Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Guadalupe Mountains National Park
Guadalupe Mountains National Park is an American national park in the Guadalupe Mountains, east of El Paso, Texas. The mountain range includes Guadalupe Peak, the highest point in Texas at 8,749 feet, El Capitan used as a landmark by travelers on the route followed by the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach line; the ruins of a stagecoach station stand near the Pine Springs visitor center. The restored Frijole Ranch contains a small museum of local history and is the trailhead for Smith Spring; the park covers 86,367 acres in the same mountain range as Carlsbad Caverns National Park, about 25 miles to the north in New Mexico. The Guadalupe Peak Trail winds through pinyon pine and Douglas-fir forests as it ascends over 3,000 feet to the summit of Guadalupe Peak, with views of El Capitan and the Chihuahuan Desert; the McKittrick Canyon trail leads to a stone cabin built in the early 1930s as the vacation home of Wallace Pratt, a petroleum geologist who donated the land. Dog Canyon, on the northern park boundary at the Texas-New Mexico State line, is accessed via Carlsbad, New Mexico or Dell City, Texas.
Camping is available at Dog Canyon. A public corral for livestock is available by reservation; the Gypsum sand dunes lie on the west side of the park near Dell City. A rough four-wheel drive road leads to the Williams Ranch; the Guadalupe Mountains have had a tumultuous history for thousands of years. Archaeological evidence shows that people have lived there lived over 10,000 years in and among the many caves and alcoves. Hunter-gatherers followed large game and collected edible vegetation, as evidenced by the discovery of projectile points, baskets and rock art; the first Europeans to arrive in the area were the Spanish in the 16th century, but they did not make serious attempts to settle in the area. The Spanish introduced horses. Mescalero Apaches harvested the agave for food and fiber. Agave roasting pits and other artifacts of Mescalero culture can be found in the park; the Mescalero Apaches occupied the mountains through the mid-19th century, but were challenged by an American transportation route at the end of the American Civil War.
During the 1840s and 1850s, many immigrants travelling west crossed the area. In 1858, Pinery Station was constructed near Pine Springs for the Butterfield Overland Mail; the Butterfield Overland Mail crossed the Guadalupe Pass located at 5,534 ft above sea level. The 9th Cavalry Regiment was ordered to the area to stop Indian raids on settlements and mail stage route. During the winter of 1869, Lt. H. B. Cushing destroyed two Mescalero Apache camps, they were driven out of the area and into US reservations. Felix McKittrick was one of the first European settlers in the Guadalupe Mountains. McKittrick Canyon is thought to be named after him. Frijole Ranch was the first permanent ranch house, constructed in 1876 by the Rader brothers, it became the only major building in the region and served as a community center and regional post office from 1916 to 1942. Today, it serves as a cultural museum. In 1908 Williams Ranch House was built, it was named after one of its inhabitants, James Adolphus Williams.
Judge J. C. Hunter from Van Horn, Texas consolidated most of the smaller ranches in the area into the Guadalupe Mountain Ranch. In 1921, Wallace Pratt, a geologist for Humble Oil and Refining Company, was impressed by the beauty of McKittrick Canyon and bought the land to build two houses there. Both were used as summer homes by Pratt and his family up until 1960. Wallace Pratt donated about 6,000 acres of McKittrick Canyon which became part of Guadalupe Mountains National Park, dedicated and formally opened to the public in September, 1972; the Guadalupe Mountains reach their highest point at Guadalupe Peak, the highest point in Texas, with an elevation of 8,751 feet. The range lies east of the Brokeoff Mountains; the mountain range extends north-northwest and northeast from Guadalupe Peak in Texas into New Mexico. The northeastern extension ends about 10 miles southwest of Carlsbad, near White's City and Carlsbad Caverns National Park; the mountains rise more than 3,000 feet above the arid floor of the Chihuahuan Desert.
The Guadalupe Mountains are surrounded by the South Plains to the east and north, Delaware Mountains to the south, Sacramento Mountains to the west. The northwestern extension, bounded by a dramatic escarpment known as "The Rim", extends much further into New Mexico, approaching close to the Sacramento Mountains; the range is bordered on the north by Four Mile Canyon. Much of the range is built from the ancient Capitán Reef, formed at the margins of a shallow sea during the Permian Period; as the range is built up entirely of limestone, upland areas have little or no surface water. The only significant surface water is McKittrick Creek, in McKittrick Canyon, which emerges from the eastern side of the massif, just south of the New Mexico border. Elevations at the base of the range vary from 4,000 feet above sea level on the western side to 5,000 feet on the east. Several peaks on the southern end exceed 8,000 feet; the Guadalupe Mountains experience hot summers, mild autumn
Lufkin is a city in and the county seat of Angelina County in eastern Texas, United States. This city is 120 miles northeast of Houston. Founded in 1882, the population was 35,837 at the 2017 census. Lufkin is situated in Deep East Texas; the city is named for a cotton merchant and Galveston city councilman. Lufkin was the father-in-law of Paul Bremond, president of the Houston and West Texas Railway which developed the town. In 1906 while living in Lufkin, writer Katherine Anne Porter married her first husband John Henry Koontze in a double ring ceremony that had her sister Gay Porter marry T. H. Holloway; the minister who presided over the ceremony was Rev. Ira Bryce, serving at the time at Lufkin's First Methodist Church. In 1907, Allan Shivers, the 37th Governor of Texas, was born in Lufkin, he served as governor from 1949 to 1957. Debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster fell over the Lufkin area on February 1, 2003. Lufkin celebrated its 125th anniversary in October 2007. A Little League Baseball team from Lufkin known as The Thundering 13 won the U.
S. Championship at the 2017 Little League World Series in Williamsport, Pennsylvania; the team finished as runners-up in the tournament behind a team from Japan. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 34.5 square miles, of which, 34.2 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles is covered by water. Lufkin is at the crossroads of East Texas at the intersections of Highways US 59, future Interstate 69, which leads to Houston and the Rio Grande Valley to the south and Nacogdoches and Texarkana to the north, US 69, which leads from the Golden Triangle of southeast Texas to points such as Jacksonville, Tyler and Oklahoma to the north. Lufkin is 120 miles northeast of Houston; the headquarters of all four United States National Forests and two United States National Grasslands in Texas are located in Lufkin. They are the Angelina, Davy Crockett and Sam Houston National Forests, the Caddo and Lyndon B. Johnson National Grasslands. On average, the warmest month is August.
The highest recorded temperature was 110 °F in 1909. On average, the coolest month is January; the lowest recorded temperature was -2 °F in 1930. The maximum average precipitation occurs in May; as of the census of 2000, 32,709 people, 12,247 households, 8,364 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,225.1 people per square mile. The 13,402 housing units averaged 502.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 59.92% White, 26.58% African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.37% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 10.31% from other races, 1.54% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 17.59% of the population. Of the 12,247 households, 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were not families. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.17. In the city, the population was distributed as 27.0% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,989, for a family was $40,591. Males had a median income of $30,922 versus $20,008 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,613. About 15.0% of families and 18.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.4% of those under age 18 and 12.6% of those age 65 or over. Lufkin is home to Lufkin Industries, which manufactures and services oil field equipment and power transmission equipment, supplies of creosote-treated utility poles, it is home to the Atkinson Candy Company, the creator of the Chick-O-Stick, Brookshire Brothers, a chain of grocery stores in Texas and Louisiana. Lufkin received Texas's first biomass power plant in late 2009. Aspen Power is building the power plant; some of the city's major employers include: Angelina College, community college with enrollment of 5,000 Atkinson Candy Company and headquartered in Lufkin, makers of Chick-O-Stick Brookshire Brothers, a regional grocery company founded and headquartered in Lufkin Lufkin Industries and headquartered in Lufkin, oil pumping and power transmission equipment manufacturer Lufkin Independent School District Pilgrim's, poultry processor that employs more than 1,500 people Stephen F. Austin State University, state university Temple-Inland is Fortune 500 company that produces paper and other related products.
Headquartered in Diboll, 15 miles south of Lufkin, it has employment in Lufkin, as well. Temple-Inland was sold to International Paper.)According to the city's 2019 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Ellen Trout Zoo, public zoo owned by the City of Lufkin with more than 500 animals Ellen Trout Park, public park with a lake and playgrounds Crown Colony Country Club Golf Course, third-rated golf course in Texas by The Dallas Morning News Texas Forestry Museum, features exhibits about forestry of the Lufkin and East Texas area. Museum of East Texas, exhibits on regional history and art Lufkin Azalea Trail, 1.9-mile public nature trail Medford Collection of American Western Art, contemporary art collection at the Lufkin City Hall Downtown Walking Tour, tour through historic downtown Lufkin First United Me
Big Bend National Park
For the Texas State Park see Big Bend Ranch State Park. Big Bend National Park is an American national park located in bordering Mexico; the park has national significance as the largest protected area of Chihuahuan Desert topography and ecology in the United States. The park protects more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds, 56 species of reptiles, 75 species of mammals. Geological features in the park include sea fossils and dinosaur bones, as well as volcanic dikes; the area has a rich cultural history, from archeological sites dating back nearly 10,000 years to more recent pioneers and miners. The park encompasses an area of 801,163 acres. For more than 1,000 miles, the Rio Grande/Río Bravo forms the boundary between Mexico and the United States, Big Bend National Park administers 118 miles along that boundary; the park was named after a large bend in the river, the Texas—Mexico border. Because the Rio Grande serves as an international boundary, the park faces unusual constraints while administering and enforcing park rules and policies.
In accordance with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the park's territory extends only to the center of the deepest river channel as the river flowed in 1848. The rest of the land south of that channel, the river, lies within Mexican territory; the park is bordered by the protected areas of Parque Nacional Cañon de Santa Elena and Maderas del Carmen in Mexico. The park exhibits dramatic contrasts and its climate may be characterized as one of extremes. Dry and hot late spring and summer days exceed 100 °F in the lower elevations. Winters are mild but subfreezing temperatures occur; because of the range in altitude from about 1,800 feet along the river to Emory Peak in the Chisos Mountains at 7,832 feet, a wide variation in available moisture and temperature exists throughout the park. These variations contribute to an exceptional diversity in animal habitats; some species in the park, such as the Chisos oak, are found nowhere else in the United States. The 118 mi of river that form the southern park boundary include the spectacular canyons of Santa Elena and Boquillas.
The Rio Grande, which meanders through this portion of the Chihuahuan Desert, has cut deep canyons with nearly vertical walls through three uplifts made of limestone. Throughout the open desert areas, the productive Rio Grande riparian zone includes numerous plant and animal species and significant cultural resources; the vegetative belt extends into the desert along arroyos. South of the border lie the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Coahuila and newly protected areas for flora and fauna, which are regions known as the Maderas del Carmen and the Cañón de Santa Elena; the oldest recorded tectonic activity in the park is related to the Paleozoic Marathon orogeny, although Proterozoic events have some deep control. The Marathon orogeny is part of thrusting of rocks from the South American Plate over the North American Plate; this can be best seen in the Persimmon Gap area of the park. This orogenic event is linked to the lack of Triassic- and Jurassic-age rocks in the park. Between the Triassic and the Cretaceous, the South American Plate rifted from the North American Plate, resulting in the deposition of the Glen Rose Limestone, Del Carmen Limestone, Sue Peaks Formation, Santa Elena Limestone, Del Rio Clay, Buda Limestone, Boquillas formations.
During this time, the Chihuahua trough formed as the Gulf of Mexico opened, which resulted in east-west striking normal faulting. As a result of this depositional time, dinosaur and other fossils are preserved in the park. Following the ending of rifting in the Late Cretaceous to the early Cenozoic, the Big Bend area was subjected to the Laramide orogeny; this period of compression caused the northeast-facing Mesa de Anguila, the southwest-facing Sierra del Carmen–Santiago Mountains and the Tornillo Basin. During the middle Cenozoic, most of the volcanic rocks, including the Chisos group, the Pine Canyon caldera complex, the Burro Mesa Formation, formed; the most recent tectonic activity in the park is basin and range faulting from the Neogene to Quaternary. This period of east-west extension has resulted in Estufa and Dehalo bolsons in the Chisos Mountains, as well as the Terlingua and Sierra del Carmen, Chalk Draw, Burro Mesa faults; the Rio Grande has entered the Big Bend area 2 million years ago, since extensive erosion and downcutting have occurred.
Cultural resources in the park range from the Paleo-Indian period 10,500 years ago through the historic period represented by Native American groups, such as the Chisos and Comanche. More Spanish, Mexican and Irish settlers farmed and mined in the area. Throughout the prehistoric period, humans found shelter and maintained open campsites throughout the park; the archeological record reveals an Archaic-period desert culture, whose inhabitants developed a nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle that remained unchanged for several thousand years. The historic cultural landscape centers upon various subsistence or commercial land uses; the riparian and tributary environments were used for irrigation farming. Transportation networks, irrigation structures, simple domestic residen
National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl