing to release Bartlett from his promise, in spite of various scandalous accusations being made against him involving another woman, his fathering of an illegitimate child. In February 1881, at the age of 67, Angela Burdett-Coutts broke the terms of the will by marrying Bartlett in Ch